Land reclamation known as reclamation, known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation land fill. In a number of other jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands to an improved state. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the provincial government as "The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses." In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods; the most simple method involves filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called "infilling" and the material used to fill the space is called "infill". Draining of submerged wetlands is used to reclaim land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated and hence needs to be contained.
Land dredging is another method of land reclamation. It is the removal of sediments and debris from the bottom of a body of water, it is used for maintaining reclaimed land masses as sedimentation, a natural process, fills channels and harbors naturally. Instances where the creation of new land was for the need of human activities. Notable examples include: Some of the coastlines of Saadiyat Island, in the UAE. Used for commercial purposes. Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India, it took over 150 years to join the original Seven Islands of Bombay. These seven islands were lush, thickly wooded, dotted with 22 hills, with the Arabian Sea washing through them at high tide; the original Isle of Bombay was only 24 km long and 4 km wide from Dongri to Malabar Hill and the other six were Colaba, Old Woman's Island, Parel and Mazgaon.. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and South Korea, it is estimated. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai and Wuhan.
Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. The shore of Jakarta Bay. Land is reclaimed to create new housing areas and real estate properties, for the expanding city of Jakarta. So far, the largest reclamation project in the city is the creation of "Golf Island", still ongoing. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres; the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in Qatar. Haikou Bay, Hainan Province, where the west side of Haidian Island is being extended, off the coast of Haikou City, where new land for a marina is being created; the Cotai Strip in Macau, where most of the major casinos are located Nagoya Centrair Airport, Japan Incheon International Airport, Korea Beirut Central District, Lebanon The southern Chinese city of Shenzhen The shore of Manila Bay in the Philippines along Metro Manila, has attracted major developments such as the Mall of Asia Complex, Entertainment City and the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in short supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation.
The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Hulhumalé Island, Maldives, it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. Giant Sea Wall Jakarta Colombo International Financial City, Sri Lanka Airport of Nice, France Large parts of the Netherlands Almost half of the microstate of Monaco Parts of Dublin, Ireland Most of Belfast Harbour and areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland Parts of Saint Petersburg, such as the Marine Facade Helsinki Barceloneta area, Barcelona, in Spain The port of Zeebrugge in Belgium The southwestern residential area in Brest, Belarus Majority of left-bank and some right-bank residential areas of Kiev were built on a reclaimed fens and floodplains of the Dnieper river. Most of Fontvieille, Monaco Parts surrounding Port Hercules in La Condamine, Monaco The airport peninsula, the industrial area of Cornigliano, the PSA container terminal and other parts of the port in Genoa, Italy The Fens in East Anglia Venice, Italy Rione Orsini, part of Borgo Santa Lucia, Naples A big part of Kavala, city in Greece Fucine Lake, ItalyWaterfront Centre, Jersey The Foreshore in Cape Town The Hassan II Mosque in Morocco is built on reclaimed land.
