An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Riley was a British motorcar and bicycle manufacturer from 1890. Riley became part of the Nuffield Organisation in 1938 and was merged into the British Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. Ln July 1969 British Leyland announced the immediate end of Riley production, although 1969 was a difficult year for the UK auto industry and many cars from Riley's inventory may have been first registered in 1970. Today, the Riley trademark is owned by BMW; the business began as the Bonnick Cycle Company of England. In 1890 during the pedal cycle craze that swept Britain at the end of the 19th century William Riley Jr. who had interests in the textile industry purchased the business and in 1896 incorporated a company to own it named The Riley Cycle Company Limited. Cycle gear maker Sturmey Archer was added to the portfolio. Riley's middle son, left school in the same year and soon began to dabble in automobiles, he built his first car at 16, in 1898, because his father did not approve. It featured the first mechanically operated inlet valve.
By 1899, Percy Riley moved from producing motorcycles to his first prototype four-wheeled quadricycle. Little is known about Percy Riley's first "motor-car", it is, well attested that the engine featured mechanically operated cylinder valves at a time when other engines depended on the vacuum effect of the descending piston to suck the inlet valve open. That was demonstrated some years when Benz developed and patented a mechanically operated inlet valve process of their own but were unable to collect royalties on their system from British companies. In 1900, Riley sold a single three-wheeled automobile. Meanwhile, the elder of the Riley brothers, Victor Riley, although supportive of his brother's embryonic motor-car enterprise, devoted his energies to the core bicycle business. Riley's founder William Riley remained resolutely opposed to diverting the resources of his bicycle business into motor cars, in 1902 three of his sons, Victor and younger brother Allan Riley pooled resources, borrowed a necessary balancing amount from their mother and in 1903 established the separate Riley Engine Company in Coventry.
A few years the other two Riley brothers and Cecil, having left school joined their elder brothers in the business. At first, the Riley Engine Company supplied engines for Riley motorcycles and to Singer, a newly emerging motorcycle manufacturer in the area, but the Riley Engine Company soon began to focus on four-wheeled automobiles, their Vee-Twin Tourer prototype, produced in 1905, can be considered the first proper Riley car. The Riley Engine Company expanded the next year. William Riley reversed his former opposition to his sons' preference for motorised vehicles and Riley Cycle halted motorcycle production in 1907 to focus on automobiles. Bicycle production ceased in 1911. In 1912, the Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley Limited as William Riley focused it on becoming a wire-spoked wheel supplier for the burgeoning motor industry, the detachable wheel having been invented by Percy and distributed to over 180 motor manufacturers, by 1912 the father's business had dropped automobile manufacture in order to concentrate capacity and resources on the wheels.
Exploitation of this new and expanding lucrative business sector made commercial sense for William Riley, but the abandonment of his motor-bicycle and of his automobile business, the principal customer for his sons' Riley Engine Company enforced a rethink on the engine business. In early 1913, Percy was joined by three of his brothers to focus on manufacturing entire automobiles; the works was located near Percy's Riley Engine Company. The first new model, the 17/30, was introduced at the London Motor Show that year. Soon afterwards, Stanley Riley founded yet another business, the Nero Engine Company, to produce his own 4-cylinder 10 hp car. Riley began manufacturing aeroplane engines and became a key supplier in Britain's buildup for World War I. In 1918, after the war, the Riley companies were restructured. Nero joined Riley as the sole producer of automobiles. Riley Motor Manufacturing under the control of Allan Riley became Midland Motor Bodies, a coachbuilder for Riley. Riley Engine Company continued under Percy as the engine supplier.
At this time, Riley's blue diamond badge, designed by Harry Rush appeared. The motto was "As old as the industry, as modern as the hour." Riley grew through the 1920s and 1930s. The Riley Engine Company produced 4-, 6-, 8-cylinder engines, while Midland built more than a dozen different bodies. Riley models at this time included: Saloons: Adelphi,'Continental', Falcon, Mentone, Monaco, Victor Coupes: Ascot, Lincock Tourers: Alpine, Gamecock Sports: Brooklands, Imp, MPH, Sprite Limousines: Edinburgh, WinchesterIntroduced in 1926 in a humble but innovatively designed fabric bodied saloon, Percy Riley's ground-breaking Riley 9 engine- a small capacity, high revving unit- was ahead of its time in many respects. Having hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, it has been called the most significant engine development of the 1920s. With twin camshafts set high in the cylinder block and valves operated by short pushrods, it provided power and efficiency without the servicing complexity of an OHC layout.
It soon attracted the attention of builders of ` specials' intended for sporting purposes. One such was engineer/driver J. G. Pa
The Austin 7 is an economy car, produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin. It was nicknamed the "Baby Austin" and was at that time one of the most popular cars produced for the British market and sold well abroad, its effect on the British market was similar to that of the Model T Ford in the US, replacing most other British economy cars and cyclecars of the early 1920s. It was licensed and copied by companies all over the world; the first BMW car, the BMW Dixi, was a licensed Austin 7, as were the original American Austins. In France they were sold as Rosengarts. In Japan, Nissan used the 7 design as the basis for their first cars, although not under licence; this led to a 1952 agreement for Nissan to build and sell Austins in Japan under the Austin name. Many Austin 7s were rebuilt as "specials" after the Second World War, including the first race car built by Bruce McLaren, the first Lotus, the Mark I; such was the power of the Austin 7 name that the company re-used it for early versions of the A30 in 1951 and Mini in 1959.
Until the First World War Austin built large cars, but in 1909 they sold a single-cylinder small car built by Swift of Coventry called the Austin 7 hp. After this they returned to bigger cars. In 1920 Sir Herbert Austin commenced working on the concept of a smaller car to meet the needs of young families aspiring to own an affordable motor car; this idea was spurred on by the introduction of the Horsepower Tax in 1921. His design concept marked a departure from his company's conservative motoring past and Austin received considerable opposition from his board of directors and creditors; because the company was in receivership Austin decided to carry out the project himself on his own account and in 1921 hired an 18-year-old draughtsman, Stanley Edge, from the Austin factory at Longbridge, Birmingham to aid in the drawing of detailed plans. This work was carried out in the billiard room of Austin's Lickey Grange home. Edge convinced Austin to use a small four-cylinder engine; the original side valve engine design featured a capacity of 696cc giving a RAC rating of 7.2 hp, the cast cylinder block featured a detachable head and was mounted on an aluminium crankcase.
The crankshaft used the big-ends were splash lubricated. Edge carried out the design of other mechanical components such as the three speed gearbox and clutch assembly. Austin was responsible for styling the Seven's design, influenced by the design of the Peugeot Quadrilette; the "A" frame chassis design was believed to have been influenced by the design of an American truck used in the Longbridge factory in the early 1920s. The design was completed in 1922 and three prototypes were constructed in a special area of the Longbridge factory, announced to the public in July 1922. Austin had put a large amount of his own money into the design and patented many of its innovations in his own name. In return for his investment he was paid a royalty of two guineas, on every car sold. Nearly 2,500 cars were made in the first year of production, not as many as hoped, but within a few years the "big car in miniature" had wiped out the cyclecar industry and transformed the fortunes of the Austin Motor Co.
By 1939 when production ended, 290,000 cars and vans had been made. The Austin 7 was smaller than the Ford Model T; the wheelbase was only 6 ft 3 inches, the track only 40 inches. It was lighter – less than half the Ford's weight at 794 pounds; the engine required for adequate performance was therefore reduced and the 747 cc sidevalve was quite capable with a modest 10 hp output. The chassis took the form of an "A" with the engine mounted between the channel sections at the narrow front end; the rear suspension was by quarter elliptic springs cantilevered from the rear of the chassis while at the front the beam axle had a centrally mounted half elliptic transverse spring. Early cars did not have any shock absorbers. Brakes were on all wheels but at first the front brakes were operated by the handbrake and the rear by the footbrake, becoming coupled in 1930. In late 1931 the chassis was lengthened by 6" with a corresponding increase in the rear track. Steering is by wheel mechanism; the original 1922 four-cylinder Austin Seven engine had a bore of 2.125" and stroke of 3", giving a capacity of 696 cc and RAC rating of 7.2 hp.
From March 1923 the bore was increased to 2.2" giving 10.5 hp. The side-valve engine was composed of an aluminium crankcase, cast iron cylinder block and cast iron cylinder head. Cooling was by thermosiphon, without a water pump, the dynamo was driven from the timing gears; the big end bearings were lubricated by jets from an oil gallery in the crankcase, the oil striking the crankshaft webs which were drilled accordingly. The journal diameter was 1.125". The three bearing engine used a white metal centre bearing; the splash-lubricated crankshaft at first ran in two bearings changing to three in 1936. An electric starter was fitted from November 1923; the early cars used magneto ignition, but this was changed to coil in 1928. The 3-speed and reverse gearbox was integral with the engine, had a variety of ratios depending on application. A four-speed gearbox was introduced in 1932 and in 1933 synchromesh was added to third and top ratios extending to second gear in 1934; the back axle was of spiral bevel type with ratios between 4.4:1 and 5.6:1.
A short torque tube ran forward from the differential housing to a bearing and bracke
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
A kit car is an automobile, available as a set of parts that a manufacturer sells and the buyer assembles into a functioning car. Many of the major mechanical systems such as the engine and transmission are sourced from donor vehicles or purchased new from other vendors. Kits vary in completeness, consisting of as little as a book of plans, or as much as a complete set with all components to assemble into a operational vehicle such as those from Caterham. There is a sub-set of the kit car referred to as a "re-body", in which a commercially manufactured vehicle has a new body put on the running chassis. Most times, the existing drive gear and interior are retained; these kits require less technical knowledge from the builder, because the chassis and mechanical systems were designed and tested by a major automotive manufacturer, a re-body can lead to a much higher degree of safety and reliability. The definition of a kit car indicates that a manufacturer constructs multiple kits of the same vehicle, each of which it sells to a third party to build.
A kit car should not be confused with a hand built car or special car, modified or built from scratch by an individual for a specific purpose. Note, that rally specials have since World War 2 referred to manufacturers' specially series-produced cars. A component car, a self-assembly car in which 100% of the parts required to build the car are purchased from a single company. Component Cars are distinguished from kit cars as all parts are quality controlled and designed to fit together perfectly, they can be built in less time than a "kit car". See Knock-down kit, a term applied to a similar but larger commercial exercise. Kit cars have been around from the earliest days of the automobile. In 1896 the Englishman Thomas Hyler-White developed a design for a car that could be assembled at home and technical designs were published in a magazine called The English Mechanic. In the USA, the Lad's Car of 1912 could be bought for $160 assembled or $140 in kit form, it was not until the 1950s that the idea took off.
Car production had increased and with rust proofing in its infancy many older vehicles were being sent to breaker yards as their bodywork was beyond economic repair. An industry grew up supplying new bodies and chassis to take the components from these cars and convert them into new vehicles into sports cars. Fiber reinforced plastic was coming into general use and made limited-scale production of automobile body components much more economical. In the UK up to the mid-1970s, kit cars were sometimes normal production vehicles that were assembled as this avoided the imposition of purchase tax as the kits were assessed as components and not vehicles. During the 1970s many kits had bodies styled as sports cars that were designed to bolt directly to VW Beetle chassis; this was popular as the old body could be separated from the chassis leaving all mechanical components attached to the chassis and a GRP-body from the kit supplier shop fitted. This made the Beetle one of the most popular "donor" vehicles of all time.
Examples of this conversion include the Bradley GT, Sebring which were made by the thousands and many are still around today. Volkswagen based dune buggies appeared in large numbers in the 1960s and 1970s based on a shortened floor pan. Current kit cars are replicas of well-known and expensive classics and are designed so that anyone with a measure of technical skill can build them at home to a standard where they can be driven on the public roads; these replicas are in general appearance like the original, but their bodies are made of fiberglass mats soaked in polyester resin instead of the original sheet metal. Replicas of the AC Cobra and the Lotus 7 are popular examples, the right to manufacture the Lotus 7 now being owned by Caterham Cars who bought the rights to the car from Lotus founder Colin Chapman in 1973. Caterham Cars are a "Component Car" and are a continued development of Chapman's design, whereas all other Lotus 7 style cars are replicas, are "Kit Cars" costing less and not having the residual values of the Caterham.
These Replica kit cars enable enthusiasts to possess a vehicle similar in appearance to a vehicle which because of scarcity they may not be able to afford, at the same time take advantage of modern technology. The Sterling Nova Kit produced in the UK was the most popular VW based Kits being produced worldwide and licensed under several different names with an estimated 10000 sold. Many people react sceptically when they first hear about kit cars as it appears to them to be technically impossible to assemble a car at home and license it for public roads, they may be worried that such a car would not subsequently pass the mandatory quality control, required in most countries. For example, to obtain permission to use a kit car in Germany, every such vehicle with a speed over 6 km/h without a general operating license or an EC type permission has to undergo, as per the § 21 of Road traffic licensing regulations, a technical inspection by an recognized expert of a Technical Inspection Authority.
In the United Kingdom it is necessary to meet the requirements of the IVA regulations. In the United States SEMA has gone state by state to set up legal w
The Ford Popular called the Ford Pop, is a car from Ford UK, built in England between 1953 and 1962. When launched, it was Britain's lowest priced car; the name Popular was used by Ford to describe its 1930s Y Type model. The Popular name was later used on basic models of the Escort and Fiesta cars. Electrics were 6 volts, a provided starting handle necessary. Rod operated synchromesh only on 2nd and top gear; the boot accessed with a coach key, no heater or demister, semaphore indicators, pull-wire starter, manual choke. No water pump, engine cooling by thermosyphon – this was basic motoring; when production of the older Ford Anglia and Ford Prefect was stopped in 1953 the Popular was developed as a budget alternative, based on the old, pre-war style E494A Anglia. The E494A was, in turn, a facelift of the Anglia E04A, a facelifted version of the 7Y, itself a rebodied Model Y, thus through several adjustments and name changes, a design with provenance dating back to 1932 was produced by Ford for 27 years.
It was powered by 30 bhp, four-cylinder engine. The car was basic, it had a single vacuum-powered wiper, no heater, vinyl trim, little chrome. The Popular 103E differed visually from the Anglia E494E in having smaller headlights and a lack of trim on the side of the bonnet. Early 103Es had the three spoke banjo type Anglia/Prefect steering wheel as stocks of these were used up, but most have a two spoke wheel similar to the 100E wheel but in brown. Early Populars had the single centrally mounted tail/stop-lamp of the Anglia, but this changed to a two tail/stop lamp set up with the lamps mounted on the mudguards and a separate number plate lamp. In total, 155,340 Popular E103s were produced; this car proved successful because, while on paper it was a sensible alternative to a clean, late-model used car, in practice there were no clean late-model used cars available in postwar Britain owing to the six-year halt in production caused by the Second World War. This problem was compounded by stringent export quotas that made obtaining a new car in the late 1940s and into the early 1950s difficult, covenants forbidding new-car buyers from selling for up to three years after delivery.
Unless the purchaser could pay the extra £100 or so for an Anglia 100E, Austin A30 or Morris Minor, the choice was the Popular or a pre-war car. In years, these cars became popular as hot rods since the late 1950s when people started drag racing them due to their lightweight construction; this practice started in the United States with Ford's 1932 Model B/18, while the Ford "Pop" as it was affectionately known became the definitive British hot rod – a reduced sized but available British alternative, a role it still plays today to a considerable extent. A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1954 had a top speed of 60.3 mph and could accelerate from 0-50 mph in 24.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 36.4 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £390 including taxes; the Popular 103E was available in Australia up to 1955 as a two-door coupe utility and in chassis-cowl form to accept custom built bodyworkwork. It utilised the 94 inch wheelbase of the Ford Prefect with 103E front panels.
The utility was designated as 103E-67 and the chassis-cowl model as 103E-84. The Popular utility differed from its Anglia A494A utility predecessor in that the Popular did not have running boards whereas the Anglia did have them. In 1959 the old Popular was replaced by a new version, in production until 1962. Like the previous version it used a superseded Anglia body shell, this time that of the 100E, it was powered by a strengthened 1172 cc sidevalve engine producing 36 bhp; the brakes were now hydraulic with 8 in drums all round. The new Popular offered 1,000 mile service intervals, like its predecessor, but it only had 13 grease points as against its predecessor's 23; the basic model stripped out many fittings from the Anglia but there was a large list of extras available and a De Luxe version which supplied many as standard. 126,115 Popular 100Es were built. The Motor magazine tested a 100E in 1960 and found it to have a top speed of 69.9 mph, acceleration from 0–50 mph in 19.6 seconds and a fuel consumption of 33.2 miles per imperial gallon.
The test car cost £494 including taxes with a comment that it was the lowest-priced orthodox saloon on the British Market. In 1960, the manufacturer's recommended retail price of £494 was equivalent to 26 weeks' worth of the average UK wage; the £100 charged in 1935 and the £1,299 charged for the Ford Escort Popular in 1975 both amounted to 26 weeks' worth of average wage for the years in question. In the 1950s, the country had been undergoing a period of above average austerity: in 1953 the car's £390 sticker price represented 40 weeks' worth of the average UK wage. In 1975 the Popular name was revived as a base trim level of the newly released Ford Escort Mk2; this model featured a standard 1.1 litre OHV Kent engine, 12-inch wheels with cross ply tyres and drum brakes all round. The 1975 Ford Escort Popular was the first Ford to carry the Popular name that featured a heater as standard equipment; the "Popular" trim level proved long-standing across the Ford range, featuring on Escorts and the Fiesta, from 1980 to 1991.
A'Popular Plus' variant was available. In 1970, a 1954 Ford Popular-based kit car, the Siva Edwardian, was used by Jon Pertwee to become "Bessie", the Doctor's sprightly Edwardian roadster on the lo