Hackney is an unincorporated community in Cowley County, United States. The town was named after William P. Hackney, a colorful frontier lawyer and politician from Cowley County. Hackney was a station and shipping point on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; the post office was established March 31, 1894, discontinued February 15, 1924. An airport was built in the early 1940s and was used as a training airfield by the United States Army Air Forces during World War II; the airport is now called Strother Field and it is the home of Strother Field Industrial Park. Cowley County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT
Arkansas City, Kansas
Arkansas City is a city in Cowley County, United States, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers in the southwestern part of the county. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,415; the name of this city is not pronounced like the nearby state of Arkansas, but rather as. Over the years there has been much confusion about the regional pronunciation of "Arkansas", which locals render as rather than. Throughout much of Kansas, residents use this alternative pronunciation when referring to the Arkansas River, as well as Arkansas Street in the city of Wichita. Present-day Arkansas City sits on the site of an ancestral Wichita city, which flourished from 1450 to 1700 and had an estimated population of 20,000. In 1601, New Mexico Governor Juan de Oñate led an expedition across the Great Plains and found a large settlement of Indians he called Rayados, they lived along the Walnut River in the eastern part of Arkansas City. Extensive remains of Indian settlements have been found along six miles of the Walnut River.
The Rayados were the ancestors of the Indians called Wichita. Wichita settlements from the 18th century are found a few miles south of Arkansas City on the west bank of the Arkansas River. European-American settlers first congregated in the area where Arkansas City now stands in the 1860s. Local Native Americans referred to the place as Nichonka, which translates as "place between the waters," a reference to the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers. Settlers established a town in 1870, they had difficulty choosing a name. The first post office in Arkansas City was established on May 16, 1870. In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado, in 1881 it was extended to Douglass, to Arkansas City; the line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942; the original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Douglass, Akron, Arkansas City.
Arkansas City grew through the latter part of the 19th century, enjoyed a population explosion starting in 1891, when thousands of people moved into the area in anticipation of the Cherokee Strip Land Run. It has been estimated that the city's population swelled from 5,000 to 150,000 as the nationally hyped federal land giveaway approached, shrank back to 5,000 in its aftermath. A small cave just east of town was a rest stop for Buffalo Bill Cody when he transited the area working the railroad and killing buffalo; the James–Younger Gang of outlaws hid out in a cave west of town when they rode through the area. At the turn of the century, Arkansas City was a rival to Wichita in size and enterprise, boasting several busy rail lines, an elegant opera house, numerous fine hotels, a manufacturing base and a bustling agricultural economy. There was a famous sanitarium at nearby Geuda Springs. A popular swimming hole called. Nearly 20 years the WPA would build the Paris Park pool in the same spot. African Americans were not allowed to swim in the Paris Park pool during the era of segregation and used a separate facility colloquially referred to as "the black pool" by local residents.
The Kirkwood Wind Engine Company, a former windmill manufacturer, was headquartered in Arkansas City near the turn of the 20th century. During the 1920s, Arkansas City had an active group of Ku Klux Klan; the group was concentrated in south-central and south-east Kansas. The state took action to shut down the group, most Klans disbanded by 1927. In 1928, the city's official fall festival, was inaugurated; this annual event still draws thousands of visitors each October, features a queen, a carnival, dozens of homegrown fair food vendors and a spectacular parade lasting two hours or more. During the 1955 Arkalalah celebration, retired Santa Fe steam locomotive 2542 was dedicated in Wilson Park, where it remains today; the city prospered through much of the 20th century, but by the 1980s, the community was facing economic challenges. The railroads shifted many of their crews to other stops, the old Rodeo meat packing plant, which for a short time was Morrell Meats, closed; the only passenger train that served Amtrak's Lone Star, was discontinued.
In 1996 Total Petroleum closed their refinery in Ark City with a loss of 170 jobs. By 2003 other large employers in Cowley County closed operations; the Binney & Smith plant closed with a loss of 400 jobs. Winfield State Hospital and Gordon Piatt Industries were closed in nearby Winfield with a combined loss of 973 jobs. Montgomery KONE Elevator and Central Plains Book Manufacturing at nearby Strother Field were shuttered. Arkansas City is now home to state-of-the-art meat processor Creekstone Farms Premium Beef LLC which employs over 700 workers. Several smaller manufacturing companies are expanding their operations while new start ups are finding a home in Cowley County due in part to the workforce supplied by the two local colleges in the county. Both cities, only 11 miles apart, now have large Wal-Mart stores.
