Gold Coast, Queensland
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, Queensland's second-largest city; the Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. In 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly; the area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry; the city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018. The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region; the region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid.
The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed in the hinterland; the western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed, renamed Southport with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents; the Gold Coast was known as the South Coast. However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast; the area was proclaimed a city less than one year on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. Today the Gold Coast is known for its golden sanded surf beaches, theme parks and rainforest hinterlands; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The Gold Coast is half covered by forests of various types; this includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest.
Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the state capital; the Albert River separates the Gold Coast from a suburban area of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales 56 km south, extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park; the southernmost town of Gold Coast City, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At 28.1667°S 153.55°E / -28.1667. From Coolangatta forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, further on Stradbroke Island; the suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.
The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but th
Westfield Chermside is a large shopping centre in Queensland, located in a Brisbane inner northern suburb. It is the 2nd largest in Australia by number of stores, behind Chadstone Shopping Centre and is operated by Scentre Group. Entertainment facilities include an Event Cinemas 16-screen cinema complex; the centre contains a major hub for buses north of Brisbane. Westfield Chermside's trade area population is 439,600; the centre is located on the corner of Hamilton Road. Majors: Myer Department Store - 3 levels David Jones Department Store - 2 levels Harris Scarfe Department Store Big W Discount Department Store Kmart Discount Department Store Target Discount Department Store Coles Supermarket Woolworths Supermarket Event Cinemas Cinema with VMAX and Gold Class H&M Clothing Store Zara Clothing Store - 2 levels Uniqlo Clothing StoreMini Majors: Apple Store Best & Less JB Hi-Fi Rebel SportThe Centre has many restaurants and specialty stores. Spread across the first and second levels. Restaurants span across four levels.
The new restaurant precinct opened on 22nd June 2017. Chermside Drive-In Shopping Centre was opened on 31 May 1957 by the Premier of Queensland Vince Gair. Police were needed to keep an estimated 15,000 shoppers, it was marketed as the first post-war shopping precinct in the southern hemisphere. The shopping centre had a modern design, it contained an Allan & Stark department store, a Brisbane Cash & Carry supermarket, 24 speciality stores, parking for 650 cars and covered 28 acres. Porters were available to carry purchased items to shoppers’ cars. Allan & Stark became Myer in 1959. In 1965, the centre was air-conditioned and a restaurant was constructed; the original building that housed Myer was razed and a larger three level replacement building was opened in June 1977. Several renovations were completed in 1985, 1986 and 1987 adding another 29 stores and an underground car park to the centre. A business mall was constructed in February 1992; the Westfield Group purchased the property from Coles-Myer in December 1996.
In 1999, work began on a major redevelopment of the centre, to nearly double its floor space. The redevelopment resulted in most of the existing structure being demolished, save for the Myer store and some pieces of adjoining mall, to make way for the larger complex. Stage one opened on 9 August, which contained a new bus interchange. In 2000, the second stage of the redevelopment opened, containing a Kmart, Bi-Lo, Target and a 900-seat food court. A new Birch Carroll & Coyle cinema complex opened, which took many customers away from the one at Westfield Toombul In 2005, construction began on another expansion, which opened on 19 October 2006 and contained 2,300 more car parks, over 100 new specialty stores. In August 2007, the two level David Jones store was opened and is located in the same expansion; the following year saw the opening of another department store on the site of the former Bi-Lo supermarket, however smaller, the first Harris Scarfe store in Brisbane. In late 2009, an Apple Store opened in the centre.
In 2011, Westfield Chermside introduced a new'Park Assist' system to help shoppers find available car parks quicker. At the same time the centre introduced a pay parking scheme designed to stop commuters parking vehicles at the centre. Parking under three hours remains free and entry after 6 pm will be free as well. Despite all its major successes during its ownership by Westfield, the centre has been blamed for the downturn in trade in surrounding shopping centres Centro Toombul. In the case of Toombul, the ex-Westfield centre's trade has been affected during the 21st century, David Jones, many other stores have closed down at Centro Toombul. In 2015, Scentre Group announced the Westfield Chermside Redevelopment, which will add up to 95 new retailers, a gallery mall, new dining and entertainment precincts and major expansion to the second floor. Construction was started in January 2015 and the new area was opened to shoppers on the 6th of April, 2017; the new development included international fast fashion stores like Sephora and Zara.
