Ariel Motorcycles was a British maker of bicycles and motorcycles in Bournbrook, Birmingham. It was an innovator in part of the Ariel marque; the company was sold to BSA in 1951 but the brand survived until 1967. Influential Ariel designers included Edward Turner; the last motorcycle-type vehicle to carry the Ariel name was a short-lived three-wheel tilting moped in 1970. Ariel made bicycles before making motorcycles, made cars. Car production began in 1902, moved to Coventry in 1911 and ceased in 1925. The'Ariel' name was reused in 1999 for the formation of a sports car producer; the original company was established in 1870 by William Hillman. They built wire-spoke wheels under the first British patent, they put the name on the factory where they made sewing machines. In 1885 James Starley's nephew, John Kemp Starley, invented the Rover Safety Bicycle - a bicycle with sized wheels and chain drive to the rear wheel, the design used on bicycles today. Ariel merged with Westwood Manufacturing in 1896 and made a powered tricycle in 1898 with a 2.25 hp de Dion.
Hillman left soon afterwards to found Premier Motorcycles. More tricycles were produced and motorised quadricycles were added in 1901 as Ariel moved into car production. In 1902, Ariel produced its first motorcycle, which had a Kerry engine with a magneto ignition and a float carburettor; that year, Ariel was taken over by Components Ltd, owned by Charles Sangster. Sangster built a three-speed, two-stroke motorcycle sold as the "Arielette", but he stopped production on the outbreak of the first world war. In 1918, Sangster's son Jack began managing the Ariel division of Components Ltd and developed a successful motorcycle with a 4 hp White and Poppe engine. Jack increased the range of motorcycles to include 992 cc machines. A range of motorcycles was made until 1926 with engines bought in or assembled to others' designs,until a new designer, Val Page, joined Ariel from JAP; that year Page created a pair of new engines which used many existing motorcycle parts redesigned the motorcycle for 1927.
These new models are known as Black Ariels and were the basis on which all Ariel four-stroke singles were based until their demise in 1959. During the Black Ariel period, the Ariel horse logo came into being, as did the slogan'The Modern Motor Cycle'. Components Ltd. suffered several financial crises including spells in receivership in 1911 and in the early 1930s. In 1932, Components Ltd went bankrupt, Jack Sangster, Charles Sangster's son, bought the Ariel subsidiary from the receivers at a bargain price; the company was renamed Ariel Motors Ltd, promptly resumed production. A new factory was set up at Selly Oak in Birmingham. One of their first bikes was the Ariel Square Four, designed by Edward Turner, followed by the Ariel Red Hunter; the Red Hunter was a success, enabled Ariel to purchase Triumph. The Ariel Square Four with a 500 cc engine designed by Edward Turner first appeared for the 1931 season. Around this time the company went into receivership and a new company was formed; the Square Four displacement was increased to 600cc.
Throughout their history, the Square Fours had overheating problems with the rear cylinders which resulted in distorted heads. A redesign in 1937 resulted in a 995 cc OHV version designated the 4G. In 1939, Anstey-link plunger rear suspension was an option, it was still available when production restarted in 1946, with telescopic forks replacing the girder forks. During the Second World War, the Ariel factory was turned over to military production, including the Ariel W/NG 350 army motorcycle based on the Red Hunter but with higher ground clearance. In 1949, the Mark 1 Square Four had cast aluminium heads instead of cast iron. With the lower weight the bike was a 90 mph plus machine. In 1951, Jack Sangster sold Ariel and Triumph to the Birmingham Small Arms Company group and joined their board. Ariel began making the 500 cc KH model and the 650 cc Huntmaster, which had an engine based on the BSA A10 parallel twin. Reliable and capable of 100 miles per hour, the Huntmaster proved popular with sidecar enthusiasts.