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Burns is a city in Marion County, United States. The city name came from a nearby train station, named prior to the city being incorporated; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 228. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1855, Marion County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Burns. In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado, a station called Burns was built north of the present city location.
In 1881, the rail line was extended to Douglass later to Arkansas City. The line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; the line from Florence through Burns to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942. The original branch line connected Florence through El Dorado to Arkansas City. At the present location, a city named St. Francis was platted in August 1880; when the town incorporated, they discovered the official city name of St. Francis was taken, so they changed the name to be the same as the nearby Burns train station soon afterward the station was moved into the new city; the original station was named after a railroad company official. A post office was established in Burns on November 30, 1880. Burns High School closed in 1965 as a result of statewide school district consolidation. Burns Elementary School and Junior High School closed in 1997 due to the lack of funds. Public education is provided by Peabody-Burns USD 398 in Peabody. In 2010, the Keystone-Cushing Pipeline was constructed 6.5 miles west of Burns, north to south through Marion County, with much controversy over road damage, tax exemption, environmental concerns.
A pumping station named. Burns is located at 38°5′26″N 96°53′14″W, in the scenic Flint Hills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The south city limits of Burns is the county line shared between Butler County; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Burns has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Route 77 Classic Car & Bike Show Burns Hog Roast. Burns has one listing on the National Register of Historic Places. 1905 Burns Union School, south-west corner of Main St and Ohio Ave. Burns Union School was the first consolidated grade and high school in Kansas; the school was the first to use a school "bus" in Kansas, which were special-order wagons in 1904. The building houses the Burns Community Museum. Mars Attacks!, 1996 comedy science fiction movie, the Perkinsville scenes from this movie was filmed around Burns.
The beginning cattle segment was filmed near Leon, the retirement community where Grandma Norris lived was filmed in northeast Wichita. As of the census of 2010, there were 228 people, 93 households, 59 families residing in the city; the population density was 651.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 112 housing units at an average density of 320.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.9% White, 1.3% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 93 households of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.6% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14.
The median age in the city was 38 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.9% male and 46.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 268 people, 101 households, 79 families residing in the city; the population density was 755.6 people per square mile. There were 116 housing units at an average density of 327.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.51% White, 0.75% African American and 0.75% Native American. There were 101 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.8% were non-families. 17.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and ov
McConnell Air Force Base
McConnell Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located four miles southeast of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, United States. The airbase was named in honor of the brothers Fred and Thomas McConnell of Wichita, who had both been Air Force pilots and veterans of World War II, it is the home of Air Mobility Command's 22d Air Refueling Wing, Air Force Reserve Command's 931st Air Refueling Wing, the Kansas Air National Guard's 184th Intelligence Wing. McConnell's primary mission is to provide global reach by conducting air refueling and airlift where and when needed; the Commander of the 22d Air Refueling Wing is Colonel Josh Olson, the Vice-Commander is Colonel Mark Baran and the Command Chief is Chief Master Sergeant Jaime Capps. Major units at McConnell are: 22d Air Refueling Wing 22d Operations Group "Keeper of the Plains" 344th Air Refueling Squadron 349th Air Refueling Squadron 350th Air Refueling Squadron 384th Air Refueling Squadron 22d Maintenance Group 22d Medical Group 22d Mission Support GroupAssociate Units: 931st Air Refueling Wing 18th Air Refueling Squadron NOTE: The 931 ARW and its 18 ARS do not have any assigned aircraft.
