Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America, in close association with the linguistically unrelated Kiowa nation, today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma and Northern Texas. The tribe is federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the Plains Apache are known as the Kiowa Apache, Naʼisha, or Na i sha Tindé, meaning "Thieves" as the old meaning. However, in more recent times the negative meaning is trying to be replaced by just "Apache" for Na i sha." They used the term Kalth Tindé or γát dìndé meaning "Cedar People" or Bá-ca-yé meaning "Whetstone People". To their close allies, the much larger Kiowa tribe, who speak a unrelated language, they were known as Semat meaning "Stealers." At major tribal events, the Kiowa Apache formed part of the Kiowa tribal'hoop'. This may explain why the Kiowa named the Kiowa-Apache Taugui meaning "Sitting Outside." Today the tribe is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area covers parts of Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson and Stephens Counties in Oklahoma.
Their current tribal chairperson is Bobby Komardley. Tribal members must have a minimum blood quantum of 1/8 Plains Apache descent and at least 1/4 total Indian blood to enroll in the tribe; the Apache Tribe operates a casino. They issue their own tribal license plates. In the early 18th century, the Plains Apache were living in the area of the upper Missouri River a band within the Kiowa nation, only differentiated by language and ethnicity, it is believed that the Plains Apache entered this alliance with the Kiowa for mutual protection against hostile tribes. It is recorded that many Kiowa Apache did not learn the Kiowa language, preferring to communicate with their allies using the sophisticated Plains Indian Sign Language, at which the Kiowa were past masters. Before contact with Europeans, their numbers were never large, in 1780 their population was estimated at 400; the Kiowa Apache and Kiowa had migrated into the southern plains sometime in the early 19th century. By the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 the Kiowa and Kiowa Apache settled in Western Oklahoma and Kansas.
They were forced to move south of the Washita River to the Red River and Western Oklahoma with the Comanche and the Kiowa. The reservation period lasted from 1868 to 1906; the transition from the free life of Plains people to a restricted life of the reservation was more difficult for some families than others. The 1890 Census showed 1,598 Comanche at the Fort Sill reservation, which they shared with 1,140 Kiowa and 326 Kiowa Apache; some groups of Plains Apache refused to settle on reservations and were involved in Kiowa and Comanche uprisings, most notably the First Battle of Adobe Walls, the largest battle of the Indian Wars. It would be the last battle in which the natives repelled the US Army in the southern plains and marked the beginning of a decade long downfall for the southern plains tribes; the Kiowa Apache social organisation was split into numerous extended families, who camped together as local groups. The next level was a grouping of a number of gonkas. In pre-reservation times there were at least four local groups or gonkas who joined together for warring neighbouring tribes and settlements.
The Apache are linked to the Dismal River culture of the western Plains attributed to the Paloma and Quartelejo Apaches. Jicarilla Apache pottery has been found in some of the Dismal River complex sites; some of the people of the Dismal River culture joined the Kiowa Apache in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Due to pressure from the Comanche from the west and Pawnee and French from the east, the Kiowa and remaining people of Dismal River culture migrated south where they joined the Lipan Apache and Jicarilla Apache nations; the Kiowa Apache language is a member of the Southern Athabaskan language family, a division of the Na-Dene languages. The Plains Apache language referred to as Kiowa Apache, was the most divergent member of the subfamily. While three people spoke the language in 2006, the last fluent speaker died in 2008. Gonkon. A shortened form of his full name Gon-kon-chey-has-tay-yah. Tsayaditl-ti Koon-Ka-Zachey. A shortened form of his full name Gon-kon-chey-has-tay-yah. Essa-queta Si-tah-le Oh-ah-te-kah Ah-zaah Apache Kiowa Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Pritzker, Barry M.