By 1956, Sangster was voted in as the new Chairman, defeating incumbent Sir Bernard Docker 6 to 3. Sangster promptly made Edward Turner head of the automotive division, which included Ariel, BSA motorcycles, as well as Daimler and Carbodies. In 1953, the Mark 2 Square Four had a redesigned cylinder head, was capable of 100 mph; the Red Hunter formed the basis for Sammy Miller's 1955 trials motorcycle which proved successful in competition. In 1959, Ariel dropped its four-stroke engines and produced the Ariel Leader, a enclosed 250 cc two-stroke with a faired body from the headlamp aft; the Leader aimed to combine the benefits of the motorcycle with the advantages of a scooter. Ariel made the Arrow, a more open version of the Leader which kept the Leader's enclosed chain case and deep mudguards. Both models were an unsuccessful attempt to compete with new Japanese imports. BSA closed the Ariel factory at Selly Oak in 1962 and moved production of the Leader and the Arrow to the BSA factory at Small Heath.
Production of the 50 cc Pixie began in 1963. In 1965, Ariel produced its last motorcycle, the Arrow 200 with capacity reduced to 200 cc introduced earlier during 1964 to qualify for lower UK rider insurance. Ariel motorcycles ceased production in 1967. In 1970, parent company BSA produced the Ariel 3, a 49 cc
Campion Cycle Company
The Campion Cycle Company was a British bicycle and motor cycle maker, active from 1893 to 1926 and based in Nottingham, England. In 1927 it was purchased by Currys. Campion motorcycles used a variety of proprietary engines including Minerva, MMC, Precision, Blackburne and JAP, they supplied frames to other companies. The Cyclecar was powered by a JAP V twin with a rating of 8 hp, it drove the rear wheels by a belt. List of bicycle manufacturing companies List of car manufacturers of the United Kingdom
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Condor Cycles is a bicycle manufacturer based on Gray’s Inn Road in London. Condor Cycles was started in 1948 by Monty Young, providing bespoke bicycles which have been ridden by riders such as Tom Simpson and Bradley Wiggins. Condor bicycles have been ridden in the Tour de France. In 1986 Condor Cycles supported the Percy Bilton pro cycling team and in 1998 the Anglia Sport cycling team from which rider Gary Baker won several stages of the Milk Race. Condor Cycles co-owned the UK-based cycling team Rapha Condor-JLT with sportswear and lifestyle brand Rapha. Rapha ended the sponsorship of the team and Condor Cycles took over the role as team owners renaming the team JLT-Condor presented by Mavic Official website
Islabikes is a manufacturer of bicycles for children. The business is located near Ludlow in Shropshire, England, it was founded in 2005 by competitive cyclist Isla Rowntree located at Claverley in east Shropshire until it moved in 2010. In November 2014 the company employed 40 people. Islabikes is known to produce light bikes where all components are designed for children. In 2011 Islabikes introduced one adult-sized model, but does not plan to expand further into adult bikes. Islabikes opened their North American headquarters in Portland and began sales in April, 2013; the bicycles are manufactured in Vietnam. The company donates a percentage of profits to charity World Bicycle Relief. Official website
Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom. Lotus cars include the Esprit, Europa, Elise and Evora sports cars and it had motor racing success with Team Lotus in Formula One. Lotus Cars are based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk; the company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics. It owns the engineering consultancy firm Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States and Malaysia. Lotus was owned by DRB-HICOM through its subsidiary Proton, which acquired it following the bankruptcy of former owner Romano Artioli in 1996. On 24 May 2017, Geely announced that it will take a 51% controlling stake in Lotus and thus became the owner of the automobile manufacturer; the remaining 49% were acquired by Etika Automotive. The company was formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd. by engineers Colin Chapman and Colin Dare, both graduates of University College, London, in 1952, but had earlier origins in 1948 when Chapman built his first racing car in a garage.
