Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
The Infamous Decade in Argentina is the name given to the period of time that began in 1930 with the coup d'état against President Hipólito Yrigoyen by José Félix Uriburu and resulted in the rising to power of Juan Perón after the Military coup of 1943. This decade was marked by significant rural exodus, many small rural landowners being ruined by the Great Depression, which in turn pushed the country towards import substitution industrialization; the poor economic results of the policy and popular discontent led to another coup in 1943, the "Revolution of'43", by the Grupo de Oficiales Unidos, the nationalist faction of the Armed Forces, against acting president Ramón Castillo, putting an end to the Infamous Decade. This period was characterised by electoral fraud, persecution of the political opposition and generalised government corruption, against the background of the Great Depression; the impact of the economic crisis forced many farmers and other countryside workers to relocate to the outskirts of the larger cities, resulting in the creation of the first villas miseria.
Thus, the population of Buenos Aires jumped from 1.5 million inhabitants in 1914 to 3.5 million in 1935. Lacking in political experience, in contrast with the European immigrants who brought with them socialist and anarchist ideas, these new city-dwellers would provide the social base, in the next decade, for Peronism; the democratic liberal senator Lisandro de la Torre denounced various scandals, directing an investigation on the meat trade starting in 1935. In the midst of the investigation, de la Torre's disciple, senator-elect Enzo Bordabehere, was murdered by Ramón Valdez Cora on the Senate floor, the province of Santa Fe was intervened; the murder was depicted by Asesinato en el Senado de la Nación. CHADE was at the heart of an important political and financial scandal; the CHADE scandal, symbol of the Infamous Decade, led to investigations following the revolution of 1943 that deposed Ramón Castillo's government in a military coup, to the subsequent Rodríguez Conde report on concessions given to the electrical companies.
In 1931, a year after the execution of the Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni and his comrade Paulino Scarfó--who had implemented a propaganda of the deed campaign aimed both at international support of the Sacco and Vanzetti case and at attacking Fascist Italy's interests in Argentina--three anarchists were given life sentences during a show trial in which they were tortured, on the charges of having assassinated family members of conservative politician José M. Blanch. Known as the "prisoners of Bragado", the case raised international public indignation. Anarchists, who had created a solidarity network with comrades expelled under the 1902 Law on Residency which legalised the expulsion of immigrants who "compromise national security or disturb public order", were considered as public enemies by Uriburu's dictatorship. Prior to their execution, three anarchist bombs had detonated at three strategic places on the Buenos Aires railway network on 20 January 1931, killing three and wounding 17.
In 1942 Minister Solano Lima signed the prisoners' releases. In 2003 a law granted a pension to the daughter of one of the anarchist victims of this show trial. In 1933 Arturo Jauretche took part in a failed uprising, led by Col. Francisco Bosch and Col. Gregorio Pomar in Paso de los Libres, in the province of Corrientes, he was subsequently detained. It was during Justo's term that Argentina signed the Roca-Runciman Treaty with the United Kingdom, which assured the UK a provision of fresh meat in exchange for important investments in the field of transportation in Argentina, given certain economic concessions from Argentina, such as giving control over the public transport in Buenos Aires to a British company, the Corporación de Transportes. At the 1932 Ottawa Conference, the British had adopted measures that favored imports from its own colonies and dominions; the pressure from Argentine landowners for whom the government restored trade with the main buyer of Argentine grain and meat had been strong.
