Ede & Ravenscroft
Ede & Ravenscroft are the oldest tailors in London, established in 1689. They have three London premises, in Gracechurch Street, Chancery Lane and Burlington Gardens close to the famous Savile Row, they make and hire out legal gowns and wigs, clerical dress and municipal robes, academic dress and other ceremonial and formal dress, have shops in Oxford and Edinburgh. The main outlet and offices are at 93 Chancery Lane which, due to its proximity to the Inns of Court and the country's main civil and criminal law courts, is the company's main outlet for legal dress; the company was founded in 1689 by Martha Shudall. The present name dates from 1902 and is a result of the inheriting of the business by Joseph Ede and merging with wig-maker Ravenscroft; the company holds royal warrants as "Purveyors to the British Royal Family". The company has warrants as robemakers to Queen Elizabeth II, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Queen Mother; as the Queen Mother's warrants expired five years after her death in 2002, Ede & Ravenscroft hold three warrants.
In addition to clothing and robes, Ede & Ravenscroft supply photography at ceremonial events such as graduations and as tailor to the Bullingdon Club at the University of Oxford. Campbell, Una. Robes of the Realm: 300 Years of Ceremonial Dress. Ede and Ravenscroft. ISBN 0948397616. Woodcock, Thomas. Legal Habits: a Brief Sartorial History of Wig and Gown. Good Books. ISBN 0946555567. Official website "Archival material relating to Ede & Ravenscroft". UK National Archives
Gieves & Hawkes
Gieves & Hawkes is a bespoke men's tailor and menswear retailer located at №1 Savile Row, founded in 1771 and now owned by the Hong Kong conglomerate Trinity Ltd. Gieves and Hawkes is one of the oldest continual bespoke tailoring companies in the world; the company holds a number of Royal Warrants, provides ready-to-wear as well as bespoke and military tailoring. The current creative director is Jason Basmajian of Brioni. Gieves & Hawkes' business was based on catering to the needs of the British Army and the Royal Navy, hence by association the British Royal family. After coming to London in 1760, Thomas Hawkes set up his first shop in 1771 in Brewer Street, selling to gentlemen, his main clients were commanders of the British Army, through which King George III became a customer. He expanded his retail operation by moving to No.17 Piccadilly in 1793, where he gained the first of many Royal Warrants in 1809. In 1835, James Watson Gieve was employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy.
In 1852, Gieve partnered with Joseph Galt, in 1887, Gieve purchased the remaining shares to form Gieves & Co. He died in 1888. On 23 December 1912, Hawkes & Co. bought №1 Savile Row from the Royal Geographical Society for £38,000, in part because the firm had dressed so many explorers. In 1974, Gieves Ltd acquired the freehold of 1 Savile Row; the company was renamed Hawkes. In 2009, Kathryn Sargent of Gieves and Hawkes became the first female head cutter in Savile Row; the company produces the uniforms for the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms. The company was bought by Hong Kong-based property developer and garment manufacturer USL Holdings Ltd in 2002, having listed unsuccessfully as a Plc. In May 2012, Gieves & Hawkes was acquired by Trinity Limited, the distribution of Gieves & Hawkes continues to expand with over 100 stores and concessions around the UK and in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In June 2009, Gieves & Hawkes began a new partnership with British Formula One team Brawn GP, providing the team with their official attire, a grey, single-breasted, two-button, mohair suit, white shirt, distinctive team-coloured tie.
The Savile Row flagship store was renovated in 2011 and transformed into a menswear emporium, which includes concessions for Carreducker. In October 2011, Gieves & Hawkes sponsored the Scott-Amundsen Centenary Race conducted by six serving soldiers of the British Army, with all proceeds going to the Royal British Legion. Birmingham Gieves & Hawkes have a strong history of both service to the military, hence to the British royal family. Hawkes & Co. were granted their first Royal Warrant in 1809, during the reign of King George III. Gieves & Hawkes presently have all three main Royal Warrants, appointed to HM The Queen, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh and HRH The Prince of Wales. 1732 - Number One Savile Row constructed as town house of the Fairfax family. 1760 - Thomas Hawkes comes to London, is employed as a journeyman for Mr Moy, a velvet cap-maker on Swallow Street. Heavy drinking Moy leaves the aware Hawkes to cultivate his royal clientele. 1771 - With Moy dead, Hawkes sets up a hatter and tailor shop in Brewer Street.
