Robert George Dylan Willis MBE, known as Bob Willis, is an English former cricketer, who played for Surrey, Northern Transvaal and England. A right-handed and aggressive fast bowler with a notably long run-up, Willis spearheaded several England bowling attacks between 1971 and 1984, across 90 Test matches in which he took 325 wickets at 25.20 runs per wicket, at the time second only to Dennis Lillee. He is England's fourth leading wicket taker, behind James Anderson, Ian Botham, Stuart Broad. Willis took 899 first-class wickets overall, although from 1975 onwards he bowled with constant pain, having had surgery on both knees, he continued to find success, taking a Test career best eight wickets for 43 runs in the 1981 Ashes series against Australia, one of the all-time best Test bowling performances. He was Wisden Cricketer of the Year for 1978. In addition to the Test arena, Willis played 64 One Day International matches for his country, taking 80 wickets, was a prolific List-A cricketer with 421 wickets overall at 20.18.
With the bat, Willis made little impression as a tail-ender with a best Test score of 28 not-out. Willis captained the England team in 18 Tests and 28 ODI matches between June 1982 and March 1984. Under Willis' captaincy England won seven, lost five and drew six Tests, won 16 of the ODIs. Botham recalled Willis as "a tremendous trier.. A great team-man and an inspiration", as well as the "only world-class fast bowler in my time as an England player." The editor of Wisden wrote of him in similar terms: "His indomitable service to England is handsomely reflected in his great collection of Test wickets. Although beset with aches and pains, he never spared himself when bowling for his country."Retiring in 1984 during a Test series against the West Indies, Willis found work as a commentator with Sky Sports. He formed a noted commentary partnership with Botham, he remains an often-heard broadcaster, a published writer and an occasional critic of the modern game. Willis was born in Sunderland, County Durham, grew up in the Surrey village of Stoke d'Abernon near Cobham, having moved there at the age of six.
His father was an employee of the BBC, Willis had an elder brother named David with whom he played cricket in the garden, an elder sister. In 1965, Willis added his third name "Dylan" by deed poll in honour of American musician Bob Dylan, of whom he is a fan. Willis was educated at the Royal Grammar School, playing his early cricket for Stoke d'Abernon Cricket Club, where he became Vice President and Life Member, two seasons for the Cobham Avorians, he was an avid schoolboy footballer, but was not a natural athlete and loathed rugby, the school's dominant sport. Willis recalled in 2009 that during his school years "in the winter when the muscled brethren were playing, I used to play football with the school old boys; this taught me how to drink cider and vomit it up on Surbiton station, other life-altering lessons." Willis' bowling potential was rewarded with selection for Surrey Schools and Surrey Colts, under the directorship of Watcyn Evans, who would become a close friend. In 1968, Willis accepted an invitation to join Middlesex and Surrey Young Cricketers on tour in Pakistan, used this opportunity to further hone his skills.
Upon his return he made early appearances for Surrey's Second XI, his first being on 26 August against Worcestershire's Seconds. Willis, 19 years of age, took one wicket for 48 runs in the first innings, bowled four wicketless overs in the second, he was not called on to bat at all. Two days he faced Glamorgan and took three wickets, he played several further Second XI matches through May and June 1969, before his first-class debut on 6 August. Scotland was touring England that season and had beaten Warwickshire. Willis took three wickets for 13 runs from 13 overs in his first innings, two for 37 in his second, to help Surrey to victory by an innings and 97 runs. Willis went on to take 22 first-class wickets that season at 17.22 from six matches, placing him 15th in the national averages for that season's County Championship. Surrey came third in the competition that year. Willis played two List-A games, but took only one wicket at 52.00. Willis had thus earned a second season at Surrey, in 1970 played 14 Championship matches, taking 40 first-class wickets at 28.37, 31 one day wickets at 14.65.