Led by the president of the British Trade Council, Viscount Walter Runciman, they were intense and resulted in the signing on April 27 of the Roca-Runciman Treaty. The treaty created a scandal, because the UK allotted Argentina a quota less than any of its dominions--390,000 tons of meat per year were allotted to Argentina in exchange for many concessions to British companies, 85% of exportation had to be arranged through British refrigerated shippers. In addition, the tariffs of the railways operated by the UK were not regulated, the treaty did not establish customs fees over coal, had given special dispensation to British companies with investments in Argentina and had reduced the prices of their exports. So many problems resulted from the treaty that Vice President Roca, after the signing of the treaty, declared, "By its economic importance, Argentina resembles just a large British dominion." Lisandro de la Torre, one of Roca's principal and most vociferous opponents, mocking his words in an editorial, wrote, "In these conditions we wouldn't be able to say that Argentina had been converted into a British dominion because England does not take the liberty to impose similar humiliations upon its dominions."The National Democratic Party, one of the parties that had supported the nomination of Justo for President, had split because of this controversy.
The Senate rescinded the treaty on July 28. Many workers stri
Salta is a city located in the Lerma Valley, at 1,152 metres above sea level in the northwest part of Argentina. It is the name for the capital city of Salta Province. Along with its metropolitan area, it has a population of 619,000 inhabitants, which makes it the second most populated city in the northwest of the country, it is situated in the Lerma Valley, 1,152 metres above sea level, at the foothills of the Andes mountains. The weather is warm and dry, with annual averages of 756 millimetres of rainfall and an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January and March are the months with the greatest rainfall. During the spring, Salta is plagued by severe, week-long dust storms. Nicknamed Salta la Linda, it has become a major tourist destination due to its old, colonial architecture, tourism friendliness, excellent weather and natural scenery of the valleys westward. Attractions in the city proper include the 18th century Cabildo, the neo-classical style Cathedral, the 9 de julio central square along with San Bernardo hill and its surroundings.
The city's museums exhibit a wide range of artifacts and art work from the native civilizations that flourished in the area, as well as from the 16th century Spanish conquest and the colonial and post-colonial periods. Salta used to be the starting point of the "Train to the Clouds", on the way to red-soiled Cafayate, as well as to other nearby tourist destinations; the Martín Miguel de Güemes Airport, 6 kilometres 6 kilometres southwest of the city, has regular domestic flights to Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Jujuy, Córdoba, Puerto Iguazú. Salta was founded on April 16, 1582 by the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma, who intended the settlement to be an outpost between Lima and Buenos Aires; the origin of the name Salta is a matter of conjecture, with several theories being advanced to explain it. During the war of independence, the city became a commercial and military strategic point between Perú and the Argentine cities. Between 1816 and 1821, the city was led by local military leader General Martín Miguel de Güemes, who under the command of General José de San Martín, defended the city and surrounding area from Spanish forces coming from further north.
Salta emerged from the War of Independence politically in disarray and financially bankrupt, a condition that lingered throughout much of the 19th century. However, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the arrival of Italian and Arab immigrants Syrians and Lebanese, revived trade and agriculture all over the area while further enhancing the city's multicultural flavor. Salta has a subtropical highland climate, it is characterized by pleasant weather year-round. Located in the subtropical north, but at an altitude of 1,200 metres, Salta enjoys 4 distinct seasons: summers are warm with frequent thunderstorms, with daytime highs around 26 to 28 °C and pleasant, refreshing nights around 15 or 16 °C. Fall brings dry weather, pleasant days at around 22 °C and mild nights at around 10 °C. By winter, the dryness is extreme, with few rain episodes. Nights are cool at 3 °C on average, but daytime heating allows for high temperatures of 19 °C. Snow is rare and frost is quite common, with temperatures reaching down to −7 °C during the coldest nights.
Spring brings sunny weather with warm days and mild nights: days range from 25 to 28 °C with nights between 10 to 14 °C. Salta's winters are rather warm for its elevation and far inland position for a location being just outside the tropics. Of the over 700 millimetres of rain that Salta receives yearly, over 80% falls between December and March, when thunderstorms occur daily. During the rest of the year, blue skies dominate the region. Incessant summer thunderstorms rejuvenate the surrounding mountainous landscape, making the various hills and mountainsides within the vicinity of the city green and lush once again. Salta receives 1863 hours of about 5.1 hours per day. The highest recorded temperature was 39.9 °C on November 28, 1972 while the lowest recorded temperature was −9.4 °C on August 5, 1966. The city centre features a number of buildings dating back to the 18th and 19th and early 20th centuries. Clockwise around the Ninth of July Square are the neoclassical Cathedral Shrine, the French style Museum of Contemporary Art, the Cabildo and the neoclassical Museum of High Mountain Archaeology, which houses artifacts from the Inca civilization, including the mummies of three Inca children.