The four letters in the middle of the logo stand for the initials of company founder, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. When the logo was created, Colin Chapman's original partners Michael and Nigel Allen were led to believe that the letters stood for Colin Chapman and the Allen Brothers; the first factory was situated in old stables behind the Railway Hotel in North London. Team Lotus, split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954, was active and competitive in Formula One racing from 1958 to 1994; the Lotus Group of Companies was formed in 1959. This was made up of Lotus Cars Limited and Lotus Components Limited, which focused on road cars and customer competition car production, respectively. Lotus Components Limited became Lotus Racing Limited in 1971 but the newly renamed entity ceased operation in the same year; the company moved to a purpose built factory at Cheshunt in 1959 and since 1966 the company has occupied a modern factory and road test facility at Hethel, near Wymondham. This site is the former RAF Hethel base and the test track uses sections of the old runway.
In its early days, Lotus sold cars aimed at privateer trialists. Its early road cars could be bought as kits; the kit car era ended in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Lotus Elan Plus Two being the first Lotus road car not to be offered in kit form, the Lotus Eclat and Lotus Elite of the mid-1970s being offered only in factory built versions. After the elegant but delicate Lotus Elite of the 1950s, which featured a complete fibreglass monocoque fitted with built-in steel pickup points for mounting major components, Lotus found critical and sales success in the 1960s with the Lotus Elan two seater developed to two plus two form. Lotus was notable for its use of fibreglass bodies, backbone chassis, overhead camshaft engines supplied by Coventry Climax but replaced by Lotus-Ford units. Lotus worked with Ford on a successful sports saloon. Another Lotus of the late 1960s and early 1970s was the two seater Lotus Europa intended only for the European market, which paired a backbone chassis and lightweight body with a mid mounted Renault engine upgraded to the Lotus-Ford twin cam unit as used in the Elan.
The Lotus Seven, originating in the 1950s as a simple, lightweight open two seater continued in production into the early 70s. Lotus sold the rights to produce the Seven to Caterham, which has continued to produce the car since then. By the mid-1970s, Lotus sought to move upmarket with the launch of the Elite and Eclat models, four seaters aimed at prosperous buyers, with features such as optional air conditioning and optional automatic transmissions; the mid engined line continued with the Lotus Esprit, to prove one of the company's longest lived and most iconic models. Lotus developed its own series of four cylinder DOHC engines, the Lotus 900 series, a V8, turbocharged versions of the engines appeared in the Esprit. Variants of the 900 series engine were supplied for the Jensen Healey sports car and the Sunbeam Lotus "hot hatchback". In the 1980s, Lotus collaborated with Vauxhall Motors to produce the Lotus Carlton, the fastest roadgoing Vauxhall car. By 1980, Group Lotus was in serious financial trouble.
Production had dropped from 1,200 units per year to a mere 383. The combined reasons were that the world was in the middle of an economic recession, sales in the key United States market had collapsed and there had been limited development of the model range. In early 1982, Chapman came to an agreement with Toyota to exchange intellectual property and applied expertise; this resulted in Lotus Engineering helping to develop the Mk2 Toyota Supra known as the Toyota Celica XX. Secondly, it allowed Lotus to launch the new Lotus Excel to replace the ageing Lotus Eclat. Using drivetrain and other components from Toyota enabled Lotus to sell the Excel for £1,109 less than the outgoing Eclat. Looking to re-enter the North American market, Chapman was approached by young law professor and investment banking consultant, Joe Bianco, who proposed a new and separate United States sales company for Lotus. By creating an unprecedented tax-incentived mechanism wherein each investor received a specially personalised Lotus Turbo Esprit, the new American company, Lotus Performance Cars Inc. was able to provide fresh capital to the Group Lotus in the United Kingdom.