Surrey came fifth in the Championship that year. He achieved a noteworthy performance in the Gillette Cup quarter-final against Middlesex. In a high-scoring match, Surrey made 280 for the loss of five wickets. Middlesex appeared to be coasting to victory when they reached 240–3, but Willis turned the game, they collapsed and finished on 272–9. Willis won the Man of the Match award. Despite this, Surrey's preference for Geoff Arnold and Robin Jackman kept Willis out of the side on occasions, he prepared to spend the winter employed at the Crystal Palace Recreation Centre while playing as a goalkeeper for local football club Cobham. However, Ray Illingworth and Colin Cowdrey and vice captain of England's Test side, contacted him via telephone to ask him to travel to Australia and join the current England tour there. Willis, who knew that Illingworth and Cowdrey had little knowledge of his bowling credited his call up to the influence of senior member of the touring party John Edrich, Willis' long-term friend and Surrey tea
New Zealand national cricket team
The New Zealand national cricket team, nicknamed the Black Caps, played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket. From 1930 New Zealand had to wait until 1956, more than 26 years, for its first Test victory, against the West Indies at Eden Park in Auckland, they played their first ODI in the 1972–73 season against Pakistan in Christchurch. The current Test, One-day and Twenty20 captain is Kane Williamson, who replaced Brendon McCullum who announced his retirement in late December 2015; the national team is organised by New Zealand Cricket. The New Zealand cricket team became known as the Black Caps in January 1998, after its sponsor at the time, Clear Communications, held a competition to choose a name for the team. Official New Zealand Cricket sources typeset the nickname as BLACKCAPS; this is one of many national team nicknames related to the All Blacks. As of 12 March 2019, New Zealand have played 1309 Internationals, winning 496, losing 594, tying 11 and drawing 165 matches while 43 matches ended yielding no result.
The team is ranked 2nd in Tests, 3rd in ODIs and 6th in T20Is by the ICC. New Zealand defeated South Africa in the semi final of Cricket World Cup 2015, their first win in the a world cup semi final and hence they made their maiden appearance in a World Cup Final; the reverend Henry Williams provided history with the first report of a game of cricket in New Zealand, when he wrote in his diary in December 1832 about boys in and around Paihia on Horotutu Beach playing cricket. In 1835, Charles Darwin and HMS Beagle called into the Bay of Islands on its epic circumnavigation of the Earth and Darwin witnessed a game of cricket played by freed Māori slaves and the son of a missionary at Waimate North. Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle wrote: several young men redeemed by the missionaires from slavery were employed on the farm. In the evening I saw a party of them at cricket; the first recorded game of cricket in New Zealand took place in Wellington in December 1842. The Wellington Spectator reports a game on 28 December 1842 played by a "Red" team and a "Blue" team from the Wellington Club.
The first recorded match was reported by the Examiner in Nelson between the Surveyors and Nelson in March 1844. The first team to tour New Zealand was Parr's all England XI in 1863–64. Between 1864 and 1914, 22 foreign teams toured New Zealand. England sent Australia 15 and one from Fiji. On 15–17 February 1894 the first team representing New Zealand played New South Wales at Lancaster Park in Christchurch. New South Wales won by 160 runs. New South Wales returned again in 1895–96 and New Zealand won the solitary game by 142 runs, its first victory; the New Zealand Cricket Council was formed towards the end of 1894. New Zealand played its first two internationals in 1904–05 against a star-studded Australia team containing such players as Victor Trumper, Warwick Armstrong and Clem Hill. Rain saved New Zealand from a thrashing in the first match, but not the second, which New Zealand lost by an innings and 358 runs – the second largest defeat in New Zealand first-class history. In 1927 NZ toured England.
They played 26 first class matches against county sides. They managed to beat Worcestershire, Glamorgan and Derbyshire. On the strength of the performances of this tour New Zealand was granted Test status. In 1929/30 the M. C. C played 4 Tests all of 3 days in duration. New Zealand lost its first Test match but drew the next 3. In the second Test Stewie Dempster and Jackie Mills put on 276 for the first wicket; this is still the highest partnership for New Zealand against England. New Zealand first played South Africa in 1931–32 in a three match series but were unable to secure Test matches against any teams other than England before World War II ended all Test cricket for 7 years. A Test tour by Australia, planned for February and March 1940, was cancelled after the outbreak of the war. New Zealand's first Test after the war was against Australia in 1945/46; this game was not considered a "Test" at the time but it was granted Test status retrospectively by the International Cricket Council in March 1948.
The New Zealand players who appeared in this match did not appreciate this move by the ICC as New Zealand were dismissed for 42 and 54. The New Zealand Cricket Council's unwillingness to pay Australian players a decent allowance to tour New Zealand ensured that this was the only Test Australia played against New Zealand between 1929 and 1972. In 1949 New Zealand sent one of its best sides to England, it contained Martin Donnelly, John R. Reid and Jack Cowie. However, 3-day Test matches ensured. Many have regarded the 1949 tour of England among New Zealand's best touring performances. All four tests were high-scoring despite being draws and Martin Donnelly's 206 at Lord's hailed as one of the finest innings seen there. Despite being winless, New Zealand did not lose a test either. Prior to this, only the legendary 1948 Australian team, led by the great Don Bradman, had achieved this. New Zealand played its first matches against the West Indies in 1951–52, Pakistan and India in 1955/56. In 1954/55 New Zealand recorded the lowest innings total, 26 against England.
