James Robertson (explorer)
James Robertson was an American explorer and Indian agent, one of the founding fathers of what became the State of Tennessee. An early companion of explorer Daniel Boone, Robertson helped establish the Watauga Association in the early 1770s, to defend Fort Watauga from an attack by Cherokee in 1776. In 1779, he co-founded what is now Nashville, was instrumental in the settlement of Middle Tennessee, he served as a brigadier general in the Southwest Territory militia in the early 1790s, as an Indian Commissioner in life. Robertson was born in 1742 in Virginia, of Scots-Irish and English descent. Around 1750, his father relocated the family to Wake North Carolina. Robertson worked with his siblings on their family farm and had limited formal education, but he learned to track and hunt animals and know his way in the woods and waterways. Robertson returned to North Carolina and married Charlotte Reeves in 1767, they started farming. In 1769, Robertson accompanied explorer Daniel Boone on his third expedition to lands beyond the Allegheny Mountains.
The party discovered the "Old Fields" along the Watauga River valley, where Elizabethton, Tennessee developed. Robertson stopped here to plant corn. After returning to North Carolina, Robertson became involved with the Regulator movement, they recruited a group of settlers to return to the Watauga River valley, which they believed to be in Virginia. In 1772, Robertson and the pioneers who had settled in Northeast Tennessee met at Sycamore Shoals to establish an independent regional government known as the Watauga Association. However, in 1772, surveyors placed the land within the domain of the Cherokee tribe, who had long occupied this area, they required the settlers to negotiate a lease to settle on their land. As the signed lease was being celebrated, a Cherokee warrior was murdered by a white man. Robertson's skillful diplomacy made peace with the irate Cherokee, who threatened to expel the settlers by force if necessary. In 1775, a treaty meeting was held between the Cherokee and a delegation of the Transylvania Company, headed by Richard Henderson.
Under the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, the Transylvania Company purchased a vast amount of land from the Cherokee, including most of present-day Kentucky and part of Tennessee. The treaty was technically illegal since only the government could have formal transactions and purchase land from Native American tribes.. During the treaty process, Dragging Canoe, son of Cherokee chief Attacullaculla, made a speech condemning the sale of any Cherokee land, which the tribe held in common for the use of all, he broke from the general Cherokee tribal government to form a band that the pioneers called the Chickamauga Cherokee or Chickamauga, for their settlement, although the people never had a separate tribal identity. After Henderson's Transylvania Company had bought Kentucky, Daniel Boone was hired to widen the Indian path over Cumberland Gap to facilitate migration by Anglo-American pioneers; this road became known as the Wilderness Road. Robertson's group lived at Watauga in peace until July 1776, when Chief Old Abraham of Chilhowee led a Cherokee contingent that attacked Fort Watauga.
A 40-man contingent commanded by John Carter, with Robertson and John Sevier as lieutenants, withstood a siege of about two weeks. After the Cherokee were subjugated that year, the governor of North Carolina appointed Robertson as Indian agent to reside at the Cherokee capital, he was to prevent them from forming an alliance with the British to fight as their allies against the rebels during the American Revolution. In the spring of 1779, during the Revolutionary War and John Donelson founded Fort Nashborough to become Nashville, it was part of the Washington District, North Carolina. He represented Davidson County, in the North Carolina legislature and had the settlement established as a town, he established the first school there, the historic Davidson Academy for male students. The Spanish governor of former French territory west of the Mississippi River offered Robertson peace and the free navigation of the Mississippi in exchange for his leaving the United States and establishing — along with the Watauga settlement and Kentucky — an independent government.
He refused to consider the matter. In 1790, Robertson was appointed brigadier-general of the territorial militia by U. S. President George Washington, serving until 1796, he shared with Sevier the affection of Tennesseans. He was appointed as Indian commissioner, serving until his death in 1814. Robertson was buried there, his family had his remains moved and re-interred in 1825 in the Nashville City Cemetery, to memorialize his contributions there. His son, Felix Robertson, served as Mayor of Nashville from 1818 to 1819. Robertson's great-granddaughter, Medora Cheatham, married Telfair Hodgson Jr. the treasurer of Sewanee: The University of the South and a developer of Belle Meade, Tennessee. She was the honorary president-general of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. A memorial obelisk was installed in his honor in the Nashville City Ce
Tennessee's 6th congressional district
The 6th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in Middle Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican John Rose since January 2019; the district is located in north-central borders Kentucky to the north. It is composed of the following counties: Cannon, Coffee, Cumberland, DeKalb, Jackson, Overton, Putnam, Smith, Trousdale and Wilson, it contains small pieces of Cheatham and Van Buren. Much of the Sixth District is wooded, it is spread across the geographic regions known as the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Central Basin. The area is known for its waterfalls, such as Cummins Falls. With close access to interstates 24, 40, 65, subdivisions are sprouting exponentially, fast filling with new economy managers. Many companies have opened either manufacturing or distribution centers in the 6th District; this includes Amazon and Bridgestone-Firestone in Lebanon, gun manufacturer Beretta in Gallatin, clothing manufacturer Under Armour in Mt. Juliet. Politically speaking, the region was traditionally a "Yellow Dog Democrat" district.
