Sir Huw Pyrs Wheldon, OBE, MC was a BBC broadcaster and executive. Wheldon was born on 7 May 1916 in Prestatyn, Denbighshire and he was educated at Friars School, Bangor, an all-boys grammar school. His father, Sir Wynn Wheldon, was a prominent educationalist and his grandfather, Tomos Jones Wheldon, had been the Moderator of the Calvinist Methodist Church in Wales. His mother, Megan Edwards, was an accomplished pianist, on the outbreak of war in 1939 Wheldon enlisted in the Buffs. He was commissioned into the Royal Welch Fusiliers in 1940, but subsequently volunteered for the forces and joined the Royal Ulster Rifles. He was awarded the Military Cross for an act of bravery on D-Day +1, future Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Page was a guest on his show in 1957. He began to produce and present adult programmes, such as Men in Battle with Sir Brian Horrocks and he was responsible for Orson Welles Sketchbook. It was with the magazine programme Monitor that Wheldon truly made his mark on the cultural scene.
Monitor ranged in subject over all the arts — the hundredth show was Elgar a film directed by Ken Russell and written by Wheldon, Monitor featured specially made films, sometimes just one full-length item, eventually using actors to re-enact the subjects lives. Prior to this, only photos or location shots had been used in programmes, wheldons Monitor lasted until he had interviewed everyone I am interested in interviewing, and he was succeeded by Jonathan Miller for the series last season. In 1967 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland and he chose the subject Perspectives on Television. Wheldon now entered BBC management, becoming by turns Head of Documentaries and Controller, in 1968 he became Managing Director, BBC TV, a position he held until compulsory retirement in 1975. After he retired from management Wheldon co-wrote, with J. H. Plumb, and presented Royal Heritage, produced by Michael Gill, it achieved immense popularity ratings in 1977, the year of the Queens Silver Jubilee.
Two other major documentaries followed, The Library of Congress and Destination D-Day, following his retirement from the BBC he became Chairman of the Court of the Governors of the London School of Economics, where he had read economics before the war. He disarmed potential sponsors of the school by eschewing flattery and opening negotiations with the statement that what he was after was their cash. He was a formidable and active President of the Royal Television Society, an RTS Memorial Lecture in his name by a distinguished broadcaster is televised annually. In 2011 Bettany Hughes gave the lecture, and Brian Cox gave the lecture in 2010, other speakers have included David Attenborough, Jeremy Isaacs and, in 2005, the writer Paul Abbott. In addition to this, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts dispenses a Huw Wheldon Award for Specialist Factual Programme, there are Wheldon bursaries and awards at the LSE and the University of Wales, Bangor
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson, in September 1843, in 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. The publication belongs to the Economist Group and it is 50% owned by the English branch of the Rothschild family and by the Agnelli family through its holding company Exor. The remaining 50% is held by investors including the editors. The Rothschilds and the Agnellis are represented on the board of directors, a board of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed without its permission. Although The Economist has an emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster. For the year to March 2016 the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m, previous major shareholders include Pearson PLC.
The Economist takes a stance of classical and economic liberalism which is supportive of free trade, free immigration. The publication has described itself as a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and it targets highly educated readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers. The publications CEO described this recent global change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century, on the contents page of each issue, The Economists mission statement is written in italics. The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, revenue. Parliamentary reports, with focus on commerce and free trade.
Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade, general news from the Court of St. Jamess, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce, books, confined chiefly, but not so exclusively, to commerce and agriculture, and including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week and inquiries from the news magazines readers. It has long respected as one of the most competent. Its logo was designed in 1959 by Reynolds Stone, in January 2012 The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted exclusively to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942
Rede Globo, or simply Globo, is a Brazilian free-to-air television network, launched by media proprietor Roberto Marinho on 26 April 1965. It is owned by media conglomerate Grupo Globo, being by far the largest of its holdings, Globo is headquartered in the Jardim Botânico neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, where its news division is based. The networks main studios are located at a complex dubbed Estúdios Globo. It is composed of 122 owned and affiliate stations throughout Brazil plus its own international networks, Globo TV International. In 2007, Globo moved its operations to high-definition television production for digital broadcasting. Rede Globo is one of the largest media companies in the world, through its network, the broadcaster covers 98. 6% of Brazils territory. Recognized for its quality, the company has already been presented with 14 international Emmys. In July 1957, Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitschek approved a request by Radio Globo to establish a television channel, on 30 December 1957, the National Council of Telecommunication published a decree which granted a channel in Rio de Janeiro to TV Globo Ltda.
Globo started preparing the beginning of its broadcasting operations. Globo began broadcasting on 26 April 1965 in Rio de Janeiro on channel four and that same day, at about 10,45 a. m. Rubens Amaral formally introduced Rede Globo to viewers in Rio de Janeiro, by May of that same year, the live telecast of the Holy Mass, which became its longest running and oldest program, was seen for the first time. The following year, Globo purchased another television station, São Paulo-based TV Paulista, expanding its operations, in January 1966, Globo broadcast its first major news coverage on flooding in Rio. Jornal da Globo, another show for the network, was the successor to Ultranoticias. It featured a broadcast time of 15 minutes and was hosted by Hilton Gomez and, later, in 1967, Globo began to build its national network with the affiliation of Porto Alegre-based TV Gaúcha. TV Gaúcha would become Globos affiliate in Florianopolis in the late 1970s and it is one of Globo s oldest affiliates, active since 1962, three years before Globo was launched.
Uberlândias TV Triângulo and Goiânias TV Anhanguera soon followed in 1967 and 1968, the now extinct TV Guajará, based in Belém, was launched in 1969, and was followed by TV Verdes Mares the following year. 1968 was the year in which Globos branch station in Belo Horizonte, Rede Globo Minas, was launched, as well as the very first microwave broadcasts between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. On 1 September 1969, the country and national television broadcasting changed with the premiere of Jornal Nacional and its theme music, The Fuzz by Frank DeVol, became one of the shows trademarks, together with the program logo and the Boa Noite closing established by the hosts
Sidney Bernstein, Baron Bernstein
In 1954 he founded Granada Television, which was one of the original four ITA franchisees. He believed the Norths media industry had potential to be cultivated, Granada Television eventually became one of the most successful British production companies in history and still produces programmes in 2011 under the ITV Studios moniker. He is described by the British Film Institute as the dominant influence on the growth, Bernstein left school at 15 and he gradually inherited the property portfolio his father had built. Bernstein built, with his brother Cecil, a circuit of some sixty cinemas and theatres. Some of the cinema were on property he inherited from his father, the Bernstein holdings eventually encompassed interests in publishing, real estate, motorway services, retail shops and bowling alleys, as well as the hugely profitable television-rental business. Bernstein was a co-founder of the London Film Society in 1925, where he met and befriended the young Alfred Hitchcock, who became a lifelong friend and eventual producing partner.
He ventured into theatre, building an elegant new venue which housed the premiere of Private Lives by Noël Coward, though his involvement with the live stage was short-lived, he was passionate about the construction of state-of-the-art film palaces throughout Britain. By 1943, Bernstein was a member of SHAEF and worked on films which would help the new Allies and America and he read and advised on early drafts of Mrs. As the invasion of France loomed, Bernstein brought his friend Alfred Hitchcock back from Hollywood to Britain to work on two documentary films for the post-invasion French audience. The London-based Granada group surprised establishment thinkers by not bidding for a contract in the affluent South East. Instead, Granada pursued the weekday licences centred on Manchester in the industrial North, embracing an area extending across the north of England, granadas evidence to the Pilkington Committee on Broadcasting in 1961 justified this decision, The North and London were the two biggest regions.