The following season New Zealand achieved its first Test victory. The first 3 Tests of a 4 Test series were won by the West Indies but New Zealand won the fourth to notch up its first Test victory, it had taken them 26 years to attain. In the next 20 years New Zealand won only seven more Tests. For most of this period New Zealand lacked a class bowler to lead their attack although they had two excellent batsmen in Bert Sutcliffe and Glenn Turner and a great all-rounder in John R. Reid. Reid capt
Norman Alan Stewart Gibson was an English journalist and radio broadcaster, best known for his work in connection with cricket, though he sometimes covered football and rugby union. At various times Alan Gibson was a university lecturer, poet, BBC radio producer, Baptist lay preacher and Liberal Party parliamentary candidate. Alan Gibson was born at Sheffield in Yorkshire, but the family moved to Leyton, on the north-eastern outskirts of London, when he was seven, subsequently to the West Country, where he attended Taunton School. Apart from his time at university, he spent all his subsequent life in that region, most of his cricket reporting being of Somerset and Gloucestershire matches. After school he went to Queen's College, where he gained a First in history and was elected President of the Oxford Union, though he never took office because of being called for National Service. Gibson was a member of the Liberal Party and served as President of the Falmouth and Camborne Liberal Association.
He stood as parliamentary candidate for that constituency at the 1959 General election but came third. He was a travelling lecturer with University College, before getting a job with the West Region of the BBC Radio Home Service; that led him into cricket commentary on matches in the region, though he did not do much of this until leaving the BBC staff and becoming a freelance. He graduated to national broadcasts, including appearances on Test Match Special from 1962 to 1975, he was a presenter of the BBC West regional TV news magazine programme Westward Ho! during 1953. Between 1955 and 1966, with his fellow compere Derek Jones, he presented a Saturday morning radio programme for the West Region called Good Morning!, interspersing popular music with unscripted chat between the presenters. He was the narrator for the short documentary film Falmouth for Orders in 1965 and for three episodes of the BBC TV natural history series The World About Us between 1968 and 1973. Subsequently he did some TV cricket commentary on county matches for HTV.
He wrote on cricket at various times for The Sunday Telegraph, The Guardian, The Spectator and The Cricketer. From 1967 until 1986 he was a cricket reporter for The Times, he reported rugby union, in print and on radio. He appeared on the radio shows Round Britain Quiz. In 1961 he joined the recently-launched Westward Television to present Westward Diary after "he had been involved in a disagreement with the West Region authorities of the BBC over a comment he is alleged to have made in a two-way records programme with Derek Jones"; as a cricket commentator he was articulate and drily humorous. On a Saturday afternoon sport programme, Neil Durden-Smith once mentioned that he had been having tea with the Bishop of Leicester. On being cued in, Gibson began his commentary stint with: "No episcopal visitations here." His cricket writing for The Times was light-hearted concentrating more on his journey to the match than on the cricket itself. On at least one occasion his day's report was published though rain had prevented any cricket from taking place.
In his pieces he coined the descriptions "the Sage of Longparish" for his colleague John Woodcock, "the Demon of Frome" for Colin Dredge of Somerset, the Old Bald Blighter for Brian Close and "the Shoreditch Sparrow" for Robin Jackman. Woodcock said concerning their reports for The Times: "I write about the cricket, Alan writes about'A Day at the Cricket'." His cricket books, though still containing plenty of humour, were more serious affairs and well researched. In 1975 he was chosen to give the address at the memorial service for Sir Neville Cardus, held at St Paul's, Covent Garden; this was printed in the following year's edition of Wisden Cricketer's Almanack. He was elected the first President of the Cricket Writers' Club in 1982. Not a robust man, he had spells of depression, once spending some time in a psychiatric hospital, he had a drink problem. His reports for The Times referred to his regular appearances at'The Star' public house in High Littleton, where he lived, reports of matches involving Gloucestershire invariably mentioned the GRIP – the Gloriously Red-headed Imperturbable Pamela, the barmaid in the main pavilion bar at the County Ground at Bristol.