A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Beatty, John. 1974. Kiowa-Apache Music and Dance. Occasional Publications in Anthropology: Ethnology Series. Number 31. Greeley, CO: Northern Colorado UP. Bittle, William. 1954. “The Peyote Ritual of the Kiowa Apache.” Oklahoma Anthropological Society. 2: 69-79. ______. 1962. “The Manatidie: A Focus for Kiowa Apache Tribal Identity.” Plains Anthropologist. 7: 152-163. ______. 1963. “Kiowa-Apache.” In Studies in the Athapaskan Languages.. University of California Studies in Linguistics vol. 29. Berkeley: California UP. 76-1
Texas State Highway 70
State Highway 70 is a state highway in Texas. The route runs 315 miles from US 277 near Blackwell to US 83 south of Perryton. SH 70 begins in far northeastern Coke County at a junction with US 277 north of Bronte; the highway soon crosses into Nolan County, where it serves as the northern terminus of SH 153. The first large city along SH 70's route is Sweetwater. SH 70 intersects SH 92 in Rotan. Continuing north into Kent County, the route begins a concurrency with US 380 that lasts until Jayton. In Dickens County, SH 70 serves as the northern terminus of SH 208 and passes through the east and north side of Spur before reaching Dickens and an intersection with US 82 / SH 114. After heading due north from here, the route enters Motley County and passes through the town of Roaring Springs; the next major city along the route is Matador, where US 70 intersect one another. After leaving Matador, SH 70 enters Hall County, where it has a brief concurrency with SH 86 through Turkey; the highway briefly turns to the northwest and enters Briscoe County, beginning a brief concurrency with SH 256, before turning to the west and reentering Hall County.
SH 70 resumes a more northerly path into Donley County, has a short concurrency with US 287 through Clarendon. After the two routes separate, SH 70 heads due north to a junction with Interstate 40 at its Exit #124, near the Donley–Gray County line. Northbound SH 70 is concurrent with the freeway for about 3.5 mi before the routes split at IH 40 Exit #121. SH 70 continues north into Pampa, where it intersects US 60 and has a half-mile duplex with SH 152. After leaving Pampa, the route turns more to the north-northeast, enters the sparsely-populated Roberts County, where its only intersections are with a few farm to market roads that connect to the county seat of Miami. SH 70 enters Ochiltree County and reaches its northern terminus at US 83 south of Perryton. While the current official route description of SH 70 indicates a concurrency with US 83 to a junction with SH 15 in Perryton, that roadway is presently signed only as US 83, which agrees with TxDOT's County Map Book, signage in Perryton at the SH 15 junction with US 83 directs traffic to SH 70 using "TO SH 70" markers.
SH 70 was designated on August 21, 1923 from Aspermont to San Angelo along a portion of the original SH 4, shifted farther east. On October 13, 1925, it was routed through Robert Lee. On September 18, 1929, SH 70 was rerouted to bypass Robert Lee. Part became SH 70A, but Robert Lee to San Angelo was cancelled, but restored as SH 208 on July 16, 1934. On December 1, 1930, the route had been rerouted north to Jayton, replacing SH 161 and a small portion of SH 84.. On September 26, 1939, SH 70 was extended north from Jayton to Dickens, absorbing a portion of SH 18. Significant extension came on October 10, 1947, when SH 70 was extended to Perryton in the northern Panhandle. On February 12, 1948, US 277 was rerouted to a more westerly alignment between Abilene and San Angelo and the section from just south of Blackwell to near San Angelo was transferred to that route. On September 27, 1957, SH 70 was shifted to a more westerly alignment in Dickens, Loop 120 was extended along the old route of SH 70 through the city.
A spur, SH 70A, was designated on September 1929 from Robert Lee east to Bronte. This route was renumbered as SH 158 on March 19, 1930. On September 27, 1985, Texas State Highway Loop 549 was designated as a bypass of SH 70 in Sweetwater and was signed, but not designated, as SH 70, the old route was signed as a business route. On June 21, 1990, SH 70 was designated on Loop 549, the old route of SH 70 became a business route, cancelling Loop 549. SH 70 has one business route, Business SH 70-G in Sweetwater, a former alignment of the state highway through that city; the route was designated in 1990, when SH 70 was rerouted along the south and east side of the city to use the I-20 freeway. The business route is concurrent with BL I-20 through downtown Sweetwater. Junction listThe entire route is in Sweetwater, Nolan County
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Canadian River is the longest tributary of the Arkansas River in the United States. It is about 906 miles long, starting in Colorado and traveling through New Mexico, the Texas Panhandle, Oklahoma; the drainage area is about 47,700 square miles. The Canadian is sometimes referred to as the South Canadian River to differentiate it from the North Canadian River that flows into it. Why the river is called the Canadian is unclear. On John C. Fremont's route map of 1845, the river's name is listed as "Goo-al-pah or Canadian River" from the Comanche and Kiowa name for the river. In 1929, Muriel H. Wright wrote that the Canadian River was named about 1820 by French traders who noted another group of traders from Canada had camped on the river near its confluence with the Arkansas River. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Spanish explorers in the 17th and 18th centuries called it the Rio Buenaventura and the Magdalena; the upper part was called Rio Colorado by the Spanish.