The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, Nigeria. Large parts of Rio de Janeiro, most notably several blocks in the new docks area, the entire Flamengo Park and the neighborhood of Urca Parts of Florianópolis. Parts of New Orleans Parts of Montevideo, Rambla Sur and several projects still going on in Montevideo's Bay. Much of the urbanized area adjacent to San Francisco Bay, including most of San Francisco's waterfront and Financial District, San Francisco International Airport, the Port of Oakland, large portions of the city of Alameda has been reclaimed from the bay. Mexico City. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, using material extracted from Panama Canal excavations; the Chicago shoreline The Northwestern University Lakefill, part of the campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois Back Bay, Massachusetts Battery Park City, Ma
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Shenton Way is a major trunk road in Singapore's Central Area, most known for the commercial skyscrapers flanking both sides of the road. The road is a one-way street which starts at the junction of Cross Street, Central Boulevard and Raffles Quay and ends at Keppel Road; the road is built entirely on reclaimed land in what was once the Telok Ayer Basin. It was intended to be named Raffles Way, but Shenton Way was chosen after Sir Shenton Thomas, Governor of Singapore 1934–1946, as an acknowledgement of his decision to stay in the city during the Japanese occupation of Singapore. Opened in 1951, it became known as Singapore's Wall Street when commercial developments and government offices were built there from the 1970s onwards, continues to be a prime commercial address on par with that of Raffles Place today. One Shenton Way AXA Tower SGX Centre OUE Downtown Singapore Conference Hall MAS Building Shenton House Eon Shenton 76 Shenton Way 78 Shenton Way V on Shenton Peter K G Dunlop Street Names of Singapore Who's Who Publishing ISBN 981-4062-11-1
The Tampines Expressway is a highway in the north-eastern fringe of Singapore, joining the Pan Island Expressway near Singapore Changi Airport in the east with the Central Expressway and Seletar Expressway in the north of the island. Concurrent to the development of Tampines New Town, the expressway began construction in the 1980s. On 22 February 1986, tenders were called for the first part of the expressway. Work is widening the existing portions of Tampines Road; the first part of the expressway, stretching from the PIE to Elias Road, was opened on 30 September 1987. On 24 December 1987, the phase 2 of the extension, from Elias Road to Lorong Halus, began construction and was opened on 30 May 1989, they were awarded to Sembawang Construction and Hock Lian Seng Engineering on 19 November 1987. Extensions north-west were made to connect the TPE with the CTE and SLE so as to serve the newer residential areas of Sengkang and Punggol and provide a continuous expressway link between the northern and eastern parts of the island.
It acquired much of Lorong Lumut, Lorong Halus Village, Cheng Lim Farmway, Jalan Kayu Village, Lorong Andong, Lorong Anchak and Boh Sua Tian Road. On 30 August 1992, the Public Works Department started construction of Punggol Flyover. On 13 April 1993, the local firm had won tender to build the TPE-Seletar link. On 30 June 1994, the Public Works Department has awarded a $38.9 million contract for the construction of a road junction interchange as part of the Tampines Expressway project to Koh Brothers Building and Civil Engineering Contractor Pte Ltd. The expressway was opened in August 1996. With the construction of the Seletar Expressway flyover, part of the highway from Yio Chu Kang Road to Lentor Avenue will be closed in 21 to 23 February 1995. In 1998, two new viaducts and a loop connecting the TPE and PIE were constructed to shorten the distance for motorists travelling from Pasir Ris and Tampines to Changi Airport. Traffic camera monitoring the TPE
Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway
The Kallang–Paya Lebar Expressway is the third newest of Singapore's network of expressways. The southern section of the expressway opened first, on 26 October 2007, with the remaining section opened on 20 September 2008. Connecting East Coast Parkway in the south and Tampines Expressway in the north-east, the 6-lane expressway extends for twelve kilometres, with 8.5 kilometres of main cut and cover underground tunnels running some 10 kilometres underground when completed. Built at a cost of S$1.8 billion, it is the longest subterranean road tunnel in Southeast Asia. The KPE is believed to be the world's sixth longest underground road project at its time under construction. In all, the dual-carriageway expressway with three lanes in each direction will have eight interchanges, eleven on-ramps, twelve off-ramps; the south end of the KPE connects directly to the Marina Coastal Expressway which opened in 2013. The Land Transport Authority has awarded a contract for the expansion of the KPE/TPE interchange at the north end of the expressway and construction of a new road connection to Punggol Central, providing a new and more direct link to and from the KPE and TPE, alleviating the traffic congestion of the TPE between the current KPE ramps and Punggol ramps.