The Plaza is completely surrounded by a gallery. Within walking distance of the 9th July Square are the Saint Francis Church and the city's three pedestrian streets: Alberdi, Florida and "Caseros"; the three blocks in Balcarce street closest to the train station are now the centre of night life in Salta, with restaurants and cafés on both sidewalks and concerts every night. Rising in the east is San Bernardo Hill, its summit, from which visitors can get a view of the city and the entire valley, can be reached by car, cable car or stairway. Salta is the most Spanish city in Argentina by physical appearance: so
Pope Paul VI
Pope Saint Paul VI was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. Montini served in the Holy See's Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential advisors of Pius XII, who in 1954 named him Archbishop of Milan, the largest Italian diocese. Montini became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops' Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, after the death of John XXIII, Montini was considered one of his most successors. Upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI, he re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which had automatically closed with the death of John XXIII.
After the Council had concluded its work, Paul VI took charge of the interpretation and implementation of its mandates walking a thin line between the conflicting expectations of various groups within Catholicism. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform programmes of his predecessors and successors. Paul VI spoke to Marian conventions and mariological meetings, visited Marian shrines and issued three Marian encyclicals. Following Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council. Paul VI described himself as a humble servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes from the rich in North America and Europe in favour of the poor in the Third World, his positions on birth control, promulgated famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, were contested in Western Europe and North America. The same opposition emerged in reaction to the political aspects of some of his teaching.
Following the standard procedures that lead to sainthood, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff had lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable upon him on 20 December 2012. Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession, his liturgical feast was celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September until 2019 when it was changed to the date of his sacerdotal ordination on 29 May. Pope Francis canonised Paul VI on 14 October 2018. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia, Italy, in 1897, his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility, he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician. On 30 September 1897, he was baptised with the name Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
He attended the Cesare Arici school, run by the Jesuits, in 1916 received a diploma from the Arnaldo da Brescia public school in Brescia. His education was interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Catholic priest, he was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia and celebrated his first Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year. Afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. In 1922, at the age of twenty-five, again at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo, Montini entered the Secretariat of State, where he worked under Pizzardo together with Francesco Borgongini-Duca, Alfredo Ottaviani, Carlo Grano, Domenico Tardini and Francis Spellman, he never had an appointment as a parish priest. In 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a'Christian-inspired culture'.
Montini had just one foreign posting in the diplomatic service of the Holy See as Secretary in the office of the papal nuncio to Poland in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he wrote: "This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies foreigners with whom one has common frontiers. One seeks the expansion of one's own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours. People grow up with a feeling of being hemmed in. Peace becomes a transient compromise between wars." He described his experience in Warsaw as "useful, though not always joyful". When he became pope, the Communist government of Poland refused him permission to visit Poland on a Marian pilgrimage, his organisational skills led him to a career in the papal civil service. In 1931, Pacelli appointed him to teach history at the Pontifical Academy for Diplomats In 1937, after his mentor Giuseppe Pizzardo was named a cardinal and was succeeded by Domenico Tardini, Montini was named Substitute for Ordinary Affairs under Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State.