He married twice: to Olwen Thomas in 1948 and to Rosemary King in 1968. Both marriages produced both ended in divorce, he died at Taunton in Somerset. Jackson's Year: The Test Matches of 1905, Sportsman Book Club, 1966. A Mingled Yarn, Collins, 1976. ISBN 0-00-216115-X Growing Up With Cricket - Some Memories of a Sporting Education, George Allen & Unwin, 1985. ISBN 0-04-796099-X The Cricket Captains of England, The Pavilion Library, 1989. ISBN 1-85145-390-3 West Country Treasury: A Compendium of Lore and Literature and Places, Ex Libris Press, 1989, ISBN 0-948578-19-X Of Didcot and the Demon: The Cricketing Times of Alan Gibson, Fairfield Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9560702-5-8 Wisden obituary Another Wisden piece Cricinfo profile Gibson, Alan. Growing Up With Cricket - Some Memories of a Sporting Education, George Allen & Unwin, 1985. ISBN 0-04-796099-X
Sir Richard John Hadlee is a New Zealand former cricketer, regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers and all-rounders in cricketing history. Hadlee was knighted in 1990 for services to cricket, he is a former chairman of the New Zealand board of selectors. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the second greatest Test bowler of all time. In March 2009, Hadlee was commemorated as one of the Twelve Local Heroes, a bronze bust of him was unveiled outside the Christchurch Arts Centre. On 3 April 2009, Sir Richard Hadlee was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Sir Richard is the most prominent member of the Hadlee cricket playing family. Richard is the son of Walter Hadlee, the brother of Dayle and Barry Hadlee, his former wife Karen played international cricket for New Zealand. He was born on 3 July 1951 at Christchurch. In June 2018, Hadlee underwent tumor removal surgery. A bowling all-rounder, in an 86-Test career he took 431 wickets, was the first bowler to pass 400 wickets, with an average of 22.29, made 3124 Test runs at 27.16, including two centuries and 15 fifties.
Hadlee is rated by many experts as the greatest exponent of bowling with the new ball. He was the original Sultan of Swing. Hadlee was seen as one of the finest fast bowlers of his time, despite the contemporaneous presence of Dennis Lillee, Imran Khan, Andy Roberts, Michael Holding, Joel Garner, Kapil Dev, Wasim Akram, Waqar Younis and Malcolm Marshall among others; as one of the four top all rounders of his time, the others being Imran Khan, Kapil Dev and Ian Botham, Hadlee had the best bowling average of the four, but the lowest batting average. Born in Christchurch, Hadlee made his first class debut for Canterbury in 1971/72 and his test match debut in 1973 – on both occasions, his first delivery was dispatched to the boundary. Hadlee was an inconsistent performer at test level for several years. In 1978, Hadlee helped New Zealand to a historic first win over England by taking 6 for 26 in England's second innings, bowling the visitors out for 64 chasing a target of 137. In 1979/80, New Zealand faced the West Indies in a home test series at a time when the West Indies were a formidable world cricket power.
In the first test in Dunedin New Zealand achieved a shock 1-wicket win, helped by Hadlee's 11 wickets in the game. In the second test, Hadlee scored his maiden test century, helping New Zealand draw the test and win the series 1–0; the result was the start of a 12-year unbeaten home record for New Zealand in test match series. Hadlee was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1980 Queen's Birthday Honours. A tour to England in 1983 saw New Zealand register their first test win on English soil, at Headingley; the match was remarkable for Hadlee's match return of 0 for 89, a unusual occurrence in a New Zealand victory during his career. England won the 4 test series 3–1. In the return test series in New Zealand in 1984, New Zealand completed a remarkable three-day innings victory over England at Christchurch, in which England were dismissed for less than 100 in both of their innings; the match was notable for Hadlee's superb all-round performance – he took 8 wickets in the match, scored a rapid-fire 99 in New Zealand's only innings.
These efforts led him to achieve the number 1 ranking in ICC Test Bowling Rankings for the year 1984. 1985/86 was the beginning of a period in which Hadlee developed from a good fast bowler to a great one. In New Zealand's tour to Australia, an outstanding all-round performance helped destroy the home team in the first test at Brisbane, beginning with a personal test best 9 for 52 in Australia's first innings. A batting effort of 54 combined with 6 more wickets in Australia's second innings, helped New Zealand to a crushing innings victory. Hadlee followed this up with 7 wickets in a loss in the second test, 11 wickets in a New Zealand victory in the third test, giving his country their first series win on Australian soil and a personal haul of 33 wickets in 3 tests. In the first test of the return series in New Zealand, Hadlee took his 300th test wicket by trapping Australian captain Allan Border LBW; the series was won 1–0 by New Zealand by way of a victory in the third test at Eden Park. In 1986 Hadlee helped New Zealand to a 1–0 series win in England, their first over that country in England.