However, the district began. It supported Bill Clinton in 1992 due to Gore's presence as Clinton's running mate. However, it has not supported a Democrat for president since. By the turn of the century, it was obvious that the Democrats would have a hard time holding onto the district once longtime Democratic incumbent Bart Gordon retired. Gordon retired in 2010, Black—then a state senator—won the seat in a landslide, proving just how Republican this district had become; the 2010 redistricting made the district more Republican, with its longtime anchor, being drawn out of the district. Since no Democrat has won an entire county within the district in any presidential, senate, or congressional election. According to the 2010 census, the five largest cities are Hendersonville, Gallatin, Mt. Juliet. Prior to the 1980 census, when Tennessee picked up a district, most of what is now the 6th district was in the 4th district. During the 1940s, this area was represented by Sr. of Carthage. Gore was elected to the United States Senate in 1952, where he was instrumental in creating the Interstate Highway system.
From 1953 to 1977, the area was represented by Joe L. Evins of Smithville. Evins's nephew, Dan Evins, was the founder of Cracker Barrel Old Country Store restaurant/retail chain. Cracker Barrel's headquarters are still located in Lebanon. In 1976, Evins was succeeded by future Vice President and son of Albert Gore, Sr.. He was representing the area. Shortly following the redistricting into the 6th District, Gore was elected to the United States Senate, he was succeeded by former Democratic State Chair Bart Gordon of Murfreesboro. Gordon held the post for the next twenty-six years unopposed; the only year he faced. Gordon defeated Gill by only one percentage point. Diane Black was elected in the Republican landslide of 2010 when Democrat Bart Gordon decided to end a 26-year career in Congress. Black's victory marked the first time that much of the district had been represented by a Republican since 1921, for only the second time since Reconstruction. Following an eight-year stint in Congress, Black made an unsuccessful run for Governor of Tennessee in 2018.
In the concurrent election, the district selected businessman and former Tennessee Agriculture Commissioner John Rose. The Sixth District raised two Nobel Peace Prize winners: Cordell Hull of Pickett County and Al Gore of Carthage. Hailing from the district was World War I hero Alvin C. York. Current residents include country musicians Charlie Daniels and Gretchen Wilson, as well as the band Kings of Leon. District created March 4, 1813. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Political Graveyard database of Tennessee congressmen Congress.com: Tennessee Congressional districts
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
Davidson County, Tennessee
Davidson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 626,681, making it the second-most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is the state capital. In 1963, the City of Nashville and the Davidson County government merged, so the county government is now known as the "Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County," or "Metro Nashville" for short. Davidson County has the largest population in the 14-county Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nashville has always been the region's center of commerce, industry and culture, but it did not become the capital of Tennessee until 1827 and did not gain permanent capital status until 1843. Davidson County is the oldest county in the 41-county region of Middle Tennessee, it dates to 1783, when the North Carolina legislature created the county and named it in honor of William Lee Davidson, a North Carolina general, killed opposing General Cornwallis and the British Army's crossing of the Catawba River on February 1, 1781.
The county seat, Nashville, is the oldest permanent European settlement in Middle Tennessee, founded by James Robertson and John Donelson during the winter of 1779–80. The first white settlers established the Cumberland Compact in order to establish a basic rule of law and to protect their land titles. Through much of the early 1780s, the settlers faced a hostile response from Native American tribes who resented their encroaching on their territory and competing for resources; as the county's many known archaeological sites attest, Native American cultures had occupied areas of Davidson County for thousands of years. The first whites to enter the area were fur traders. Long hunters came next, having learned about the large salt lick, known as French Lick, where they hunted game and traded with Native Americans. In 1765, Timothy Demonbreun, a hunter and former Governor of Illinois under the French, his wife lived in a small cave on the south side of the Cumberland River near present-day downtown Nashville.
The first white child to be born in Middle Tennessee was born there. During the June 8, 1861, the divided population of Davidson County voted narrowly in favor of secession: 5,635 in favor, 5,572 against. Middle Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862, which caused widespread social disruption in the state. See List of people from Nashville, Tennessee for notable people that were residents of both Nashville and Davidson County. Newman Haynes Clanton - Democrat, western cattle rustler and outlaw According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 526 square miles, of which 504 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the Cumberland River flows from east to west through the middle of the county. Two dams within the county are Old Hickory Lock and Dam and J. Percy Priest Dam, operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Important tributaries of the Cumberland in Davidson County include Whites Creek, Manskers Creek, Stones River, Mill Creek, the Harpeth River.
