Brandenburg an der Havel
Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in Brandenburg, which served as the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg until replaced by Berlin in 1417. With a population of 71,778, it is located on the banks of the River Havel; the town of Brandenburg provided the name for the medieval Bishopric of Brandenburg, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the current state of Brandenburg. Today it is a small town compared to nearby Berlin, but it was the original nucleus of the former realms of Brandenburg and Prussia; the castle of Brandenburg, a fortress of the Slavic tribe Stodoranie, was conquered in 929 by King Henry the Fowler. It was first mentioned as Brendanburg in 948; that the name of the city in the local Slavic language was Brennabor, a combination of two words brenna - defense and bor - fort, is an invention of the 17th century. The town remained German only until 983. During the next 170 years the area was ruled by Slavic princes of the Hevelli tribe; the last of them, died in 1150. From 1153/1154 to 1157 Brendanburg was part of the Slavonic Duchy of a fief of Poland.
Afterwards Albert I became the first margrave of Brandenburg. The town was restricted to the western bank of the Havel until 1196, when it was extended to the eastern side; the parts on either side of the river were regarded as three towns for centuries. In 1314–1315 the Old and New Towns joined the Hanseatic League. In the Thirty Years' War the towns suffered destruction which led to a loss of power. In 1715 Old Town and New Town were merged to form a single town. In 1928 the Brandenburg cathedral district was added. In the late 19th century Brandenburg an der Havel became a important industrial center in the German Empire. Steel industries settled there, several world-famous bicycle brands such as Brennabor and Excelsior were manufactured in the city. A world-famous toy industry was established. With a giant industrial complex, the Deutsche Reichsbahn was located in Brandenburg-Kirchmöser during the time between the two world wars and the time of the former GDR; the city's excellent transport infrastructure was a big advantage.
In 1933/34, a concentration camp, one of the first in Nazi Germany, was located on Neuendorfer Straße in Brandenburg Old Town. After closing this inner city concentration camp, the Nazis used the Brandenburg-Görden Prison, located in the suburb of Görden; the old gaol became the Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre where the Nazis killed people with mental diseases, including children. They called this operation "Action T4" because of the Berlin address, Tiergartenstraße 4, the headquarters of this planned and well-organized forced euthanasia organisation. Brandenburg an der Havel was one of the first locations in the Third Reich where the Nazis experimented with killing their victims by gas. Here, they prepared the mass killings in other extermination camps. After complaints by local inhabitants about the smoke, the mobile furnaces used to burn the corpses ceased operation. Shortly after this, the Nazis closed the old prison. In 1934, the Arado Aircraft Company, which originated in Warnemünde, built a satellite factory in Brandenburg that began producing planes in 1935.
The factory was expanded over the next five years, produced trainers and other aircraft for the Luftwaffe during World War II. The existence of this factory was one of the reasons Brandenburg was bombed in stages of the war. Friedrich Fromm, a German officer involved in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler, was executed here in March 1945 for his part in the plot though Fromm betrayed those conspirators he knew and ordered their execution. After German reunification the city's population declined from around 100,000 in 1989 to 75,000 in 2005 through emigration; the migration was by young people. The city is located on the navigable River Havel, a European Waterway, vessels travelling through the city have a choice of two routes; the original route used the Brandenburg City Canal, a 4-kilometre route through the city centre that descends through the Stadtschleuse Brandenburg, but this route is constrained in size and now limited to leisure craft. Commercial traffic instead uses the Silo Canal that passes through the eastern and northern fringes of the city.
The city is located at the junction of Federal Highways 1 and 102 and the A2 autobahn is nearby. The Berlin and Magdeburg railway runs through Brandenburg an der Havel; the centrepiece of the city's urban public transport system is the Brandenburg an der Havel tramway network. The Dominsel is the historic heart of the town. Here stands its oldest edifice: the Dom St. Peter und Paul. Although construction began in the Romanesque style in 1165, it was completed as a Gothic cathedral during the 14th century. While the exterior is rather austere, the cathedral surprises the visitor with its sumptuous interior the painted vault of the Bunte Kapelle and the Wagner organ, one of the most famous Baroque organs in Germany; the Katharinenkirche built in 1401 in the Neustadt is an impressive example of northern German brick Gothic architecture. The Gotthardtkirche was built of the same material just a few years later. Another interesting building is the Altstädtisches Rathaus, a late Gothic brick building with stepped gables and an ornate portal.