The work would involves the design and construction of roads, three new vehicular bridges crossing Sungei Serangoon and Sungei Blukar, a new flyover across TPE and other associated ramps. Construction works commenced in second quarter of 2015 and is scheduled for completion by third quarter of 2019. A 2.8 km-long Kallang Expressway was envisioned as early as 1981, serving as a link between the Pan Island Expressway and East Coast Parkway. It would have become the shortest expressway in Singapore; the modern Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway was first conceptualised in the preliminary plans of 1997, merging the KLE and the Paya Lebar Expressway into a single expressway. Construction on KPE started in the year 2001, was completed in 2008. On 23 June 2007, the northern end of the expressway between Tampines Road from the new Defu Flyover and the Tampines Expressway was opened to traffic, was temporarily named Tampines Service Road. Tampines Road will therefore no longer connect with the Tampines Expressway at the Tampines Flyover.
The Defu Flyover along Tampines Road, along with the traffic signals, were commissioned on the same day from 1000 hours. On 27 July 2007, the LTA announced the opening of the southern ECP-PIE section of the expressway to traffic on 26 October 2007; the entire expressway opened to traffic on 20 September 2008. The Kallang Section of the expressway starts from eastern end of the Marina Coastal Expressway, where it interchanges with the East Coast Parkway near the fourteen-kilometre mark of the ECP in a northward direction, goes underground below the Geylang River, cuts across the Kallang Sports Complex to the west of the National Stadium, comes to an interchange at the Mountbatten Road/Nicoll Highway/Guillemard Road junction, crosses the East West MRT Line, before ending with an interchange with the Pan Island Expressway at the thirteen-kilometre mark of the latter, it adds along minor roads. The Paya Lebar Section continues from where the Kallang Section leaves off beneath the Kallang River and Pelton Canal past MacPherson Estate, comes to an interchange with Paya Lebar Road, Upper Paya Lebar Road, MacPherson Road and Airport Road, crosses over the Circle MRT Line, under construction at the same time as the expressway, continues for three and a half kilometres underground beneath Airport Road and the Paya Lebar Airbase, emerges at ground level near Defu Lane 3, goes on an elevated interchange over Tampines Road.
It meets Buangkok East Drive at an interchange before continuing towards the existing Tampines Flyover to meet with Tampines Expressway. It replaces one of the fish farms at Tampines Road. On 27 July 2007, the LTA announced an extension of the KPE from East Coast Parkway to the Ayer Rajah Expressway via Marina South; the stretch was named Marina Coastal Expressway. The Marina Coastal Expressway opened on 29 December 2013. In 2006, the Land Transport Authority engaged an advertising agency to embark on a public education programme, to inform and educate the public on the proper way to use the KPE – the first time it has done so for a road project. British firm Bartle Bogle Hegarty has been appointed to publicise safety messages needed to prepare users for the KPE. BBH, which in turn appointed British public relations firm Grayling, clinched the contract for S$2.81 million. Its campaign started in the second quarter of 2007, consisting of a website and an album Sounds of the Underground of ten songs for the purpose.
The LTA has put up a tender calling for consultants to develop congestion management systems in the KPE. The call has drawn three submissions, it rolled out the first dedicated team of Traffic Marshals, with the primary role of rapid deployment to any incident within the tunnels. The annual contract was awarded to Certis CISCO, who would deploy six marshals on motorcycles around the clock in the KPE, to be expanded to 28 motorcycles and three cars across all expressways by end 2008. KPE's underground section is fitted with digital speed cameras that operate 24 hours throughout the day to enforce the 80 km/h speed limit. In the first week of phase 1 operation 3,400 motorists were caught speeding in the KPE, consisting of 3% of the total traffic which alarmed the Traffic Police. 45 of the speed violators which were in excess of 40 km/h received court summons, while others r
Clementi Road is a road in Singapore. It ends at West Coast Road, its landmarks include Maju Camp, the Singapore University of Social Sciences, Ngee Ann Polytechnic and National University of Singapore. The road was once known as ` Reformatory Road'. In 1947, the Singapore Rural Board discussed renaming the road, their original intention was to name it after Sir Hugh Clifford, but it was named as Clementi Road. It is suggested that the road was named after Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, the first British High Commissioner in the Straits Settlements. However, it is possible that the road was named after Sir Cecil Clementi, another former Governor of the Straits Settlements who initiated the construction of the Kallang Airport