A more recent explanation comes from William Bright, who wrote that the name is "probably derived from Río Canadiano", a Spanish spelling of the Caddo word káyántinu, the Caddos' name for the nearby Red River. The name could be of Spanish origin from the word cañada, as the Canadian River formed a steep canyon in northern New Mexico and a somewhat broad canyon in Texas. A few historical records document this explanation. Edward Hale, writing in 1929, considered the French origin of the name most probable; the first European to explore the Canadian River was Juan de Oñate, the Spanish Governor of New Mexico, who followed the river from its origin to the western plains of what is now Oklahoma in 1601. Spanish traders and hunters were soon working in this area. French voyageurs were active along the lower Canadian. Bénard de la Harpe explored between the mouth of the river and the Kiamichi Mountains in 1715. Pierre and Paul Mallet followed the entire length of the river in 1740, as did another expedition led by Fabry de La Bruyere in 1741.
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 resulted in all of the land east of the New Mexico border being acquired by the United States. In 1818, the Quapaw tribe ceded all its land north of the Canadian to the United States, thus making this river the effective southern boundary of the new nation. In 1825, the Osage ceded their claims to land along the river; the Canadian was designated as the boundary between the Creek-Seminole lands on the north side and the Choctaw on the south side. Major Stephen H. Long led an expedition up the Canadian River in 1821, he proclaimed the land along the river as the "Great American Desert." Despite this assessment, trading posts were established along the river, starting with Edwards' Post at the mouth of Little River. Camp Holmes was established by Colonel Henry Dodge's Dragoons in 1834. Captain Nathan Boone led a dragoon troop up the river to the 100th Meridian, the western border of the United States; the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, made the Canadian River the northern boundary of the Choctaw Nation.
Early immigrants to California followed the south bank of the Canadian to Santa Fe. In 1845 the river was explored by Lieutenants James William Abert and William G. Peck of the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, their journey was chronicled in the Journal of Lieutenant J. W. Abert from Bent's Fort to St. Louis, first published in 1846. Randolph B. Marcy commanded a military expedition to lay out a trail along the Canadian River in 1849; the trail, thereafter called the California Road, followed the south side of the river and was soon followed by large numbers of emigrants to California via Santa Fe after the 1849 discovery of gold in California. Travel along the road was curtailed during the American Civil War, as Union and Confederate forces fought for control of Indian Territory. Lieutenant Amiel Weeks Whipple led an expedition in 1853 to find a railroad route across Indian Territory, it covered some of the same ground as that explored by Marcy. Whipple's group provided extensive reports about the region's fauna.
However, its cost estimates discouraged proponents of building a railroad along the proposed route. However, the cumulative reports of Abert and Whipple changed public opinion about "The Great American Desert" and encouraged interest in developing the region. In 1890, when Oklahoma Territory was proclaimed, the river formed part of the boundary between Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory; this boundary was eradicated when the State of Oklahoma was created in 1907. The river rises on the east side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, around 9,600 ft above sea level, in remote southwestern Las Animas County, Colorado 1.5 mi north of the New Mexico border. An upper tributary of the Vermejo River heads around 12,000 feet in elevation in the Culebra Range and has a confluence with the Canadian south of Maxwell, New Mexico. Overall, the meandering course is 906 miles from its origin to its confluence with the Arkansas River; the main tributaries are the North Canadian and Deep Fork Rivers. After rising in Colorado, the Canadian flows east-southeast across the New Mexico border south, passing west of Raton, New Mexico.
It forms a deep canyon south of New Mexico. The Sabinoso Wilderness area is located in side canyons near the river. At its first dam at Conchas Lake, the river turns eastward, it is dammed at Logan, New Mexico, where it forms Ute Lake. From there it crosses the Texas Panhandle, dammed at Sanford, where it forms Lake Meredith; the canyon the river carves through eastern New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle is the northern bo