In front of it stands a 5.35m hi
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng province in South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains, it is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Human Sciences Research Council; the city hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the proposed name change has caused some public controversy. Pretoria is named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, within South Africa sometimes called the "Jacaranda City" due to the thousands of jacaranda trees planted in its streets and gardens.
Pretoria was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius and chose a spot on the banks of the "Apies rivier" to be the new capital of the South African Republic. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River; the elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which the UK acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. It became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860; the founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881; the peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa.
The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902 at Melrose House. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War. Though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments; the Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal. On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status; when South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital. Pretoria is situated 55 km north-northeast of Johannesburg in the northeast of South Africa, in a transitional belt between the plateau of the Highveld to the south and the lower-lying Bushveld to the north.
It lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range. Pretoria has a humid subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold, dry winters; the city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights and mild to moderately warm days. Although the average lows during winter are mild, it can get cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C; the average annual temperature is 18.7 °C. This is rather high, considering the city's high altitude of about 1,339 metres, is due to its sheltered valley position, which acts as a heat trap and cuts it off from cool southerly and south-easterly air masses for much of the year. Rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is an rare event. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, unusual for that time of the year.
Similar record-breaking extreme heat events occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city. A total of 914 mm fell up with 220 mm recorded in this month alone. In 2015 Pretoria saw its worst drought since 1982. January 2016 saw Pretoria reach a new record high of 44 °C on 7 January 2016. Depending on the extent of the area understood to constitute "Pretoria", the population ranges from 700,000 to 2.95 million. The main languages spoken in Pretoria are Sepedi, Setswana, Xitsonga and English; the city of Pretoria has the largest white population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since its founding it has been a major Afrikaner population centre
Fallschirmjäger is the German word for paratroopers. They played an important role during World War II, together with the Gebirgsjäger they were perceived as the elite infantry units of the German military. After World War II, they were reconstituted as parts of postwar armed forces of both West and East Germany as special ops troops. German Fallschirmjäger in World War II were the first paratroopers to be committed in large-scale airborne operations, they came to be known as the "green devils" by the Allied forces they fought against. The word Fallschirmjäger is from the German Fallschirm, "parachute", Jäger, literally'hunter,' which refers in this context to light infantry. In the 1930s Hermann Göring, after having observed Soviet airborne infantry maneuvers, became committed to the creation of Germany's airborne infantry, he ordered the formation of a specialist police unit in 1933, devoted to protecting Nazi party officials. The unit carried out conventional police duties for the next two years, but in 1935, Göring transformed it into Germany's first dedicated airborne regiment.
The unit was incorporated into the newly formed Luftwaffe that year and training commenced. Göring ordered that a group of volunteers be drawn for parachute training; these volunteers would form a cadre for a future Fallschirmtruppe. In January 1936, 600 men and officers formed an engineer company. Germany's parachute arm was inaugurated in 1936 with a call for recruits for a parachute training school; the school was open to Luftwaffe personnel, who were required to complete six jumps in order to receive the Luftwaffe parachutist's badge. During World War II, the German Air Force raised a variety of airborne light infantry units; the Luftwaffe built up a division-sized unit of three Fallschirmjäger regiments plus supporting arms and air assets, known as the 7th Flieger Division. Throughout World War II, the Fallschirmjäger overall commander was Kurt Student. Fallschirmjäger participated in the occupation of Norway and Denmark and in the battles of Belgium, the Netherlands and France in 1940, they took part in the Balkans Campaign, Battle of Crete, Italian Campaign, on both the Eastern Front and the Western Front would follow.
In the modern German Bundeswehr, Fallschirmjäger continue to form the core of special operations units. The division has several independent companies and battalions. All told, about 10,000 troops served in that division in 2010, most of them support or logistics personnel; the division has the following structure: Special Operations Division Headquarters and Signal Company former time Battalion Army Band 300 Airborne Brigade 1 Headquarters Company Parachute Regiment 26 1./ Staff Support Companie 2./ 3./ Parachute-Commando 4./ 5./ 6./ Parachute Companies 7./ Parachute Heavy Weapon 8./ Parachut-Support 9./ Parachute-Medical 10./Reserve Airborne Reconnaissance Company 260 Airborne Engineer Company 260 Parachute Regiment 31 1./ Staff Support Companie 2./ 3./ Parachute-Commando 4./ 5./ 6./ Parachute Companies 7./ Parachute Heavy Weapon 8./ Parachut-Support 9./ Parachute-Medical 10./Reserve Airborne Reconnaissance Company 310 Airborne Engineer Company 270 Special Forces Command The vast majority of division members are deployable by parachute, all of it is at least air mobile.
