The Roberts loom was a cast-iron power loom introduced by Richard Roberts in 1830. It was the first loom, more viable than a hand loom and was adjustable and reliable, which led to its widespread use in the Lancashire cotton industry. Roberts was born on the border between England and Wales, he was the son of William Roberts, a shoemaker, who kept the New Bridge tollgate. Roberts was educated by the parish priest, early found employment with a boatman on the Ellesmere Canal and at the local limestone quarries, he received some instruction in drawing from Robert Bough, a road surveyor, working under Thomas Telford. He was responsible for developing more precise machine tools, working from 15 Deansgate, Manchester. Here he worked on improving textile machinery, he patented the cast-iron loom in 1822 and in 1830 patented the self-acting mule thus revolutionising the production of both the spinning and weaving industries. The major components of the loom are the warp beam, harnesses, shuttle and takeup roll.
In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, picking and taking-up operations. The Roberts loom of 1830 incorporated ideas embodied in an 1822 patent; the frame of the loom was cast iron. There were two side frames cast as single pieces; the three cross tails were machined for an accurate assembly. The great arched rail at the top supports the healds; the front and back cross rails bifurcate at each side to give a larger binding surface. The warp passes from the warp beam, passes over a friction guide roller, where it horizontally passes through the loom to a breastbeam. Here it turns vertically to the cloth beam. Tension is essential as any variation will lead to broken threads; as the warp beam empties its effective diameter changes making the warp slacker- tension is maintained by adding a wooden pulley to the beam, around which are two turns of rope that are attached to mill weights- thus retarding the beam through friction. The cloth beam bears a toothed wheel. A ratchet wheel is attached with a click level to take up the slack in the cloth.
This was Roberts invention. The heddles are of standard construction, they are arranged in groups of four even threads and odd must go up and down alternatively but two heddles are used for the evens and two for the odds so adjacent threads do not rub. The lower end of the heddle leaves is attached to marches; these are depressed by cam referred to as eccentrics.. The loom is powered by a leather steam-belt. Here there is a flywheel to smooth the motion and a crank mechanism to drive the battens and a toothed wheel; this engages a second shaft known as the tappet shaft or wiper shaft whose job is to lower the treadles and throw the shuttle. This turns half the speed of the driving shaft, so its toothed wheel is twice the size; the shuttle is thrown by two levers attached to the side frame, but activated by a friction roller on the tappet shaft. As the shuttle enters the shuttle-box at the end of its travel, it depresses a lever which acts as a brake. If this lever is not depressed the loom is stopped.
The Roberts was made at a time. Until this moment, hand looms were more common; the reliable Roberts loom was adopted and again it was the spinning side, short of capacity. Roberts addressed this, with the construction of a self-acting spinning mule. Textile production was no longer a skilled craft but an industrial process that could be manned by semi-skilled labour. Mule spinning became the man's occupation, weaving a girl's occupation. Hills, Richard Leslie. Power from Steam: A History of the Stationary Steam Engine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45834-4. Retrieved 1 January 2009. Marsden, Richard. Cotton Weaving: Its Development and Practice. George Bell & Sons. Retrieved 1 February 2009. Mass, William. "The Decline of a Technology Leader: Capability and Shuttleless Weaving, 1945-1974". Business and Economic History. ISSN 1941-7349. Selected Cotton Chats- Draper Corporation 1901- 1923
The Ontario Landowners Association is an organization which seeks to protect property rights in Ontario, Canada. The OLA was formed "...to preserve and protect the rights of property owners." The organization seeks to cause laws and regulations, whether federal, provincial, or municipal, to be written so as to be more respectful of the rights of property owners. The Ontario Landowners Association promotes the use of letters patent as a tool to aid in the protection of private property rights; the Ontario Landowners Association was founded in December 2005 by delegates from twelve pre-existing landowners groups representing different rural areas of the province. The groups had been cooperating and for the most part were modeled on the Lanark Landowners Association, conducting demonstrations and other activities since early 2003. A parallel group, the Renfrew Landowners Association, had existed since 2000 and had started the slogan, "This Land is Our Land: Back off Government" that would be adopted by the Lanark Landowners and by the OLA.
But it was the Lanark group that first tried to move beyond purely local issues and to recreate itself in different parts of the province. The Lanark Landowners had grown out of an effort to set up a group to advise Scott Reid, the MP for Lanark, on agricultural issues. An initial meeting in April 2003, with Reid present, was held at the kitchen table of Merle Bowes, a Carleton Place farmer. Randy Hillier, who would go on to serve as the first president of the Lanark Landowners, was present at the meeting. Bowes observed that no matter what farm-related issue was being discussed at the meeting, "All the problems pointed back to property rights and that got us going."The Lanark Landowners' first action, in May 2003, was a demonstration to protest a property standards by-law in the town of Mississippi Mills. The next month, the group conducted an illegal out-of-season deer hunt to draw attention to the refusal of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to permit farmers to cull deer who were eating their crops.
Media were invited to the hunt and ministry officials were presented with a choice between three options: arresting the farmers, tolerating an ongoing violation of the law, or loosening the criteria for issuing out-of-season cull licences. Within weeks, the third option had been chosen, the Landowners had won a high-profile victory; this victory emboldened the group and Hillier built a high profile in the Ontario media, conducting large demonstrations in rural Ontario. The highest-profile demonstrations took place on Parliament Hill in Ottawa in April 2004, in March 2005 in Toronto on front lawn of the Ontario Legislature. Future Prime Minister Stephen Harper attended the Ottawa rally and addressed the crowd, endorsing property rights. Local groups modeled on the Lanark model grew up across Ontario over the next three years. By the time of the first convention of the Ontario Landowners Association in Belleville in February 2006, the combined membership of all the local groups was claimed by The Landowner to be over 8,000.
