Greek Dark Ages
Around then, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation, in Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler,900 BC onwards, and evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al Mina. The Mycenaean civilization started to collapse from 1200 BC, made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were on the move, scattered in war, no country could stand before their arms…. Their league was Peleset, Shekelesh and Weshesh, a similar assemblage of peoples may have attempted to invade Egypt twice, once during the reign of Merneptah, about 1208 BC, and again during the reign of Ramesses III, about 1178 BC. Writing in the Linear B script ceased particularly because the economy had crashed.
The population of Greece was reduced, and the world of organized state armies, officials, most of the information about the period comes from burial sites and the grave goods contained within them. The fragmented and autonomous cultures of reduced complexity are noted for such diversity of their cultures in pottery styles, burial practices. The pottery style, Proto- Geometric signaled the loss of previous designs that were more complex and these newer designs were simpler, including only lines and curves, signaling a simplified society. Generalizations about the Dark Age Society are generally considered false, because the various cultures throughout Greece cannot be grouped into a large Dark Age Society category. Tholos tombs are found in early Iron Age Thessaly and in Crete but not in general elsewhere, there was still farming, weaving and pottery but at a lower level of output and for local use in local styles. Better glazes were achieved by higher temperature firing of clay, the overall trend was toward simpler, less intricate pieces and fewer resources being devoted to the creation of beautiful art.
From 1050, many local iron industries appeared, and by 900. Cyprus was inhabited by a mix of Pelasgians and Phoenicians, joined during this period by the first Greek settlements. Together with distinctively Greek Euboean ceramic wares, it was exported and is found in Levantine sites, including Tyre. Cypriot metalwork was exchanged in Crete and it is likely that Greece during this period was divided into independent regions organized by kinship groups and the oikoi or households, the origins of the poleis. Excavations of Dark Age communities such as Nichoria in the Peloponnese have shown how a Bronze Age town was abandoned in 1150 BC, at this time there were only around forty families living there with plenty of good farming land and grazing for cattle
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC. This roughly coincides with the date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome. In India, ancient history includes the period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China. Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world and the study of source texts, primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artefacts in an effort to interpret, archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived.
The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, the city of Pompeii, an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans. The Terracotta Army, the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China, the discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans. The discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann, most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquitys own historians. Although it is important to take account the bias of each ancient author. Some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Suetonius, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history, the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, the Roman Empire was one of the ancient worlds most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived, prehistory is the period before written history. The early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago, the controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa, 60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reached Australia
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
Fox published a work, The Imperial Animal, with Lionel Tiger in 1970, that was one of the earliest to advocate and demonstrate an evolutionary approach to the understanding of human social behaviour. His daughter Kate Fox wrote the bestselling book Watching the English and his daughter Anne Fox is the founder. In 2013 Fox was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, robin Fox was born in the village of Haworth in the Yorkshire Dales, at the nadir of the Great Depression in 1934. He had very little schooling during the Second World War, moving all over England with his soldier father, and his mother, an army nursing aide. After a narrow escape from death by bombing, he pursued his education through the Army, the Church of England, public libraries. This included Philosophy and Social Anthropology, with influence from Karl Popper, Ernest Gellner. He concentrated on the Pueblo of Cochiti, on the Rio Grande, a revised version of the thesis with his analysis of the evolution of Pueblo kinship systems and the “Crow-Omaha” question, was published as The Keresan Bridge, A Problem in Pueblo Ethnology,1967.
He gave the first primate behaviour and human evolution lectures in the department and he and Tiger wrote a paper on “The Zoological Perspective in Social Science”. This was one of the first salvos in the debate on the issue that was to flare up in the sixties and seventies. He added to it with his Malinowski Memorial Lecture of 1967 on “Aspects of Hominid Behavioral Evolution, during this time he saw three daughters into the world, Kate and Anne. Rutgers University offered him a chair of anthropology in 1967, and this has grown to be a major research department and graduate program. In 2009 its two degree programs, evolutionary anthropology and cultural anthropology, were ranked in the top ten in the country and he and Tiger completed their joint work, The Imperial Animal, in 1970, a book that contributed to the nature/nurture debate of the next few decades. He spent a year at Stanford University School of Medicine as an NIMH fellow, studying behavioral biology. The list of their grantees is a Who’s Who in the development of bio-social science.