Hadlee's outstanding personal performance in the second test at Nottingham where he took 10 wickets and scored 68 in New Zealand's first innings powered his team to victory. In this test Hadlee a controversial character, added to this side of his reputation when he felled England wicketkeeper and Nottinghampshire teammate Bruce French with a nasty bouncer. During the New Zealand v West Indies test at Christchurch in March 1987, Hadlee and captain Jeremy Coney had a disagreement in the dressing room prior to the game, it progressed to not talking to each other on the field, communicating through John Wright at mid-on. In April 1987, New Zealand traveled to Sri Lanka, his 151 not out in the first test helped New Zealand to save the game.
A delivery or ball in cricket is a single action of bowling a cricket ball toward the batsman. During play of the game, a member of the fielding team is designated as the bowler, bowls deliveries toward the batsman. Six legal balls in a row constitutes an over, after which a different member of the fielding side takes over the role of bowler for the next over; the bowler delivers the ball from his or her end of the pitch toward the batsman standing at the opposite wicket at the other end of the pitch. Bowlers can be either right-handed; this approach to their delivery, in addition to their decision of bowling around the wicket or over the wicket, is knowledge of which the umpire and the batsman are to be made aware. Deliveries can be made by spin bowlers. Fast bowlers tend to make the ball either move off the pitch or move through the air, while spinners make the ball "turn" either toward a right-handed batsman or away from him; the ball can bounce at different distances from the batsman, this is called the length of the delivery.
It can range from a bouncer to a yorker. There are many different types of delivery; these deliveries vary by: technique, the hand the bowler bowls with, use of the fingers, use of the seam, how the ball is positioned in the hand, where the ball is pitched on the wicket, the speed of the ball, the tactical intent of the bowler. Leg spin deliveries and mirror equivalents for left arm unorthodox spin: Leg break Googly Topspinner Flipper Slider Flicker ball Off spin deliveries and mirror equivalents for left arm orthodox spin: Off break Doosra Arm ball Topspinner Carrom ball Teesra Fast bowling deliveries: Bouncer Inswinger Reverse swing Leg cutter Off cutter Outswinger Yorker Beamer Knuckleball Slower ball The variations in different types of delivery, as well as variations caused by directing the ball with differing line and length, are key weapons in a bowler's arsenal. Throughout an over, the bowler will choose a sequence of deliveries designed to attack the batsman's concentration and technique, in an effort to get him out.
The bowler varies the amount of loop and pace imparted to various deliveries to try to cause the batsman to misjudge and make a mistake. As the crease has a width, the bowler can change the angle from which he delivers to the batsman in an attempt to induce a misjudgement; the bowler decides what type of delivery to bowl next, without consultation or informing any other member of his team. Sometimes, the team captain will offer advice or issue a direct order regarding what deliveries to bowl, based on his observations of the batsman and the strategic state of the game. Another player who offers advice to the bowler is the wicket-keeper, since he has a unique view of the batsman and may be able to spot weaknesses of technique. Another piece of information important for the bowlers to consider prior to their deliveries is the state of pitch; the pitch is a natural ground and its state is subjected to variation over the course of the cricket, some of which are multi-day events such as test matches.
Spinners find an old pitch, one, used, more suitable to their deliveries rather than a fresh pitch, one that hasn't come under use as much such as a pitch at the start of the match. While a bowler, with the use of variations in his/her delivery aims to target the concentration of batsmen as well as their skill and technique of batting, anticipation of the delivery is crucial for the batsman, as emphasised by Jodi Richardson. Richardson reveals the world class batsman's dilemma while facing fast bowlers, stating that the time between the batsmen's anticipation of the trajectory of the ball and positioning themselves for the appropriate shot can be twice as long as the interval between the ball leaving the bowler's hand and reaching the batsman's crease. Side by side, Richardson alludes to the research undertaken by Dr. Sean Müller in Australia, funded by Cricket Australia's Centre of Excellence; the results of the research demonstrated the importance of anticipation of the delivery for batsmen in cricket.