Former Ferrari North America general manager John Spiech was brought in to run LPCI, which imported the remarkable Giugiaro-designed Turbo E
Halfords Group plc is a British retailer of car parts, car enhancement, tools and touring equipment and bicycles operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland. They provide MOT, service and repairs in the United Kingdom, through Halfords Autocentre. Halfords Group is listed on the London Stock Exchange. A similar retail company called Halfords exists in the Netherlands and Belgium; this only has historical ties to the British Halfords Group. The company was founded by Frederick Rushbrooke in Birmingham in 1892 as a wholesale ironmongery. In 1902, Rushbrooke moved to a store on Halford Street in Leicester, the company was named after this street, started selling cycling goods, it opened its 200th store in 1931, purchased the Birmingham Bicycle Company in 1945. In 1968, it opened its 300th store; the company became a part of Burmah Oil in 1965, following a takeover battle between Burmah and Smiths Industries. During this time, Denis Thatcher, husband of the future Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, was a non executive director.
The company was acquired by Ward White Group in 1983 and subsequently acquired by the Boots Group in 1991. In July 2002, it was taken over by CVC Capital Partners, in June 2004, it was floated on the London Stock Exchange. In February 2003, Halfords dropped the blue and red branding, in favour of a new black and orange logo. However, the'new' logo had been used since the previous year, but it did not come into effect until 2003. On 11 July 2005, Halfords entered into a Collaboration Agreement with Autobacs Seven Co. a Japan based car accessory retailer with chains of stores all over the world and, best known in other countries that do not have an Autobacs store for being the title sponsorship of Super GT and D1 Grand Prix. On 13 December 2005, Autobacs acquired 5% of the company at ¥7.5 billion. In June 2007, Halfords opened its first shop in a village near Prague. In the next two years, it opened five more stores in one in Poland. Expansion into Central Europe was seen as an opportunity because the cars on the road tend to be older there, so people would be more adept at car maintenance.
However, in March 2010, it terminated these activities after the losses made in the initial years were deemed too high, a new management wanted to focus on the domestic market. On 18 February 2010, the company announced a deal to purchase the Nationwide Autocentre MOT chain, from the private equity firm Phoenix; the plan was to rebrand the centres under the Halfords name, open another 200. As of April 2015, there are over 250 Halfords Autocentre garages dealing with MOTs, car repairs and servicing. In June 2014, Halfords acquired the British bicycle manufacturer Boardman Bikes Ltd. for undisclosed sum. In March 2015, it was announced that on 11 May 2015, Jill McDonald, head of McDonald's UK since 2010, would replace Matt Davies, as CEO. Halfords acquired Swansea based Tredz Bikes, an online retailer of premium bikes and cycling accessories, Wheelies, the largest provider of bicycle replacement for insurance companies in the United Kingdom, for £18.4m from founders Keith and Michael Jones on 24 May 2016.
The group turned over around £32m in the year to 29 February 2016, making a profit before financial charges of £2.4m. On 3 May 2017, Halfords announced that Jill McDonald, CEO, had resigned from the business to take up the position of Managing Director: Clothing, Home & Beauty at Marks & Spencer, she remained as CEO of Halfords until the end of her notice period in October 2017. On 13 September 2017, Halfords made an announcement that Dixons Carphone executive Graham Stapleton would be its new CEO, with effect from January 2018. Since 2010, Halfords Retail has operated around 465 stores, of which about 22 are in the Republic of Ireland and the others in the United Kingdom; the team won the BTCC overall Drivers Championship with driver Matt Neal. In March 2007, Halfords sponsored the Team Dynamics BTCC racing team under the name of Team Halfords and in January 2008, Halfords started sponsoring a mixed professional bike team, Team Halfords Bikehut, headed by Nicole Cooke. In November 2014, Halfords announced it was going to revive its Cycle Republic chain of specialist bicycle stores focused on urban cycling and commuting, reflected in the brand's styling.
The first store was opened in London on 12 December 2014. The company's shop estate twenty two shops, an ecommerce website operation offering an extended product range as well as financing options. In January 2018, the company's flagship store in Canary Wharf was opened by Olympian, Victoria Pendleton. For 2018, Cycle Republic sponsored the racing team Morvélo-Basso; the company provides event support at cyclo sportives around the country, including Etape Loch Ness, Palace2Palace and Velo Birmingham. In late 2018 the company announced a strategic partnership with the British folding bike manufacturer Brompton. Official website