All vehicles and heavy equipment are transportable by helicopter, including special armoured Wiesel heavy weapon transport vehicles adopted for this purpose. In addition to the Special Operations Division, Germany is setting up an air mobile or air assault regiment. Former troops Airborne Air Defence Missile Battery 100 - given out to Air Force Long Range Reconnaissance Training Company 200 - Platoons in Airborne Reconnaissance Companies Airborne Brigade 26 and Airborne Brigade 31 - both now Airborne Brigade 1 Fallschirmjäger Battalion 261 Airborne Support Battalion 262 Fallschirmjäger Battalion 263 Airborne Brigade 31 Headquarters Company Fallschirmjäger Battalion 313 Fallschirmjäger Battalion 373 Airborne Support Battalion 272 40. Fallschirmjägerbataillon Willi Sänger was the only airborne infantry formation of the Nationale Volksarmee; the battalion and its airborne-commando school were based in Prora near Potsdam. The battalion was an airborne unit organized as an NVA light infantry battalion, but in reality it was considered a commando unit.
On mission, the companies of the battalion were to be split up into teams of six men. As a force with special capabilities, it remained under the direct command of the army high command; the reconnaissance company of the Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment, an elite motorized rifle regiment of the Ministry for State Security of the German Democratic Republic, was a parachute-trained unit. Ailsby, Christopher. Hitler's Sky Warriors: German Paratroopers in Action, 1939-1945. Staplehurst, UK: Spellmount Limited. ISBN 1-86227-109-7. Bell, Kelly. "Costly Capture Of Crete." World War II 14.1: 50. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2014
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv
Namaqualand is an arid region of Namibia and South Africa, extending along the west coast over 1,000 kilometres and covering a total area of 440,000 square kilometres. It is divided by the lower course of the Orange River into two portions – Little Namaqualand to the south and Great Namaqualand to the north. Little Namaqualand is within the Namakwa District Municipality, forming part of Northern Cape Province, South Africa, it is geographically the largest district in the country, spanning over 26,836 km². A typical municipality is Kamiesberg Local Municipality; the semi-desert Succulent Karoo region experiences sparse rainfall and cold winters. Great Namaqualand is in the ǁKaras Region of Namibia. Great Namaqualand is sparsely populated by the Namaqua, a Khoikhoi people who traditionally inhabited the Namaqualand region; the area’s landscape ranges from an unexploited coastal strip in the west to semidesert areas in the north-east. Famed for its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its wild flowers during spring, its wealth of minerals and cultural history, Namaqualand is a popular region for international and local tourists.
The Namakwa coastline and the banks of the Orange River are popular for their hiking and 4x4 trails and routes. The beginning of the flower season varies from year to year but it occurs between August and October; the natural landscape is continually monitored with the first sign of spring and flower season being the arrival of Namakwa daisies. When purple vygies bloom, spring is coming to an end; the Namaqua National Park is situated west of one of South Africa's national roads. This conservation area is a great biodiversity hotspot with the highest concentration of succulent plants of any of the world's arid regions. More than a thousand of its estimated 3 500 flora species cannot be found anywhere else in the world; the ǀAi-ǀAis/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park, on the border of Namibia and South Africa, was known as the Richtersveld National Park in South Africa and the ǀAi-ǀAis Hot Springs Game Park in Namibia before the two parks were combined in August 2003. What was once the Richtersveld National Park nurtures about 30% of South Africa’s succulent species.
Some of the more prominent towns in this area are Springbok, being the capital of this region, as well as Kleinzee and Koiingnaas, both private mining towns owned by De Beers Diamond Mines. This area is quite rich. Oranjemund is another mining town along this coast, situated in Namibia, but much on the border; as the name suggests, it is at the mouth of the Orange River which forms the border between South Africa and Namibia. The town of Alexander Bay is located 5 kilometres away opposite the river on the South African side and is linked to Oranjemund by the Ernest Oppenheimer Bridge. Other links crossing the river further upstream are a reintroduced pontoon at Sendelingsdrift in the Richtersveld National Park, road bridges at Vioolsdrif and at the remote border crossing of Onseepkans. A vibrant fishing industry is found along this stretch of the South African west coast in Port Nolloth, the major resort town of Namaqualand, Hondeklipbaai, or Dogstonebay, called such because of a large boulder outside the town which, when viewed looks vaguely like a dog sitting down.