They revealed that experienced batsmen possessed a unique ability which enabled them to adjust their feet as well as their positioning on the crease accordingly based upon their reading of the body language and movements enacted by the bowler prior to the release of the ball. This foresight that batsmen use while on the crease is referred to as'advance information' by Richardson. Moreover, Müller's research outlined that the presence of this'advance information' was not as evident among the lesser skilled batsmen in comparison to the experienced ones. Underarm or lob bowling was the original cricket delivery style,but had died out before the 20th century, although it was used until 1910 by George Simpson-Hayward, remained a legal delivery type. On 1 February 1981, when Australia was playing New Zealand in a One Day International cricket match, New Zealand needed six runs to tie the match from the final ball. Greg Chappell, the Australian captain, ordered the bowler to bowl underarm, rolling the ball along the ground to prevent the Number 10 New Zealand batsman any chance of hitting a six from the last ball to tie the match.
After the game, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Rob Muldoon, described it as "the most disgusting incident I can recall in the history of cricket." At the time, underarm deliveries were legal, but as a direct result of the incident, underarm bowling was banned in limi
PCA Player of the Year
The Reg Hayter Cup for the NatWest PCA Player of the Year is an annual cricket award. It is presented to the player, adjudged to have been the best of the year in English county cricket; the award has been given since the 1970 season and the winner is chosen by a vote amongst the members of the players' trade union, the Professional Cricketers' Association. With the exception of the first year, when a joint award was made, the award has been bestowed upon one individual each season; the winning player is awarded the Reg Hayter Cup, named after a sports journalist, a member of the Marylebone Cricket Club, a Lord's Taverner, a life-member of Surrey County Cricket Club. The award is well regarded by its recipients. Seven players have won the award more than once, but only Sir Richard Hadlee and Marcus Trescothick have won been named Player of the Year on three occasions. Two players, Andrew Flintoff and John Lever, have won the award in consecutive years. Representatives of all eighteen first-class cricket counties have won the award.
Gloucestershire players have collected the award most doing so on six occasions, while four of the counties have only had one winner. On nineteen occasions, the PCA Player of the Year has been named one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the Year for that season, in 2005 Flintoff won the PCA award in the same year as being voted BBC Sports Personality of the Year; the Cricket Writers' Club County Championship Player of the Year was introduced in 2012, two of the three winners of that award have been the PCA Player of the Year at the same time. Cricket Writers' Club Young Cricketer of the Year General "PCA Player of the Year". Professional Cricketers' Association. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015. Specific
Punjab Province (British India)
Punjab spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown; the province comprised five administrative divisions, Jullundur, Lahore and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests; the name Punjab is a compound of two Persian words Panj and āb and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.
Punjab means " Five Waters" referring to the rivers: Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Chenab being the largest. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces. In total Punjab had an area of 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.
It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province. On 21 February 1849, the East India Company decisively defeated the Sikh Empire at the Battle of Gujrat bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Following the victory, the East India Company annexed the Punjab on 2 April 1849 and incorporated it within British India; the province whilst nominally under the control of the Bengal Presidency was administratively independent. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers; the Board was led by Sir Henry Lawrence, who had worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar and consisted of his younger brother John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel. Below the Board, a group of acclaimed officers collectively known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" assisted in the administration of the newly acquired province.
The Board was abolished by Lord Dalhousie in 1853. Recognising the cultural diversity of the Punjab, the Board maintained a strict policy of non-interference in regard to religious and cultural matters. Sikh aristocrats were given patronage and pensions and groups in control of historical places of worship were allowed to remain in control. In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. Delhi was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab in 1859; the British colonial government took this action to punish the city for the important role that the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, the city as a whole played in the 1857 Rebellion. Sir John Lawrence Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court; the direct administrative functions of the Government were carried by the Lieutenant-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries.
They were members of the Indian Civil Service. The territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, 43 Princely States; each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner. Each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib tahsildar. In 1885 the Punjab administration began an ambitious plan to transform over six million acres of barren waste land in central and western Punjab into irrigable agricultural land; the creation of canal colonies was designed to relieve demographic pressures in the central parts of the province, increase productivity and revenues, create a loyal support amongst peasant landholders. The colonisation resulted in an agricultural revolution in the province, rapid industrial growth, the resettlement of over one million Punjabis in the new areas. A number of towns were created or saw significant development in the colonies, such as Lyallpur and Montgomery. Colonisation led to the canal irrigated area of the Punj