Hillier was elected as the organization's first president. During its first years, the OLA sometimes engaged in acts that were seen by some to be in poor taste. For example, the group sent to Queen's Park a photograph of a bullet-riddled dead deer, tagged "Leona"—a reference to Leona Dombrowsky, who at the time was agriculture minister in Premier Dalton McGuinty's cabinet. After the creation of the OLA in 2006, acts of civil disobedience ended, were replaced by attempts to influence the political system by more traditional means. Landowner-endorsed candidates ran for municipal office in many rural municipalities in the 2006 Ontario municipal elections. Hillier and other members of the OLA began to appear as witnesses before parliamentary hearings into issues affecting rural areas. In January 2007, Hillier resigned as president of the OLA to seek the Progressive Conservative nomination in Lanark—Frontenac—Lennox and Addington the upcoming provincial election; some members of the party suggested that Hillier's activist past made him an unsuitable candidate, the Toronto Star speculated that the party might disqualify him, but in the end Hillier won the nomination and was elected to the legislature, where he serves.
The presidency was taken over by Jack MacLaren, a farmer from rural Ottawa, a leader of the de-amalgamation movement calling for the re-establishment of the old Carleton County out of the four rural townships, amalgamated into the City of Ottawa in 2001. By the summer of 2008, the OLA had expanded to 20 chapters, including one in Toronto, had become a large enough movement to attract the attention of the Governor General's Leadership Group, which arranged a meeting with the OLA in June. At the provincial level, it has been noted that Hillier had City Ottawa off on our own Ontarian Alternative supported the Reform Party of Ontario prior to the party's merger with the Family Coalition Party of Ontario to create the New Reform Party of Ontario. "Harness had worked out a side deal under which he would become the deputy under Hillier, if Hillier joined Reform Ontario. Hillier declined and quickly denied any involvement with the side deal, the strength of both organizations was diminished."Following the election of Patrick Brown to the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, the OLA began supporting the provincial PC party.
In 2012, Hillier left the Association over a dispute about land patents. Hillier continues to sit as an MPP for Addington. Official Website
Vokkaliga is a farming community with 54 sub-divisions belonging to Karnataka. They have notable demographic and economic dominance in the southern parts of the Indian state of Karnataka, they are designated as an Other Backward Class in India's reservation system. Vokkaliga is a Kannada-language word found in some of the earliest available literary works of the language, such as the Kavirajamarga, Pampa Bharata, Mangaraja's Nighantu, it has been used as an appellation for the cultivator community since time immemorial. The term has come to mean an agriculturist though various etymological derivations are available, including: The word okka or okkalu is a Kannada word for a family or a clan and an okkaliga is a person belonging to such a family; this is an allusion to the totemistic exogamous clans which together form an endogamous sub group, of which there are many amongst the Vokkaligas. These clans are called Bali, Kutumba, Gotra or Okkalu all of which mean family, they are named after their progenitor, primary occupation or in most cases after various birds, animals or objects.
Okkalutana in Kannada means agriculture Alternate etymologies include okku, which means threshingThe Kannada linguist Shamba Joshi and others propose a derivation from the Sanskrit - gau and govala. Moreover, though the Vokkaligas did practise animal husbandry, Govalas or the Yadavas/Kurubas form a separate caste group and they were traditionally herdsmen; the Vokkaliga community has several sub-groups within its fold. Exogamy at the family/clan level is controlled by using the idiom of Mane Devaru which dictates that the followers of same Mane Devaru are siblings and marriage is thus forbidden, allowing marital alliances only with another clan and not within; the Gangadikara Gowdas known as the Gangatkar, claim to be descendants of the erstwhile Ganga royalty. With various theories on the origins of the Gangas, this is hard to prove but some scholars do opine that the Gangas were local chieftains who ascertained their power and rose to dominance during the political unrest caused in South India after the invasion of Samudragupta I.
It is however, a fact that the administrative setup of Gangas vested power, at various levels of administration and apart from administrative duties the Gauda was expected to raise militia when called for. The Gangadikaras and the Kongu Vellalars are said to share a common origin and they regard themselves Ganga Kshatriyas. In fact, the word Kongu is the Tamil equivalent for Ganga. There is a significant number of Kongu Vellala Gounders in Kollegala and T. Narsipur of southern Karnataka; the Gangadikara Vokkaligas have as many as 40 exogamous clans called Bedagu. The ancestors of Kempe Gowda I of the Yelahanka Nadaprabhus are recorded to have migrated to these districts from Alur of Kanchi around the 15th century under Rana Bhaire Gowda, who built the fort at Devanahalli. According to Burton Stein, the region of modern-day Bangalore and Tumkur districts was known as Morasu Nadu, dominated by the Morasu Vokkaligas. In fact Hosur which borders Bangalore claims to have been called Murasu Nadu during the Sangam Age and has a significant population of Morasu Vokkaligas.
The four main sub-divisions being the Musuku, Hosadevru and Morasu proper, again divided into three lines called Salu viz. Kanu salu, Nerlegattada salu, Kutera salu; the Musuku sect is so-called because the bride wears ` Musuku' during the wedding ceremony. The Namadhari Vokkaliga group is the first largest Vokkaliga sub-group. Halakki Vokkaligas are an indigenous tribe in of Uttar Kannada district. Taking cognisance of the tribe’s demands to be recognised as a Scheduled Tribe a study was commissioned by the social welfare department in 2010 and a report was submitted. Kannada people Adichunchanagiri Hills Dr. B. S. Puttaswamy, Vokkaligara Sangha, Manoj Publication, Bengaluru. ISBN 978-81-931078-0-5