Since the 19th century, copper has been mined at Springbok and its surrounding towns, while a large mine extracting copper, lead and silver is located at Aggeneys, 110 kilometres further inland. The region is known for its cultural history, preserved by the Nama and Khoisan tribes; the Nama people are the largest group of Khoikhoi people. About 80% of the population were brutally killed by the German Empire between 1904 and 1907 in a racial extermination during the Herero and Namaqua genocide. Nama people traditionally speak the Khoekhoe language. Letterklip Mafuta Namaqualand Railway Namakwa Region – Northern Cape Tourism Namakwa District Municipality
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries. They traditionally dominated South Africa's agriculture and politics prior to 1994. Afrikaans, South Africa's third most spoken home language, is the mother tongue of Afrikaners and most Cape Coloureds, it evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland, incorporating words brought from the Dutch East Indies and Madagascar by slaves. Afrikaners make up 5.2% of the total South African population based on the number of white South Africans who speak Afrikaans as a first language in the South African National Census of 2011. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 opened a gateway of free access to Asia from Western Europe around the Cape of Good Hope. One European power followed another, all eager to trade along this route; the Portuguese landed in Mossel Bay in 1500, explored Table Bay two years and by 1510 had started raiding inland.
Shortly afterwards the Dutch Republic sent merchant vessels to India, in 1602 founded the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. As the volume of traffic rounding the Cape increased, the Company recognised its natural harbour as an ideal watering point for the long voyage around Africa to the Orient and established a victualling station there in 1652. VOC officials did not favour the permanent settlement of Europeans in their trading empire, although during the 140 years of Dutch rule many VOC servants retired or were discharged and remained as private citizens. Furthermore, the exigencies of supplying local garrisons and passing fleets compelled the administration to confer free status upon employees and oblige them to become independent farmers. Encouraged by the success of this experiment, the Company extended free passage from 1685 to 1707 for Hollanders wishing to settle at the Cape. In 1688 it sponsored the immigration of 200 French Huguenot refugees forced into exile by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
The terms under which the Huguenots agreed to immigrate were the same offered to other VOC subjects, including free passage and requisite farm equipment on credit. Prior attempts at cultivating vineyards or exploiting olive groves for fruit had been unsuccessful, it was hoped that Huguenot colonists accustomed to Mediterranean agriculture could succeed where the Dutch had failed, they were augmented by VOC soldiers returning from Asia, predominantly Germans channeled into Amsterdam by the Company's extensive recruitment network and thence overseas. Despite their diverse nationalities, the colonists used a common language and adopted similar attitudes towards politics; the attributes they shared came to serve as a basis for the evolution of Afrikaner identity and consciousness. Afrikaner nationalism has taken the form of political parties and secret societies such as the Broederbond in the twentieth century. In 1914 the National Party was formed to promote Afrikaner economic interests and sever South Africa's ties to the United Kingdom.
Rising to prominence by winning the 1948 general elections, it has been noted for enforcing a harsh policy of racial segregation while declaring South Africa a republic and withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. The term "Afrikaner" presently denotes the politically and dominant group among white South Africans, or the Afrikaans-speaking population of Dutch origin—although their original progenitors included smaller numbers of Flemish, French Huguenot, German immigrants; the terms "burgher" and "Boer" have both been used to describe white Afrikaans speakers as a group. The term was in common usage in both the Boer republics and the Cape Colony by the late nineteenth century. At one time, burghers denoted Cape Dutch, settlers who were influential in the administration, able to participate in urban affairs, did so regularly. Boers referred to the settled European farmers or nomadic cattle herders. During the Batavian Republic, "burgher" was popularised among Dutch communities both at home and abroad as a popular revolutionary form of address, or citizen.
In South Africa, it remained in use as late as the Second Boer War. The first recorded instance of a colonist identifying as an "Afrikaner" occurred in March 1707, during a disturbance in Stellenbosch; when the magistrate, Johannes Starrenburg, ordered an unruly crowd to desist, a white teenager named Hendrik Biebouw retorted, "Ik ben een Afrikaander - al slaat de landdrost mij dood, of al zetten hij mij in de tronk, ik zal, nog wil niet zwijgen!". Biebouw was flogged for his insolence and banished to Jakarta, it is believed that "Afrikaner" in question indicated Cape Coloureds or other groups claiming mixed ancestry. Biebouw himself may have identified with Coloureds socially. However, this defiant secession from Dutch law and sovereignty was a leap towards defining another consciousness for white South Africa, suggesting for the first time a group identification with the Cape Colony rather than any ancestral homeland in Europe; the Dutch East India Company had no intention of planting a permanent European settlement at the Cape of Good Hope.
From the VOC's perspective, there
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National