His immediate supervisor was Domenico Tardini. Pacelli became Pope Pius XII in 1939 and confirmed Montini's appointment as Substitute under the new Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione. In that role that of a chief of staff, he met the pope every morning until 1954 and developed a rather close relationship with him. Of his service to two popes he w
Seaboard Corporation is a diverse multinational agribusiness and transportation conglomerate with integrated operations in several industries. In the United States, the company engages in pork production and processing and ocean transportation. Internationally, Seaboard is engaged in commodity merchandising, grain processing, sugar production and electrical power generation; the parent company, Seaboard Corporation based in Merriam, operates Seaboard Foods, Seaboard Marine, Seaboard Overseas & Trading Group, Tabacal Agroindustria, Transcontinental Capital Corporation, Ltd. Mount Dora Farms, has 50% non-controlling interest in Butterball, LLC, its principal operating divisions are Pork, Commodity Trading and Milling, Marine and Power. Seaboard Corporation's subsidiaries and affiliates employ more than 23,000 people in more than 45 different countries in the U. S. Latin America and Africa. With net sales of $5.6 billion annually, Seaboard Corporation is #481 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list. Stock is traded on the NYSE MKT under the symbol SEB.
Seaboard's history and roots are tied to grain, dating back nearly 100 years. Otto Bresky purchased his first flour mill in Atchison, Kansas, in 1918. During the next 40 years he would purchase additional flour mills in Kansas, under the name Rodney Milling. In 1959 the company went public through a merger with Hathaway Industries, Inc. a publicly traded company. The name changed to Seaboard Allied Milling Corporation, stock was traded under the symbol SEB; the newly formed company began concentrating on milling operations closer to major metropolitan areas along the East Coast and in the Southeast. Beginning in the early 1960s Seaboard built five U. S. mills over the course of a 14-year period. The company's first investment outside the U. S. was the joint acquisition of a flour mill in Ecuador. Seaboard constructed mills in Sierra Leone, Guyana and Nigeria; when Otto Bresky retired as Seaboard's Chairman and member of the Board of Directors in 1973, his son H. Harry Bresky took his place. After serving in WWII, Harry joined his father in the milling business and assumed the title of President in 1967 later CEO.
Seaboard built its current corporate headquarters in Merriam, Kansas in 1980. In 1982 Seaboard sold its domestic flour milling division to Cargill, Inc. and changed its name to Seaboard Corporation, while continuing its milling operations outside the U. S. Harry and Seaboard took noticeable steps to diversify the company by entering the poultry industry and by further international investments. Though Seaboard sold these original poultry interests to ConAgra in 2000 for $375 million, the poultry business proved the efficiency of a vertically integrated business model; this model of integration would continue to be successful in Seaboard's growth. Seaboard Marine, Ltd. was formed in 1983 to provide containerization services between the U. S. and other international ports. In 1986 Mount Dora Farms, Inc. was established in Latin America to produce vegetables. The company utilized its marine transportation division to ship its produce from South America to Miami. Today Mount Dora Farms, Seaboard's produce division, specializes in processing jalapeños in Honduras to ship to the U.
S. and European markets. During the decade of the ‘80s, Seaboard purchased two baking companies in Puerto Rico and ventured into shrimp farming in Ecuador and the Honduras, it constructed a new polypropylene bag plant in Nigeria. The Puerto Rico bakeries were sold in 1998, after a brief entry into salmon farming, Seaboard sold off all seafood investments in the early 2000s. Transcontinental Capital Corporation, Ltd. formed in 1989 with the purpose of supplying electrical power to the Dominican Republic. The new subsidiary was the first independent power producer in the Dominican Republic. 1990 marked Seaboard Corporation's entry into pork processing. The company's pork division, Seaboard Foods, acquired a pork processing plant in Albert Lea, Minnesota; as it had done with poultry, Seaboard began to invest in processing pork, constructing its first feeder pig facility and feed mill in Northeast Colorado in 1991. In 1992 Seaboard began construction on a state of the art pork processing facility in Guymon, Oklahoma.