Granada preferred the North because of its tradition of home-grown culture, in 1991, Granada Theatres Ltd was sold to Bass. In 1954, Bernstein won a licence to broadcast commercial television to the north of England including key urban areas such as Manchester, Leeds. Bernstein wanted the north of England as this would not have any effect on viewers at his theatres which were predominantly based in the south of England. Furthermore, he believed the north of England had a cultural heart that had potential to be cultivated which would translate itself into good television. The North and London were the two biggest regions, Granada preferred the North because of its tradition of home-grown culture, and because it offered a chance to start a new creative industry away from the metropolitan atmosphere of London. Compare this with London and its suburbs – full of displaced persons, and, of course, if you look at a map of the concentration of population in the North and a rainfall map, you will see that the North is an ideal place for television.
To achieve his aim, Bernstein ordered the building of the United Kingdoms first television studios, construction of Granada Studios began in 1954
Frank Stanton (executive)
Frank Nicholas Stanton was an American broadcasting executive who served as the president of CBS between 1946 and 1971 and as vice chairman until 1973. He served as the chairman of the Rand Corporation from 1961 until 1967, Stanton was born March 20,1908 in Muskegon, Michigan to Helen Josephine Schmidt and Frank Cooper Stanton. He attended Stivers School for the Arts in Dayton, Ohio and he attended Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, receiving a B. A. in 1930. He married his sweetheart, Ruth Stephenson, in 1931. He taught for one year in the arts department of a high school in Dayton, attended Ohio State University. He held a diploma from the American Board of Professional Psychology, soon after earning his Ph. D. Stanton became the third employee in the CBS research department. During World War II, he consulted for the Office of War Information, the Secretary of War, Stanton helped lead the fight for color television. By 1950 CBS had been working on its system of color TV for a decade. CBS color broadcasting only lasted for four months, CBS suspended it when the manufacture of color television receivers was halted by the U. S.
government as part of the Korean War effort. When the ban on color sets was rescinded in 1953 CBS announced that it had no plans to resume broadcasting using its field-sequential color system, a major problem with the CBS system was that the video was not compatible with existing black-and-white TV sets. A competing dot-sequential color system being developed by RCA was compatible, during the period of McCarthyism, Stanton created an office at CBS to review the political leanings of employees. Although right-wing journalists considered CBS left-leaning, branding it the Red Network, at Stantons direction, employees were required to take an oath of loyalty to the US government. According to radio historian Jim Cox, CBS and the blacklisting became synonymous, CBS, in response to the culture of blacklisting, instituted a purge of its own, as had Hollywood and president Truman, Paley was more responsible for policy setting, and Stanton its main executor. Good Night, and Good Luck, a 2005 movie portraying this era, left Stanton out of the film as a character, partly because Stanton was still living, Stanton played a role in the infamous controversy involving Arthur Godfrey, CBSs top money-earner in the early 1950s.
Godfrey insisted that the cast members of two of his three CBS shows, a group of known as the Little Godfreys, refrain from hiring managers. Godfrey did so on October 19,1953, without informing LaRosa before the airing, the move caused an enormous backlash against Godfrey. Stanton told Godfrey biographer Arthur Singer that Maybe was a mistake, Stanton organized the first televised presidential debate in American history. Stanton thereby enabled the first two-candidate presidential television debate, which was held at and televised from the CBS studio in Chicago, with candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon
Joseph V. Charyk
Joseph Vincent Charyk was widely credited as the founder of the geosynchronous communications satellite industry. He was born in Canmore, Alberta in a Ukrainian family, early in his career, Charyk consolidated the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Air Force, and United States Navy space programs into the National Reconnaissance Office. He brought the first United States imagery satellite, CORONA, into operation, during his tenure, the NRO operated the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft and managed development of the A-12. Charyk served as Chief Scientist of the United States Air Force until he was appointed the Undersecretary of the Air Force, in 1961 he was appointed by President John F. Kennedy to be the first Director of the National Reconnaissance Office. He returned to industry, serving as first president of Communications Satellite Corporation. Charyk decided to make geosynchronous satellites the basis of the Comsat network and he fought skepticism that this untested technology would not work for voice transmission because of a half-second time delay.