The Westfield Chermside Redevelopment, known as "The New Westfield Chermside" opened in early 2017. This expansion was addition of a second level of stores above the Myer to David Jones fashion mall, introduced international brands including H&M, Sephora and Zara. JB HiFi, Rebel & Optus moved from their existing stores to new locations in the redevelopment. On 22 June 2017 the final stage of the redevelopment was opened; this included a dining precinct with more than 20 cafes and restaurants, an incubator store alley and a lifestyle precinct with new A bowling alley, laser tag, new Gymnasium and a child minding centre. Scentre Group Westfield Chermside home page Westfield Chermside Property Portfolio
A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons; this effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics; the first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with high light output. Early LEDs were used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced white-light LEDs suitable for room lighting.
LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaper and medical devices. Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, functionally monochromatic. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927, his research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium. Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted led lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patented a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emmitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, crystal in 1953. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, silicon-germanium alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins. In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance; as noted by Kroemer Braunstein "…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away; this signal was played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup." This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications. In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in Dallas, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate. By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.
On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled "Semiconductor Radiant Diode" based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U. S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. After filing the patent, Texas Instruments began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product, which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output. In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110; the first visible-spectrum LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working at General Electric. Holonyak first reported his LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.
M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunicat
Toombul Shopping Centre
Toombul Shopping Centre is a suburban shopping centre located in the locality of Toombul, part of Nundah, a suburb of the City of Brisbane in the state of Queensland, Australia. The centre is anchored by Target and Kmart discount department stores, Coles supermarket, Aldi Food Store, an 8-screen Event Cinema and more than 140 specialty stores including Lincraft, Witchery and Pillow Talk; the centre opened on 11 October 1967 by The Westfield Group. Over the years it has been remodelled from its original form with several extensions, the most recent being the Aldi supermarket and Fresh Life fresh food mall in 2006 and new food court and Target in 2011. Toombul was the largest shopping centre on Brisbane's northside until Westfield Chermside's redevelopment in 1999-2000. In the mid 1960s, The Westfield Group was looking to expand interstate into Queensland. Co-founder of Westfield, Frank Lowy sent his brother John and an engineer to the state to scout for potential sites in Brisbane. A local real estate agent, Donald Petrie, showed them the current site, located on a flood plain with a creek flowing through it in a growing area of the city.
The Westfield founders travelled to Brisbane to inspect the site. Realising the commercial potential of the area, the company purchased the property. To overcome the flooding issues, Westfield employed experts at a local university to develop a plan; the solution was to fill and raise one half of the site to build the centre and construct a bridge across the creek. There were problems finding a department store to anchor the centre and filling the specialty retail spaces at the centre; as Toombul was close to the Chermside Shopping Centre, anchored by a department store, other department stores were cautious about opening so close. Another problem was Westfield was an unknown developer outside of New South Wales, making it hard to attract retailers. Frank Lowy and Donald Petrie resorted to walking the streets of Brisbane's CBD to find retailers to occupy the centre, it paid off. Due to Westfield's relationship with Coles, the retailer was committed from the beginning of the development to opening a store at the centre.
The centre opened as Westfield Shopping Town Toombul on Wednesday 11 October 1967. It was anchored by a Barry and Roberts Department store, Coles supermarket, Bayards store and 60 specialty stores, it was the first shopping centre in Brisbane built with air-conditioning and had off-street parking for up to 1500 vehicles. One of its main features was a water fountain located within the current western entrance. By the early 1970s, the Bayards store had closed down leaving room for another anchor to open at the centre. Westfield had negotiated a deal with David Jones to open a store at Toombul; this was an unusual move for the retailer at the time as they had their own development and construction company and only opened suburban stores in their own'Garden City' shopping centres. The 2 level David Jones department store was the first extension for the centre, it was the first David Jones store to open in a Westfield owned shopping centre. For a brief time in the 1970s, Toombul was anchored by 2 Department stores, a rarity for an Australian shopping centre at the time.