They worked for years with the Foundation, and during that time he did original research with Dieter Steklis among macaque monkeys on an island off Bermuda. He produced several books including Encounter with Anthropology Biosocial Anthropology, The Red Lamp of Incest, in 1985 Rutgers made him a University Professor, the highest honor it can give a faculty member. He wrote The Search for Society his “equal time response” to the anthropology of Clifford Geertz, and The Violent Imagination. Fox was a Senior Overseas Scholar at St John’s College, the first was Reproduction and Succession, relating his part in both the appeal of a Mormon policeman to the Supreme Court, and the famous “Baby M” surrogate mother trials in New Jersey
Greek literature refers to writings composed in areas of Greek influence throughout the period in which the Greek-speaking people have existed. Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in an Ancient Greek dialect and this literature ranges from the oldest surviving written works until works from approximately the fifth century CE. This time period is divided into the Preclassical, Hellenistic, Preclassical Greek literature primarily revolved around myths and include the works of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Classical period saw the dawn of drama and history. Three philosophers are especially notable, Plato, during the Roman era, significant contributions were made in a variety of subjects, including history and the sciences. Byzantine literature refers to literature of the Byzantine Empire written in Atticizing, chronicles, distinct from historics, arose in this period. Encyclopedias flourished in this period, Modern Greek literature refers to literature written in common Modern Greek.
The Cretan Renaissance poem Erotokritos is one of the most significant works from time period. Adamantios Korais and Rigas Feraios are two of the most notable figures, Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek dialects. These works range from the oldest surviving works in the Greek language until works from the fifth century CE. The Greek language arose from the language, roughly two-thirds of its words can be derived from various reconstructions of the tongue. The Greeks created poetry before making use of writing for literary purposes, poems created in the Preclassical period were meant to be sung or recited. Most poems focused on myths, legends that were part folktale and comedies emerged around 600 BCE. At the beginning of Greek literature stand the works of Homer, the Iliad, though dates of composition vary, these works were fixed around 800 BCE or after. Another significant figure was the poet Hesiod and his two surviving works are Works and Days and Theogony.
During the classical period, many of the genres of western literature became more prominent, the two major lyrical poets were Sappho and Pindar. Of the hundreds of written and performed during this time period. These plays are authored by Aeschylus and Euripides, the comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus. These plays were full of obscenity and insult, the surviving plays by Aristophanes are a treasure trove of comic presentation
Peter Brown (historian)
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University. He is credited with having brought coherence to the field of Late Antiquity and his work has concerned, in particular, the religious culture of the Roman Empire and early medieval Europe, and the relation between religion and society. Peter Brown was born in Dublin, Ireland, to a Scots-Irish Protestant family, when asked to comment on his intellectual formation, Brown has indicated that he completed his public schooling a year early, returning to Ireland in 1952, the year he turned 17. It was in Dublin that he read Mikhail Rostovtzeffs The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire and he went on to read Modern History at New College, from 1953 to 1956. In his final year, he undertook a Special Subject on The Age of Augustine. Following his graduation Brown began, but did not complete, a thesis under the external supervision of Arnaldo Momigliano. At a time when it was possible to remain in the College after the Prize Fellowship, All Souls College subsequently elected him a Research Fellow in 1963.
The Modern History Faculty of the University of Oxford appointed him a Special Lecturer in 1970 and he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1971. Brown left Oxford to become Professor of Modern History and Head of the Department of History at Royal Holloway College in the University of London. He subsequently left Britain to become Professor of Classics and History in the University of California at Berkeley and Philip and Beulah Rollins Professor of History at Princeton University. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1979, a Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America in 1988, and a Resident Member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995. Before joining the faculty at UC Berkeley and Princeton, Brown held visiting professorships at both institutions, at UC Berkeley in 1975, and at Princeton in 1983-6. He has held visiting professorships at UCLA and in Italy, other engagements as a visiting teacher have taken Brown to Toronto in the 1970s and, since 2000, to Hungary and Iceland.
At Princeton, Brown was given the Presidents Award for Distinguished Teaching in 2000, a significant number of his former students in the UK and US have gone on to substantive academic posts. Brown has delivered several named lecture series, Richard Lectures at the University of Virginia. He has delivered a multitude of named single lectures and these include national academic occasions in the UK and US, the Raleigh Lecture in History in the British Academy, and the Charles Homer Haskins Lecture for the American Council of Learned Societies. In 2007, Brown gave a talk at the opening of the Oxford Centre for Late Antiquity. In 2015 he was hosted by the Group for the Study of Late Antiquity at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Brown has frequently been a keynote speaker at conferences and congresses
G. E. M. de Ste. Croix
Croix known informally as Croicks was a British historian who specialised in examining the classical era from Marxist perspective. He was Fellow and Tutor in Ancient History at New College, Oxford from 1953-1977, Croix was born in Macau and was educated at Clifton College, in Bristol. He left school at the age of 15 and become an articled clerk and he was admitted as a solicitor in 1932 and practised until 1940. He had a strong physique and was a tennis player. During World War II he joined the Royal Air Force, and was stationed for a time in Egypt, after the war ended, de Ste. Croix studied ancient history at University College, London, in 1950-53 he taught at the London School of Economics and Birkbeck College, before being appointed a fellow of New College, Oxford. He lived at Oxford for the rest of his life, within the circles of classical scholarship, de Ste. Croix — as an exponent of a Marxian epistemological approach — was frequently involved in debate with Sir Moses Finley, the two often exchanged letters and their disagreements were always civil.