He raised funds to support this new industry and enlisted the cooperation of countries around the world and his efforts launched a global system that would eventually seem commonplace to billions of people around the world. While at Comsat, Charyk served as President, CEO, Charyk earned his bachelors in Engineering and Physics from the University of Alberta and his PhD in Aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology. In 1974 he received the International Emmy Directorate Award for his work with COMSAT, Charyk died on September 28,2016 at the age of 96
First Brazilian Republic
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930. The República Velha ended in 1930 with a coup, known as Brazilian Revolution of 1930 that installed Getúlio Vargas as a dictator. On November 15,1889 Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca deposed Emperor Dom Pedro II, declared Brazil a republic, from 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, but democracy was nominal. This system resulted in the presidency of Brazil alternating between the oligarchies of the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais and this regime is often referred to as café com leite, coffee with milk, after the respective agricultural products of the two states. This period ended with a coup that placed Getúlio Vargas. The Brazilian republic was not an offspring of the republics born of the French or American Revolutions. The republic did not have popular support to risk open elections. It was a regime born of a coup détat that maintained itself by force, the republicans made Deodoro president and, after a financial crisis, appointed Field Marshal Floriano Vieira Peixoto Minister of War to ensure the allegiance of the military.
The officers who joined Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca in ending the Empire had made an oath to uphold it, the officer corps would eventually resolve the contradiction by linking its duty to Brazil itself, rather than to transitory governments. The Republic was born rather accidentally, Deodoro had intended only to replace the cabinet, the history of the Old Republic was dominated by a quest for a viable form of government to replace the monarchy. This quest lurched back and forth between state autonomy and centralization, the constitution of 1891, establishing the United States of Brazil, granted extensive autonomy to the provinces, now called States. The Federal system was adopted, and all powers not granted in the Constitution to the Federal Government belonged to the States and it recognized that the central government did not rule at the local level. The Empire of Brazil had not absorbed fully the regional pátrias, as a result, the history of the outset of republic in Brazil is the story of the development of the Army as a national regulatory and interventionist institution.
The sudden elimination of the reduced the number of masterful national institutions to one. Although the Roman Catholic Church continued its presence throughout the country, it was not national but rather international in its personnel, liturgy, the Navy attempts to prevent such hegemony were defeated militarily during the early 1890s. Although it had more units and men in Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul than elsewhere and its personnel, its interests, its ideology, and its commitments were national in scope. In the last decades of the 19th century, the United States, much of Europe, however, moved to restrict access to the polls. In 1874, in a population of about 10 million, the franchise was held by one million
The Fininvest group is composed of a number of companies, such as Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Teatro Manzoni, Alba Servizi Aerotrasporti and Fininvest Gestione Servizi. The deal to sell Mediaset Premium was collapsed in 2016, Fininvest had a shareholders pact with Ennio Doris, the largest shareholder of Banca Mediolanum, making the pact had an absolute majority in the bank for 51% share capital. On 5 August 2016 Fininvest signed an agreement to sell 99. 93% stake of A. C. Milan to a Chinese private equity fund Sino-Europe Sports. On 15 February 2017 Fininvest announced that they bought an additional 2. 9% shares of Mondadori, Fininvest owned 0. 99% stake in Mediobanca, and was part of the shareholders pact that owned about 31% stake in the bank in total. The Berlusconi family does not control the company directly, its shares are owned by 38 separate companies, all named Holding Italiana followed by a number, most of which are in turn controlled by Berlusconi. These Holding Italiane have repeatedly come under investigation by the police for financial and accounting irregularities, slush funds.
All of them were created at the end of the 1970s by covert associates of Berlusconis, some of their liquidity was even deposited in cash. Much of the documentation of that time relative to the financial and banking operations of these companies has been lost. In 1998 the case was shelved because of lack of sufficient evidence to go to trial