Sometime in the 1970s a single screen cinema opened at the centre, the second extension to the centre. By the mid 1970s, Barry and Roberts had closed down their Toombul store, leaving David Jones as the sole department store anchor. In 1978 the discount department store chain Target had opened a store in part of the former Barry and Roberts store. A food court was opened at this time. A street and 2 residential blocks adjoining the centre were bought in the late 1970s and construction of the third major extension began. In 1980, the extension opened with a new mall, bus station, extension to the second level of David Jones, Best & Less and Kmart discount department store; the total number of specialty stores at the centre increased to over 140. In 1982, the Target store closed down, leaving David Jones and Coles as the anchors; the fourth major extension opened in 1989 on the part of the site occupied by the former Barry and Roberts store. The extension added a BI-LO supermarket and new specialty stores on the lower level and an 8 screen Birch and Coyle multiplex cinema plus a new food court and Sizzler restaurant on the upper mezzanine level.
The rest of the centre was refurbished along with this extension. The 1990s were Westfield Toombul's last successful decade, by the early 1990s, it was the largest shopping centre on Brisbane's northside and the only centre on the northside with a multiplex cinema; the number of specialty stores at the centre totalled over 180. The centre held this title until 1999. Although the now much larger Chermside centre didn't affect the retail trade of Toombul, it did affect the trade of the cinema; the more modern, larger 16 screen Birch and Coyle multiplex with Gold Class cinemas and entertainment precinct built at Chermside drew much of its clientele from the same catchment area as the Toombul multiplex, with many preferring to go to Chermside. After the redevelopment of Chermside completed in 2000, Toombul became overlooked by Westfield, with the company preferring to focus on promoting the upgraded Chermside centre. In 2003, the external facade was modernised, a new bus station constructed and an outdoor dining precinct was added where the former bus station was located.
The famous "big T" sign, first erected on centre's opening in 1967, was dismantled. This was the last construction work done by Westfield. In July 2003, the cent
Capalaba Park Shopping Centre
Capalaba Park Shopping Centre is a regional shopping centre located in Capalaba, south-east of Brisbane, Australia. The centre was opened to the public in 1981. Stores include Kmart, Homeart and Coles. FPDSavills' Byvan division gave the centre its "Shopping Centre of the Year Award" in 2002. Capalaba Park Shopping Centre Koala Action Group
Logan Hyperdome Shopping Centre in Shailer Park, Queensland, is the largest shopping centre in Logan City and one of the largest single storey shopping centres in Australia. The Queensland Police Service operates. Logan City Council has a library at the far northern end of the Hyperdome and this is a separate, stand alone building; the Logan Hyperdome contains a food court with many outlets. Event Cinemas operate a cinema complex within the centre. Built after the closure and demolition of Wild Waters water park, the Hyperdome first opened in August 1989. Work at the site began in September 1988 and it was opened in July 1989, it received upgrades in May 1990, October 1997, December 1998, March 2005 and August 2015. The October 1997 upgrade was the largest upgrade when BI-LO Mega Frrresh was moved from its original location where the now-defunct Crazy Clark's is located and Big W was added along with around 50 specialty stores and a 2-storey carpark; the 2005 upgrade included upgrading the Event Cinemas to 12 and installing a bowling alley, another carpark and several restaurants and bars in the newly constructed piazza.
The 2015 upgrade cost $17 million and revamped the southern end of the shopping centre, creating a new area called The Market Room. This area features several fresh food restaurants; the Logan Hyperdome Library opened in 1998 with a major refurbishment in 2014. In addition, the Hyperdome Home Centre separated from the main Hyperdome mall area, it contains the Loganholme Bus Station located in Zone 2 for TransLink services. List of shopping malls in Australia Logan Hyperdome Official website
QueensPlaza is an upmarket shopping centre located in Central Business District of Brisbane, Australia, with frontages on Adelaide Street, Queen Street Mall, Edward Street. Construction began in September 2003. Stage 1 of QueensPlaza was completed in June 2005, with stage 2 being completed in October 2007. Stage 2 included giving the building more footage on the Adelaide Street side for more stores; the final stage, an expansion of David Jones, was opened in February 2008. Car parking is available at five basement levels. Fashion shows are held annually in the QueensPlaza as part of the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Festival Brisbane. List of shopping centres in Australia Queens Plaza home page