Robertson County, Tennessee – north Sumner County, Tennessee – northeast Wilson County, Tennessee – east Rutherford County, Tennessee – southeast Williamson County, Tennessee – south Cheatham County, Tennessee – west Natchez Trace Parkway Bicentennial Mall State Park Couchville Cedar Glade State Natural Area Harpeth River State Park Hill Forest State Natural Area Long Hunter State Park Mount View Glade State Natural Area Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area Radnor Lake State Natural Area I-24 I-40 I-65 I-440 US 31 US 31A US 31E US 31W US 41 US 41A US 70 US 70S US 431 SR 12 SR 45 SR 96 SR 100 SR 155 SR 171 SR 174 SR 251 SR 253 SR 254 SR 255 SR 265 SR 386 As of the census of 2000, there were 569,891 people, 237,405 households, 138,169 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,135 people per square mile. There were 252,977 housing units at an average density of 504 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 67.0% White, 26.0% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races.
4.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2005 the racial makeup of the county was 61.7% non-Hispanic white, 27.5% African-American, 6.6% Latino and 2.8% Asian. In 2000 there were 237,405 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,797, the median income for a family was $49,317.
Males had a median income of $33,844 versus $27,770 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,069. About 10.0% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Senators: Lamar Alexander and Marsha Blackburn U. S. Representatives: Jim Cooper State Senators: Brenda Gilmore, Steven Dickerson, Jeff Yarbro, Ferrell Haile State Represent
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Pulaski is a city and county seat of Giles County, located on the southern border of Tennessee, United States. The population was 7,870 at the 2010 census, it was named to honor the Polish-born American Revolutionary War hero Casimir Pulaski. During early years of Reconstruction, in late 1865, it was the site of Confederate veterans organizing the first chapter of what became known as the Ku Klux Klan, a secret, white supremacist group. In 1870 Martin Methodist College was founded in Pulaski for white students in the area. Pulaski was founded in 1809. During the American Civil War, the vicinity of Pulaski was the site of a number of skirmishes during the Franklin–Nashville Campaign. Union troops occupied the state from 1862. In 1863, Confederate courier Sam Davis was hanged in Pulaski by the Union Army on suspicion of espionage. In late 1865, during the early days of the Reconstruction Era, the city was the site of founding the first Ku Klux Klan by six Tennessee veterans of the Confederate Army.
John C. Lester, John B. Kennedy, James R. Crowe, Frank O. McCord, Richard R. Reed, J. Calvin Jones established the KKK in Pulaski on December 25, 1865, creating rules for a secret white society; the white insurgents were determined to maintain white supremacy and to fight secretly against the political advancement of freedmen and of sympathetic whites. Chapter of the KKK were organized in other parts of the state and the South. KKK members attacked their victims at night, to increase the intimidation of threats and assaults. Other incidents of racial violence against blacks took place; the Pulaski riot was a race riot initiated by whites against blacks that occurred in Pulaski in the summer of 1867. Martin Methodist College was founded in Pulaski in 1870. Pulaski is located in central Giles County at 35°11′45″N 87°2′4″W; the downtown area is on the north side of Richland Creek, a south-flowing tributary of the Elk River. U. S. Route 31 passes through the center of Pulaski as First Street, leading north 30 miles to Columbia and southeast 19 miles to Ardmore at the Alabama border.
U. S. Route 31 Alternate leaves U. S. 31 in the north part of Pulaski and heads northeast 23 miles to Lewisburg. U. S. Route 64 passes south of Pulaski on a bypass route. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,871 people, 3,455 households, 2,038 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,200.8 people per square mile. There were 3,888 housing units at an average density of 593.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.40% White, 27.06% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 3,455 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,459, the median income for a family was $37,219. Males had a median income of $30,400 versus $21,714 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,751. About 12.7% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.1% of those under age 18 and 17.1% of those age 65 or over. Abernathy Field is a public-use airport owned by the City of Giles County, it is located three nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Pulaski. The local newspaper is the Pulaski Citizen. Pulaski is home to Giles County High School and Richland High School.
Pulaski is home to Tennessee College of Applied Technology-Pulaski and to Martin Methodist College. Pulaski is home of the semi-annual Diana Singing, sponsored by the Churches of Christ; the event attracts over 3,000 people to the town in September. Walter Beech, pioneer aviator, founder of Beech Aircraft and Travel Air Manufacturing Bobby Gordon, football player John Crowe Ransom, winner of National Book Award for poetry Tyler Smith, basketball player, University of Tennessee.