To support the Guymon facility, Seaboard constructed feed mills in Oklahoma and Kansas. Guymon opened in 1996; the $110 million plant had the capacity to process over four million hogs annually, employing more than 1,000 workers, utilizing two shifts. The Minnesota pork processing plant closed in 1994; that same year, in 1996, Seaboard acquired an interest in Tabacal Agroindustria, an Argentine company engaged in sugar cane production and refining and citrus production. Two years in 1998, Seaboard Corporation purchased a controlling interest in a winery in Bulgaria. Seaboard added Daily's® Premium Meats, a bacon processor with two processing plants in Salt Lake City and Missoula, Montana to its integrated operations in 2005. Seaboard has an exclusive agreement to market Triumph Foods pork products utilizing a processing plant in St. Joseph, Missouri. H. Harry Bresky retired in July 2006, but remained Chairman of the Board until his death in March 2007. Steven J. Bresky, his son, now serves as Seaboard Corporation's President and CEO and its Director and Chairman of the Board.
Seaboard once again entered the poultry business with the acquisition of half ownership in Butterball, LLC in 2010. With continued expansion in commodities trading, alcohol distillery operations and specialty crops processing abroad, Seaboard exceeded $4 billion in revenue by 2010. In 2011 Seaboard Corporation made the Fortune 500 for the first time in compa
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca, it surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile. Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; the Atacamas lived in the Puna, the Wichís, in the Chaco region. The first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535. Hernando de Lerma founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa. By 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants. An intendency of "Salta del Tucumán" was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Tarija. In 1783, in recognition of the growing importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán was moved from San Miguel de Tucumán to Salta.
The battle of Salta in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, but occasional attacks were mounted from the Viceroyalty of Peru as late as 1826. Gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta and parts of southern Bolivia and northern Chile. Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Bolivia annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834, Jujuy became a separate province; the borders of Salta were further reduced with the loss of Yacuiba to Bolivia. The National Government of Los Andes, constituted from the province in 1902 with a capital at San Antonio de los Cobres, was returned to Salta Province in 1943 as the Department of Los Andes. Antonio Alice's painting, La muerte de Güemes, which received a Gold Medal at the Centenary Exposition, is on display at the offices of the Salta Provincial Government; the total land area of the province is 155,488 km2, making it the sixth largest province by area in Argentina.
The main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo and the Juramento, which becomes the Salado River. Salta Province is located at a geologically active region, suffers from occasional earthquakes. There have been four earthquakes of note in the province: In 1692, registering 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale, at IX on the Mercalli intensity scale, In 1844, registering 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, VII Mercalli intensity, In 1948, registering 7.0 on the Moment magnitude scale, IX Mercalli intensity, In 2010, registering 6.1 or 6.3, VI Mercalli intensity. The 1692 earthquake was the inspiration for Salta's annual citywide festival, held on 16 September, in honor of El Señor y la Virgen del Milagro; the province is located in the tropical zone and has a warm climate in general, though it has marked variation in climate types owing to the variation in altitudes. The orientation of the Andes influences the distribution of precipitation within the province; the easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season.
The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 500 millimetres. Temperatures can reach up to 47 °C during summers; the first slopes of the Andes force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain. The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. Most of the precipitation is concentrated with winters being dry; the high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity. At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous and pine trees. Between the high altitudes to the west and the low plains to the east lie the valleys; the climate of these valleys is temperate, allowing for human settlement and agricultural activities.
Mean annual precipitation is around most of it during summer. Mean temperatures exceed 20 °C during the summer, while during winter, they are below 14 °C. Further west, the Altiplano is a plateau at 3,000 m to 4,000 m above sea level; the climate is arid and cold: high temperatures vary little, ranging from 14 °C to 21 °C. All rain falls in the summer, with values between 200 mm and 400 mm in total. Several salt flats exist in this area. At the highest altitudes found in the western parts of the province, the climate is arid and cold, with large diurnal ranges. Salta's economy is underdeveloped, yet diverse, its economy in 2006 was estimated at US$5.141 billion or, US$4,764 per capita, 45% below the national average. In 2012, its economy was estimated at $23,971 pesos per capita. Manufacturing plays a si
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina