Rocciamelone is a 3,538 m high mountain in Piedmont, near the border between Italy and France. Rocciamelone is located between Maurienne, 50 km west of Turin, its summit is the tripoint where the comunes of Usseglio and Mompantero meet. The international border crosses the Glacier de Rochemelon 1 kilometer north of the summit, making it appear that the border is not following the watershed in this sector. However, the glacier is draped over a ridge, the true watershed and is followed by the borderline. According to the SOIUSA the mountain can be classified in the following way: main part = Western Alps major sector = North Western Alps section = Graian Alps subsection = Southern Graian Alps supergroup = catena Rocciamelone-Charbonnel group = gruppo del Rocciamelone subgroup = nodo del Rocciamelone code = I/B-7. I-A.2.a The teutonic knight Bonifacius Rotarius made the first ascent of Rocciamelone on 1 September 1358, to bring a small metal image of the Holy Virgin as a gesture of gratitude for having survived captivity in the Holy Land during a war against the Muslims.
The summit of Rocciamelone is the destination of a traditional pilgrimage, every year, on August 5. A three-metre-high statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary was erected there in 1899; because of its easy access, its considerable height and the panorama, this mountain is one of the most frequented of the western part of the Alps. Rifugio Cà d'Asti Rifugio Ernesto Tazzetti Rifugio Santa Maria Istituto Geografico Militare official maps of Italy, 1:25.000 and 1:100.000 scale, on-line version Istituto Geografico Centrale - Carta dei sentieri e dei rifugi scala 1:50.000 n. 2 Valli di Lanzo e Moncenisio Istituto Geografico Centrale - Carta dei sentieri e dei rifugi scala 1:25.000 n.110 Alte Valli di Lanzo Media related to Rocciamelone at Wikimedia Commons Rocciamelone Rocciamelone at SummitPost
A rotating wheel space station, bublik city or von Braun wheel, is a hypothetical wheel-shaped space station proposed by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1903 and expanded by Herman Potočnik in 1929. It would rotate about its axis. Occupants of the station would experience centripetal acceleration according to the following equation, a = − ω 2 r where ω is the angular velocity of the station, r is its radius, a is linear acceleration at any point along its perimeter. In principle, the station could be configured to simulate the gravitational acceleration of Earth, allowing for human long stays in space without the drawbacks of microgravity. Both scientists and science fiction writers have thought about the concept of a rotating wheel space station since the beginning of the 20th century. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky wrote about using rotation to create an artificial gravity in space in 1903. Herman Potočnik introduced a spinning wheel station with a 30-meter diameter in his Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums.
He suggested it be placed in a geostationary orbit. In the 1950s, Wernher von Braun and Willy Ley, writing in Colliers Magazine, updated the idea, in part as a way to stage spacecraft headed for Mars, they envisioned a rotating wheel with a diameter of 76 meters. The 3-deck wheel would revolve at 3 RPM to provide artificial one-third gravity, it was envisaged as having a crew of 80. In 1959, a NASA committee opined that such a space station was the next logical step after the Mercury program; the Stanford torus, proposed by NASA in 1975, is an enormous version of the same concept, that could harbor an entire city. NASA has never attempted to build a rotating wheel space station, for several reasons. First, such a station would be difficult to construct, given the limited lifting capability available to the United States and other spacefaring nations. Assembling such a station and pressurizing it would present formidable obstacles, although not beyond NASA's technical capability, would be beyond available budgets.
Second, NASA considers the present space station, the ISS, to be valuable as a zero gravity laboratory, its current microgravity environment was a conscious choice. In the 2010s, NASA explored plans for a Nautilus X centrifuge demonstration project. If flown, this would add a centrifuge sleep quarters module to the ISS; this makes it possible to experiment with artificial gravity without destroying the usefulness of the ISS for zero g experiments. It could lead to deep space missions under full g in centrifuge sleeping quarters following the same approach; the Gateway Foundation published plans to open a first public hotel in orbit called the Von-Braun-Station. The foundation hopes to open the hundred-person capacity hotel by 2027; as a next step the plan is to build an bigger space-port called "The Gateway," an orbiting station with a thousand person capacity 400 kilometres from the earth. Many space stations and ships use a rotating design. 1968: Arthur C. Clarke's novel 2001: A Space Odyssey was developed concurrently with Stanley Kubrick's film version of 2001.
In it, the rotating space station Space Station V provides artificial gravity and features prominently on the book's first-edition cover. The Jupiter mission spacecraft, Discovery One, features a centrifuge for the crew living quarters that provides artificial gravity. 1984: The Peter Hyams directed film 2010 features a battleship-size, Russian built spacecraft, the Leonov, which has a continuously rotating central section, providing an artificial gravity for the occupants. 1985: The novel Ender's Game features a multi-ringed station, called "Battle School," with varying levels of simulated gravity. As the characters ascend through the station towards the center, there is a noticeable decline in the feeling of gravity. 1994: The humans in the science fiction series Babylon 5 use rotating sections to provide artificial gravity. Earth Alliance space stations such as the Babylon series, transfer stations such as the one at Io near the main Sol system jump gate, EarthForce Omega-Class Destroyers made extensive use of rotating sections to lengthen deployment times and increase mission flexibility as the effects of zero gravity are no longer a concern.
1999: The Japanese manga and anime Planetes has its main story set in "The Seven," the 7th wheel orbital station, a 9th is under construction by 2075. In the Zenon trilogy, 13-year-old Zenon lives on a rotating space station owned by the fictional WyndComm from 2049 though 2054, but it is not designed in a way that would allow for artificial gravity through centripetal force. 2000: In the film Mission to Mars, Mars II, a NASA spacecraft hastily repurposed for a recovery mission of humanity's first mission to Mars in 2020, features a rotating crew habitat whose artificial gravitational rotation was shut down using the ship's attitude control thrusters to allow emergency repairs to the hull following a micrometeoroid shower. 2003: In the re-imagined series Battlestar Galactica. Ragnar Anchorage is a three ringed weapons storage station, the civilian ship Zephyr is a luxury liner featuring a ringed midsection. 2007: The "Presidium" sector of the Citadel space station in the Mass Effect series of video games comprises a rotating toroidal section connected to a docking ring, with five large "wards" radiating out from the central ring like a flower's petals.
In addition, Arct
Robert Stephenson and Company was a locomotive manufacturing company founded in 1823. It was the first company set up to build railway engines; the company was set up in 1823 in Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne in England by George Stephenson, his son Robert, with Edward Pease and Thomas Richardson. The manager of the works between 1824 and 1825 was James Kennedy; the company's first engine was Locomotion No 1, which opened the Stockton and Darlington Railway, followed by three more: Hope, Black Diamond, Diligence. Their vertical cylinders meant these locomotives rocked excessively and at the Hetton colliery railway Stephenson had introduced "steam springs" which had proved unsatisfactory. In 1828 he introduced the "Experiment" with inclined cylinders, which improved stability, meant that it could be mounted on springs. Four wheeled, it was modified for six and another example, was built. Around this time, two locomotives were built for America; the first, a four coupled loco named America, was ordered by the Hudson Railroad.
The second, six-coupled and named Whistler, was built for the Boston and Providence Rail Road in 1833. In 1829, the company built a experimental locomotive to enter in the Rainhill Trials. Rocket had two notable improvements -- a separate firebox. Rocket won the trials and convinced the directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway to use steam locomotives on their railway, to order these locomotives from Robert Stephenson & Co. Rocket's cylinder were angled at an angle of 45 degrees, but were moved to be horizontal; the Invicta was the twentieth Robert Stephenson & Co. locomotive, was built for the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway. Its cylinders moved to the front end. In 1830 came the Planet class with the cylinders inside the frames, followed by the Patentee, which added a pair of trailing wheels for greater stability with a larger boiler; this 2-2-2 design became the pattern for most locomotives, by a variety of manufacturers, for many years. The locomotive "John Bull", built in 1831, was of the Planet type, but was modified.
It survives and is now in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D. C. and is claimed to be the oldest still functional self-propelled vehicle. The increased distance travelled by many trains highlighted problems with the fireboxes and chimneys. With the co-operation of the North Midland Railway at their Derby works, he measured the temperature of the exhaust gases, decided to lengthen the boilers on future engines; these "long-boiler" engines were 2-2-2 designs, but in 1844, Stephenson moved the trailing wheel to the front in 4-2-0 formation, so that the cylinders could be mounted between the supporting wheels. It was one of these, the "Great A" along with another from the North Midland Railway, compared with Brunel's "Ixion" in the gauge trials in 1846. In 1846 he added a pair of trailing wheels - the first with eight wheels. Another important innovation in 1842 was the Stephenson link motion. Robert Stephenson and Company built a number of Crampton type locomotives for the South Eastern Railway and the London and Dover Railway.
These were all of 4-2-0 wheel arrangement with indirect drive. The inside cylinders drove a crankshaft located in front of the firebox and the crankshaft was coupled to the driving wheels by outside rods, they were unsuccessful on the LCDR, the five Echo class locomotives were rebuilt as conventional 4-4-0 locomotives after only four years of service. The first railway proposal in Egypt came about when Pasha Muhammad Ali asked the British engineer T. H. Galloway to design a railway in 1834. Instructions to make it followed in 1836. Materials were delivered but little real construction followed. No Ottoman firwan was issued and the French objected. Progress was made when in 1849 Muhammad Ali died, in 1851 his grandson Abbas I of Egypt contracted Robert Stephenson to build Egypt's first standard gauge railway; the first section, between Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast and Kafr el-Zayyat on the Rosetta branch of the Nile was opened in 1854. This was the first railway in the Ottoman Empire as well as the Middle East.
In the same year Abbas died and was succeeded by Sa'id Pasha, in whose reign the section between Kafr el-Zayyat and Cairo was completed in 1856 followed by an extension from Cairo to Suez in 1858. This completed the first modern transport link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, as Ferdinand de Lesseps did not complete the Suez Canal until 1869. At Kafr el-Zayyat the line between Cairo and Alexandria crossed the Nile with an 80 feet car float; this was the single largest project of the South Street Works. However, on 15 May 1858 a special train conveying Sa'id's heir presumptive Ahmad Rifaat Pasha fell off the float into the river and the prince was drowned. Stephenson therefore replaced; the Egyptian connections to Robert Stephenson were considerable and a wealth of consequential artefacts are in Cairo Railway Museum. This includes what could well be the single most extravagant piece built by the Robert Stephenson Works; this is works number 1295 of 1862. This 2-2-4T for the Egyptian Railways survives with all its fantastical marquetry in the Egyptian Railway Museum at Cairo.
It is called the Khedive's Train. Over the remainder of the century, the company prospered in the face of increasing competition, supplying railways at home and abroad. By 1899 around 3000 locomotives had been built and a new limited liability company was formed, Robert Stephenson and Company Limited and t
Gerard Houckgeest was a Dutch Golden Age painter of architectural scenes and church interiors. Houckgeest is thought to have been born in The Hague, according to the RKD, he learned to paint from Bartholomeus van Bassen and worked in The Hague, Delft and Bergen op Zoom; some believe. He specialized in painting imaginary church interiors and renaissance buildings, died in Bergen op Zoom; some of his works now reside at the Mauritshuis. Works at WGA Works and literature on Gerard Houckgeest Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gerard Houckgeest
The women's 200 metre breaststroke competition of the swimming events at the 2011 Pan American Games took place on October 20 at the Scotiabank Aquatics Center in the municipality of Zapopan, near Guadalajara, Mexico. The defending Pan American Games champion was Caitlin Leverenz of the United States; this race consisted of four lengths of the pool all in breaststroke. Prior to this competition, the existing world and Pan American Games records were as follows: Each National Olympic Committee was able to enter up to two entrants providing they had met the A standard in the qualifying period. NOCs were permitted to enter one athlete providing they had met the B standard in the same qualifying period. All times are in seconds; the first round was held on October 20. The B final was held on October 20; the A final was held on October 20
Python-Ogre is a Python binding for the OGRE 3D engine, designed to provide the functionality and performance of OGRE with the accessibility and ease of use of Python to facilitate the rapid development of 3D games and to make the OGRE engine more accessible to the beginner, who might otherwise be daunted by the technicalities of writing in the native C++. The performance of the engine is decreased in comparison to the original C++ demos, however the original OGRE engine provides such high performance that the performance of Python-Ogre is still more than acceptable for all but the most graphics-intensive games. Python-Ogre is different from the Ogre3D engine it is based upon as it comes pre-bundled with Python bindings and demos for many other support libraries. Python-Ogre has compatibility for all platforms supported by OGRE: Microsoft Windows - Binaries are available at the Python-Ogre forums. Linux - Build instructions can be found on the Python-Ogre wiki. An Ubuntu binary is in development.
Mac OS X - Build instructions can be found on the Python-Ogre wiki. Python-Ogre builds on both Mac OS X 10.4 “Tiger” and Mac OS X 10.5 “Leopard”. The Python-Ogre wiki, contains build instructions for Windows and Mac OS X platforms, as well as tutorials and example code snippets. Ogre3D hosts the official Python-Ogre forum for helping developers in their use of the engine; the PyOgre project began in early 2005, where a Python binding for OGRE was first attempted using Boost. Python from the Boost C++ Libraries by two members of the Ogre3D community, Clay Culver and Federico Di Gergorio; this effort failed, which prompted the use of SWIG as the basis for the C++ binding. This method proved to be rather successful, providing to the community with a somewhat limited and error-prone implementation, but an implementation nonetheless. In mid-2006, Lakin Wecker began work based on the Boost. Python libraries, as was attempted before; this was developed alongside the PyOgre project. He was aided by Andy Miller, who later took over development of the project with assistance from Roman Yakovenko, Joseph Lisee, Ben Harling during the evolution of the engine.
Development of PyOgre was halted in mid-2007, succeeded by Python-Ogre. As of summer of 2008, Andy Miller was working on adding new features to Python-Ogre, as well as providing support and maintenance; as of January 2014, the main website at python-ogre.org went offline, but wiki.python-ogre.org is still extant. The following libraries are either supported, or have at one point in time worked with the Python-Ogre engine. Support for particular libraries are noted in each release. Demos are available for all libraries listed, not all demos function, due to the evolving codebase and limited number of active developers. RendererOgre 1.4.9 Legacy version Ogre 1.5 "Shoggoth" experimental software build Ogre 1.6 official release Ogre 1.7 "Cthugha" experimental build, including full DirectX 10 support. GUIBetaGUI—Compact and lightweight OGRE GUI library CEGUI—Fully featured general-purpose videogame GUI library Navi—HTML/CSS/JS-based OGRE GUI library QuickGUI—Easy to use, widget-based OGRE GUI library Hikari—Flash based OGRE GUI libraryI/OOIS—Standard OGRE input library, allowing buffered, object-oriented inputAudioOpenAL—Cross-platform audio API used with Ogre3DPhysicsBullet—Full-featured physics engine with a feature set similar to that of proprietary libraries, offering both rigid body and soft body collision detection ODE—Open source rigid body collision detection library Newton—Offers real-world physics simulation, where accuracy and real-world physical parameters are desired over performance and newer features PhysX—Popular, high performance featured library NxOgre—Wrapper for the PhysX library and Ogre3D, with an editor and other helpful Ogre3D-oriented featuresEffectsParticle Universe—Scriptable particle effects engine that helps create complex particle effects Caelum—Realistic sky, atmosphere and lighting simulation LibNoise—Portable, open-source, coherent noise-generating library Python-Ogre wiki Downloads from SourceForge Archive of Python-Ogre.org Official Python-Ogre forum Python-Ogre Google Group Ohloh page