His top client was King George III, who ordered several thousand scarlet uniforms for the British army, his son the Prince Regent. 1793 - Hawkes has established his expanded shop at No.17 Piccadilly, described as "Helmet and Cap-maker to the King." 1809 - Thomas Hawkes receives his first Royal Warrant, based on his work for George III 1818 - Burlington Arcade, a glassed-over esplanade of shops adjacent to Burlington House is constructed under the patronage of Lord George Cavendish who resides at No 1 Savile Row, where Beau Brummell was a guest before his fall and exile in 1814 1822 - James Watson Gieve is born in Chulmleigh, Devon 1850 - Having handed his business over to his nephews, by 1850 Hawkes & Co is being run by H. T. White; as the personal tailor of Sir Garnet Wolseley, he develops a special form of the pith helmet known as the Wolseley pattern, which has an extended brim at the rear for better sun protection for the neck. It is still worn today by the Royal Marines as formal dress.
1835 - James Watson Gieve is employed by'Old Mel' Meredith, a Portsmouth-based tailor by appointment to the Royal Navy. Meredith tailors the uniform Admiral Lord Nelson is wearing when killed in action aboard HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar 1852 - James Gieve acquires a partnership with Joseph Galt. 1871 - Ownership of №1 passed to the Royal Geographical Society, which added the magnificent Map Room and galleried Library which remain the focal point of the fine interiors today. Henry Morton Stanley, sent to search for David Livingstone by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869, finds him in the town of Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika on 27 October 1871, clad in Hawkes & Co. dress from head to toe. 1873 - the body of explorer David Livingstone lies in state at 1 Savile Row, before burial at Westminster Abbey. 1887 - James Gieve becomes sole owner of Galt & Gieves, renaming it Gieves & Co. 1888 - James Gieve dies 1912 - On 23 December, №1 Savile Row is purchased from the Royal Geographical Society by Hawkes & Co. for £38,000, in part because the firm has dressed so many explorers.
This was at a time when the international reputation of Savile Row, the famous street and centre for fine craft tailoring was growing. Another £10,000 is spent on converting the premises to suit the business. Hawkes & Co. is appointed to dress the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, the British Monarch's nearest bodyguard 1920s - becomes the first Savile Row
Axminster Carpets Ltd are an Axminster, Devon based English manufacturer of carpets the same-named Axminster carpets. Whilst visiting Cheapside Market, Devon-based weaver Thomas Whitty was impressed by a large Turkish carpet he saw. On his return to Axminster, he used his skills to work out how to produce a product of similar quality. After several months work he completed his first carpet on midsummer's day 1755. Whitty's carpets, looking much like horizontal-tapestries, became the benchmark for wealthy aristocrats to have in their country homes and town houses, between 1755 and 1835; the company produced Axminster carpets for: the music room of the Royal Brighton. King George III and Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz purchased Axminster carpets and visited the factory. In 1800, the company made a 74-by-52-foot carpet for Mahmud II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, known today as the most famous Axminster Carpet of all. Depicting a blazing sun, moon and a whole constellation of stars, it cost £1000.
Carried out of the factory by thirty men from the local Congregational Church, it was placed in the Topkapi Palace. It was moved to the Defterdar Palace, where it became the property of Esma Sultan, the daughter of Sultan Mustapha III. In 1828, a disastrous fire destroyed. In 1835 the company owner, Samuel Rampson Whitty, the founder's grandson, was declared bankrupt. Blackmores of Wilton, near Salisbury, bought the remaining stock and looms and extended their business to include hand-knotted carpets, which were still called Axminsters. In July 2012, Axminster Heritage Ltd bought the now Grade II listed former original carpet factory in which Thomas Whitty founded the company and wove the first carpets, it now houses the town's heritage centre, incorporating the town museum and the tourist information centre. In 1929, Kidderminster-resident Scot's-born carpet manufacturer Harry Dutfield founded a new carpet company with his former schoolfriend Stephen Quayle. However, as the depression hit, the company became beset by Union problems.
Setting off for the 1935 London Motor Show to buy his first Jaguar car, Dutfield met a vicar on the train from the West Country, who told him that carpets had not been made in the town of Axminster since the 1828 fire. Returning home, Dutfield formulated a business plan to move his company to Axminster and relaunch Axminster Carpets Ltd, he persuaded the Southern Railway to extend its station at Axminster, from 1937 lease him land on which to build a suitable factory. At the outbreak of World War II, Dutfield converted the factory to produce stirrup pumps and aircraft parts, while Dutfield himself was an officer in the Home Guard. After hostilities ceased, with severe shortages of raw materials, keen fisherman Dutfield bought a wollen mill at Buckfast, near Buckfastleigh, which came with Salmon fishing rights on the River Dart; this enabled Dutfield to establish the company on its original basis, being the complete "from fleece to floor" carpet maker. After handing over day-to-day running of the company to his son Simon, Dutfield semi-retired from the company to pursue his hobby of fishing.
Awarded an MBE for his services to British exports, Dutfield died at his home in Axminster on 21 May 1999. Today, Axminster Carpets is the only manufacturer to purchase, card and dye its own yarn before weaving the carpet itself. To celebrate 250 years of carpet weaving in Axminster, in 2005 a commemorative rug was produced. Paraded by the company's weavers through the town, it was blessed by the Bishop of Exeter and presented to the Earl of Devon; the carpet is now in the home of Prince Charles. In 2012, Axminster was awarded a Royal Warrant for the supply of goods and services to the Royal Household; the modern Axminster-type power loom is capable of weaving high quality carpets with many varying colours and patterns, is manufactured all over the world. Due to their hard-wearing and durable nature, Axminster carpets are most used in country homes, luxury hotels, global airlines and train carriages; every Wetherspoon pub has a bespoke designed carpet manufactured by Axminster. Bertram, Jacob. Axminster Carpets 1755–1957.
Leigh-on-Sea: F Lewis. Company website
J. Barbour and Sons
J. Barbour & Sons Ltd. is a British luxury and lifestyle brand founded by John Barbour in 1894, that designs and markets waxed cotton outerwear, ready-to-wear, clothing and accessories for men and children under the Barbour and Barbour International brands. Founded in South Shields, England, as an importer of oil cloth, J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. has become well known for its waxed cotton jackets which are a common element of British country clothing. The company's waxed cotton jackets are so well known that some people refer to any waxed cotton jacket as a "Barbour jacket", irrespective of manufacturer. J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. holds royal warrant to supply "waterproof and protective clothing" from Queen Elizabeth II in 1974, the Duke of Edinburgh in 1982, Charles, Prince of Wales in 1987. Since July 2016, Scottish actor Sam Heughan is Barbour's First Global Brand Ambassador. John Barbour, a native of Galloway, founded J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. in South Shields, England, in 1894 as an importer of oil-cloth.
John's grandson Duncan, a keen motorcyclist, would take the company in that direction during his tenure as Barbour became the originator of waxed cotton motorcycling suits and jackets. The headquarters for J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. at the time of its foundation was located at 5 Market Place, South Shields and the company remains in South Shields today having occupied its current site since the 1980s. While the traditional waxed cotton jackets are still manufactured in Simonside, South Shields, some of the other products are manufactured outside the United Kingdom. In addition to its waxed and quilted jackets, J. Barbour & Sons Ltd. is famous for sweaters, moleskin clothing, corduroy clothing, tattersall shirts. Barbour has entered the "waterproof-breathable" market with its own type waterproof liners, cordura external fabric and polar fleece sweaters; some Barbour products contain outdoor-orientated features such as snug-fitting collars, "storm cuffs", waterproof pockets with drainage holes and wide "game" pockets.
In recent years the company has modernised its collections to appeal to a younger clientele while maintaining credibility with the traditional countryside customer. Many of the more fashionable ranges are influenced by the "Barbour International" motorcycling ranges. Taking inspiration from the company's 1936 waxed cotton motorcycling suit and the 1951 "Original Green" motorcycling jacket, modern collections are fashionable interpretations of the companies heritage in bikes. Despite traditional connotations with rural life, Barbour jackets saw increased popularity as an urban fashion item in the 2010s decade. In 2010s Barbour collaborated with several notable urban fashion brands: WoodWood, White Mountaneering, etc; some customers keep Barbour waxed jackets for years, sometimes decades. Among such people, the wear-and-tear on the garment can be addressed by Barbour's repair service, which patches and reinforces jackets. J. Barbour and Sons Ltd. repairs and rewaxes a total of over 25,000 jackets annually at the Simonside, South Shields and other facilities.
Aside from offering merchandise within Barbour retail stores, Barbour wholesales all of its collections to many upscale department and speciality stores worldwide. As of 2013, these retailers include Harrods, Harvey Nichols and Selfridges and John Lewis in the United Kingdom as well as Macy's, Bloomingdale's and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States. Barbour has a retail and wholesale presence in over forty countries on six continents. Barbour's largest independent store is located in Blackbrook, is run in partnership by Outdoor and Country as well as a Barbour partner store in Knutsford, Cheshire. Official website
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries around the world, though not North America. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the 1980s; the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995, the BBC and Swedish Radio launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995. DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the 1990s. DAB is more efficient in its use of spectrum than analogue FM radio, thus can offer more radio services for the same given bandwidth; however the sound quality can be noticeably inferior if the bit-rate allocated to each audio program is not sufficient. DAB is more robust with regard to noise and multipath fading for mobile listening, although DAB reception quality degrades when the signal strength falls below a critical threshold, whereas FM reception quality degrades with the decreasing signal, providing effective coverage over a larger area.