Croix is best known for his books The Origins of the Peloponnesian War and he was a noted contributor on the issue of Christian persecution between the reigns of the Roman Emperors Trajan and Diocletian. Of particular note in this regard are the written by de Ste. Croix and A. N. Sherwin-White, each challenging the opinions of the other, there were four in total, displaying just the sort of light-hearted banter evident in de Ste. The article was based on a paper The Alleged Unpopularity of the Athenian Empire delivered to the London Classical Association on 14 June 1950. Most scholarship hitherto had considered the decree to involve economic sanctions by excluding the Megarian state, Croix instead interpreted it as a religious sanction. This argument has not achieved general acceptance among historians, the Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World was an attempt to establish the validity of a historical materialist analysis of the ancient Greek and Roman world. It covers the period roughly from Greek pre-classical times to the Arab conquest, after an expository plan chapter II begins with an apologia of De Ste.
Croixs understanding of basic classical Marxian theory and some specific terms, the remainder of Part One is a detailed analysis of these concepts applied to the Ancient Greek World. There is a discussion of the significance of the mode by which surplus value is generated. Croix makes the point that the mode of extraction is not necessarily the same as the mode of production engaged in by a majority of the population
New College, Oxford
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, the name of the college is The Warden. The name New College, soon came to be used following its completion in 1386 to distinguish it from the existing college of St. Mary. In 2013, the college ranked second in the Norrington Table, having been ranked third in the 2011-12 tables, maintaining its place from 2010 to 2011, New College jumped to 1st after the 2012-13 academic year. The college is between Holywell Street and New College Lane, next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queens College, the colleges sister college is Kings College, Cambridge. The college is one of the main foundations of the University of Oxford. The college choir is regarded as one of the choirs of the world. New College is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford University, as of June 2015, it had a financial endowment in excess of £190 million, and net assets of over £220 million.
In 1379 William of Wykeham had purchased land in Oxford and was able to apply to King Richard II for a charter to allow the foundation of a de novo. In his own charter of foundation, Wykeham declared the college to consist of a warden, the site on which the college would be built was acquired from several sources, including the City of Oxford, Merton College and Queens College. This land had been the City Ditch, a haunt of thieves, on 5 March 1380, the first stone of New College was laid. By 14 April 1386, the college entered formal possession of the buildings, Wykeham set to drawing up the statutes of the college, with a first draft presented in 1390. The statutes were not completed until the year before Wykeham died, the coat of arms of the college is one adopted by William Wykeham. It features two black chevrons, one said to have been added when he became a bishop and the other representing his skill with architecture, Winchester College uses the same arms. The grand collection of buildings is a testament to Williams experience in administering both ecclesiastical and civil institutions as the Bishop of Winchester and High Chancellor of England.
Both Winchester College and New College were originally established for the education of priests, William of Wykeham ordained that there were to be ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers on the foundation of the college. The original choristers were accommodated within the walls of the college under one schoolmaster, since the school has expanded and in 1903 moved to New College School in Savile Road. In August 1651, New College was fortified by the Parliamentarian forces, in 1685, Monmouths rebellion involved Robert Sewster, a fellow of the college, who commanded a company of university volunteers
Classics or Classical Studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Graeco-Roman world, particularly of its languages, and literature but it encompasses the study of Graeco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and it has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education. The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning belonging to the highest class of citizens, the word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality, for example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts classicus and proletarius writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a meaning, referring to pupils at a school. Thus the two meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum.
In the Middle Ages and education were tightly intertwined, according to Jan Ziolkowski, while Latin was hugely influential, Greek was barely studied, and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. The works of even major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages. Catullus, for instance, was almost entirely unknown in the medieval period, the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe. This reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems, the late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history which is most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models.
Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became increasingly important relative to that of Latin, in this period Johann Winckelmanns claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement, in the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century. The poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the world, and the value of a classical education, especially in the US
Christianity and Paganism
Early Christianity developed in the Roman Empire, where many religions were practiced that are, for lack of a better term, labeled paganism. During the Middle Ages, the term was adapted to refer to religions practiced outside the former Roman Empire, such as Germanic paganism. From the point of view of the early Christians these religions all qualified as ethnic in contrast with Second Temple Judaism, some Pagan ceremonies were brought in and the festivals became modern holidays as pagans joined the early church. The Pagan vernal equinox celebration was Christianized and referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary or Annunciation of the Lord, contains the basic elements of that genuine and perfect knowledge which is higher than human. When Christians first encountered Manichaeism, it seemed to them to be a heresy, Augustine of Hippo converted to Christianity from Manichaeism. Until the 20th century, most of the Western worlds concept of Manichaeism came through Augustines negative polemics against it, according to his Confessions, after eight or nine years of adhering to the Manichaean faith, he became a Christian and a potent adversary of Manichaeism.
How much long term influence the Manichaeans actually had on Christianity is still being debated and it has been suggested that the Bogomils and the Cathars were deeply influenced by Manichaeism. However, the Bogomils and Cathars, in particular, left few records of their rituals or doctrines, the Paulicians and Cathars were certainly dualists and felt that the world was the work of a demiurge of Satanic origin. Whether this was due to influence from Manichaeism or another strand of Gnosticism is impossible to determine, only a minority of Cathars held that The Evil God was as powerful as The Good God as Mani did, a belief known as absolute dualism. In the case of the Cathars, it seems they adopted the Manichaean principles of church organization and his followers apparently tried to absorb what they thought was the valuable part of Manichaeaism into Christianity. Early Christianity arose as a movement within Second Temple Judaism, following the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, with a missionary commitment to both Jews and Gentiles, Christianity rapidly spread into the greater Roman empire and beyond.
Here, Christianity came into contact with the dominant Pagan religions, by the 2nd century, many Christians were converts from Paganism. These conflicts are recorded in the works of the early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr as well as reports by writers including Tacitus and Suetonius. Christianity was persecuted by Roman imperial authorities early on in its history within the greater empire, the first documented case of imperially-supervised persecution of the Christians in the Roman Empire begins with Nero. In 64 AD, a fire broke out in Rome, destroying portions of the city. Nero himself was suspected as the arsonist by Suetonius, claiming he played the lyre, Suetonius however does not specify the reasons for the punishment, he just listed the fact together with other abuses put down by Nero. By the mid-2nd century, mobs could be willing to throw stones at Christians. The Persecution in Lyon was preceded by mob violence, including assaults, further state persecutions were desultory until the 3rd century, though Tertullians Apologeticus of 197 was ostensibly written in defense of persecuted Christians and addressed to Roman governors
History of Islam
The history of Islam concerns the political, economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about reliability of sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca. A century later, the Islamic empire extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus river in the east, polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads, Abbasids and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, during the 19th and early 20th centuries most parts of the Muslim world fell under influence or direct control of European Great Powers. Their efforts to win independence and build modern nation states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day, the following timeline can serve as a rough visual guide to the most important polities in the Islamic world prior to the First World War. It covers major historical centers of power and culture, including Arabia, Persia, Egypt, Maghreb, al-Andalus, Hindustan, dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details.
The study of the earliest periods in Islamic history is difficult by a lack of sources. For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of Islam is the work of al-Tabari, while al-Tabari was an excellent historian by the standards of his time and place, use of his work as a source is problematic for two reasons. For one, his style of historical writing permitted liberal use of mythical, stereotyped, Second, al-Tabaris descriptions of the beginning of Islam post-date the events by a large amount of time, al-Tabari having died in 923 CE. Differing views about how to deal with the sources has led to the development of four different approaches to the history of early Islam. All four methods have some level of support today, the descriptive method uses the outlines of Islamic traditions, while being adjusted for the stories of miracles and faith-centred claims within those sources. Edward Gibbon and Gustav Weil represent some of the first historians following the descriptive method, on the source critical method, a comparison of all the sources is sought in order to identify which informants to the sources are weak and thereby distinguish spurious material.
The work of William Montgomery Watt and that of Wilferd Madelung are two source critical examples, on the tradition critical method, the sources are believed to be based on oral traditions with unclear origins and transmission history, and so are treated very cautiously. Ignaz Goldziher was the pioneer of the critical method. The skeptical method doubts nearly all of the material in the traditional sources, an early example of the skeptical method was the work of John Wansbrough. Nowadays, the popularity of the different methods employed varies on the scope of the works under consideration, for overview treatments of the history of early Islam, the descriptive approach is more popular. For scholars who look at the beginnings of Islam in depth, after the 8th century CE, the quality of sources improves. For the time prior to the beginning of Islam—in the 6th century CE—sources are superior as well, Islam arose within the context of Late Antiquity