The original version of DAB used the MP2 audio codec. An upgraded version of the system was released in February 2007, called DAB+, which uses the HE-AAC v2 audio codec. DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, which means that DAB-only receivers are not able to receive DAB+ broadcasts. However, broadcasters can mix DAB and DAB+ programs inside the same transmission and so make a progressive transition to DAB+. DAB+ is twice as efficient as DAB, more robust. In spectrum management, the bands that are allocated for public DAB services, are abbreviated with T-DAB, where the "T" stands for terrestrial; as of 2018, 41 countries are running DAB services. The majority of these services are using DAB+, with only Ireland, UK, New Zealand and Brunei still using a significant number of DAB services. See Countries using DAB/DMB. In many countries, it is expected that existing FM services will switch over to DAB+. Norway is the first country to implement a national FM radio analog switchoff, in 2017, however that only applied to national broadcasters, not local ones.
DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik. The first DAB demonstrations were held in 1985 at the WARC-ORB in Geneva, in 1988 the first DAB transmissions were made in Germany. DAB was developed as a research project for the European Union, which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium formed in 1986; the MPEG-1 Audio Layer II codec was created as part of the EU147 project. DAB was the first standard based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation technique, which since has become one of the most popular transmission schemes for modern wideband digital communication systems. A choice of audio codec and error-correction coding schemes and first trial broadcasts were made in 1990. Public demonstrations were made in 1993 in the United Kingdom; the protocol specification was finalized in 1993 and adopted by the ITU-R standardization body in 1994, the European community in 1995 and by ETSI in 1997. Pilot broadcasts were launched in several countries in 1995.
In October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding. This work led to the launch of the DAB+ system. By 2006, 500 million people worldwide were in the coverage area of DAB broadcasts, although by this time sales of receivers had only taken off in the United Kingdom and Denmark. In 2006 there were 1,000 DAB stations in operation worldwide; as of 2018, over 68 million devices have been sold worldwide, over 2,270 DAB services are on air. DAB uses a wide-bandwidth broadcast technology and spectra have been allocated for it in Band III and L band, although the scheme allows for operation between 30 and 300 MHz; the US military has reserved L-Band in the USA only, blocking its use for other purposes in America, the United States has reached an agreement with Canada to restrict L-Band DAB to terrestrial broadcast to avoid interference. DAB had a number of country specific transmission modes.
Mode I for Band III, Earth Mode II for L-Band and satellite Mode III for frequencies below 3 GHz, Earth and satellite Mode IV for L-Band and satelliteIn January 2017, an updated DAB specification removed Modes II, III and IV, leaving only Mode I. From an OSI model protocol stack viewpoint, the technologies used on DAB inhabit the following layers: the audio codec inhabits the presentation layer. Below, the data link layer, in charge of statistical time division multiplexing and frame synchronization; the physical layer contains the error-correction coding, OFDM modulation, dealing with the over-the-air transmission and reception of data. Some aspects of these are described below. DAB uses the MPEG-1 Audio Layer II audio codec, referred to as MP2 because of the ubiquitous MP3; the newer DAB+ standard adopted the HE-AAC version 2 audio codec known as'AAC+' or'aacPlus'. AAC+ is three times more efficient than MP2, which means that broadcasters using DAB+ are able to provide far higher audio quality or far more stations than they could with DAB, or a combination of both higher audio quality and more stations.
One of the most important decisions regarding the design of a digital radio broadcasting system is the choice of which audio codec to use, because the efficiency of the audio codec determines how many radio stations can be carried on a fixed capacity multiplex at a given level of audio quality. Error-correction coding is an import
Charbonnel et Walker
Charbonnel et Walker Chocolatier is a firm of chocolate makers based in Bond Street, London. Encouraged by the Prince of Wales, Edward VII, in 1875 Mme Virginie Eugenie Lévy, née Charbonnel, of Maison Boissier chocolate house in Paris and Mrs Minnie Walker began a partnership in London as "Parisian Confectioners and Bon-Bon Manufacturers"; the partnership of Charbonnel and Walker was dissolved on 16 April 1878 and Mrs Walker carried on alone until her death on 8 June 1883. The notice of death published in the London Gazette referred to "Mary Ann Alphandery known as Minnie Walker"; the company of Charbonnel and Walker Limited went into liquidation in June 1894. The new firm of Charbonnel et Walker is now based in the Royal Arcade Bond Street, not far from the original premises, manufactures its chocolates at its factory in Tunbridge Wells; the connection with the royal family continues to the present day, Charbonnel et Walker hold a Royal Warrant as Chocolate Manufacturers to the Queen. Charbonnel et Walker offers a wide variety of chocolates, as well as sugar confections like crystalized ginger and glazed brazil nuts.
There are the peculiar Marc de Champagne Chocolate Truffles, which are chocolate truffles with chocolate butter, infused with Marc de Champagne. Coolbrands 2010/2011. London: Superbrands Ltd. 2010. ISBN 978-0-9565334-0-1. Charbonnel Chocolates UK Website Charbonnel Chocolates US Website