Rather, the group and squadron provide additional personnel to augment the active duty personnel of the 22 ARW. Tenant Units: 184th Intelligence Wing 127th Command and Control Squadron McConnell Air Force Base was known during the first part of its existence as the Wichita Municipal Airport. Although the field was designed to serve only municipal civil airport needs, it had an Air Force connection from the beginning. McConnell's history began in October 1924, when the city of Wichita hosted more than 100,000 people for the National Air Congress; the event was used by city planners to raise funds for a proposed Wichita Municipal Airport. The event was a success and ground-breaking ceremonies for the airport were held on 28 June 1929. In August 1941, the Kansas National Guard 127th Observation Squadron was activated as the first military unit assigned to the Wichita airport; the unit's limited equipment included one BC-1A, one C-47, four L-1 aircraft. This was the start of a cooperative relationship between the people of Wichita and military aviation.
On 6 October 1941, the unit was ordered to extended active duty and remained an integral part of the United States Army Air Corps until 6 October 1945, with duty assignments in Tennessee and Okinawa. The airport, at that time, was located about six miles from the city of Wichita and comprised some 1,337 acres; the runways were adequate. All had a wheel load capacity of 60,000 pounds. A parking apron with dimensions of 8,373 by 931 feet, seven taxi strips were provided. Other facilities at the airport, were meager; the field could boast of three small warehouses. No facilities were available either for troop troop messing. No fuel storage facilities existed, all such supplies were handled by commercial contract. A lease between the federal government and the city was concluded and on 1 March 1942, the AAF Materiel Center, Midwestern Procurement District was established at Wichita Army Airfield; as soon as construction permitted, the headquarters of the district was established in the administration building of the municipal airport.
By the end of 1942, due to the growth and expansion of the organization it occupied the entire building save for a few offices occupied by the CAA and airline companies, while some activities of the district were housed at the Boeing Airplane Company Plant No. 1, in Wichita. Air Materiel Command's mission at the airport was to accept and coordinate the transfer of newly produced Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers to other installations. In addition, Ferrying Division, Air Transport Command's 4156th AAF Base Unit was organized; the new base unit had the mission of servicing and maintaining transient and locally based aircraft. The working personnel were civilian, with a few officers in supervisory capacities. On 11 October 1946, the 4156th AAF Base Unit was ordered to cease operations by the 30th of the month; the remainder of October was spent in closing down operations and transferring property to Tinker Army Airfield, Oklahoma. On 15 November the field was transferred to the District Engineer, Seventh Service Command at Omaha, Nebraska who assumed jurisdiction over the field, pending disposition, while the 4156th AAF Base Unit was discontinued on the same day.
All military personnel were absorbed by Oklahoma City Air Materiel Area. Wichita Airport was returned to civilian jurisdiction, it remained so until 1951; the Boeing B-47 Stratojet was the first swept-winged jet bomber built in quantity for any air force, was the mainstay of the medium-bombing strength of the Strategic Air Command all throughout the 1950s. The Boeing plant at Wichita was shut down after World War II. However, on 3 September 1948, the first production order was placed for the B-47. Since Boeing's Seattle facility was heavily committed to the KC-97 Stratofreighter tanker and the B-50 Superfortress bomber, as well as to the conversion of obsolescent B-29 bombers to aerial tankers, it was decided that the production Stratojets were to be built at Boeing's factory in Wichita. By the summer of 1950, Boeing was ready to turn out the first production m
Florence is a city in Marion County, United States. The city was named after the daughter of the third Governor of Kansas Samuel J. Crawford; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 465. For millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans; these tribes considered native included: the Arapaho, Comanche, Kiowa, Osage and Wichita. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1806, Zebulon Pike led the Pike expedition westward from St Louis, Missouri, of which part of their journey followed the Cottonwood River through Marion County near the current cities of Florence, Durham.
In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1855, Marion County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Florence; the first settlers in Marion County located near the present site of Florence. They were Moses Shane, who came in 1858, whose death the next year was the first in the county. A post office existed in Doyle from November 26, 1866 to March 13, 1871; the Florence Town Company was a group of men who learned of the proposed route of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, extended from Emporia, who decided on a town site where the railroad would cross the Cottonwood River. In September 23, 1870, there was announcement in The Emporia News about a new town named "Florence" at the mouth of Doyle Creek; the Florence Town Company was formed on December 1870 with Samuel J. Crawford as the president. Crawford was the 3rd Governor of Kansas from 1865 to 1868, he named Florence, in honor of his daughter, Miss Florence Crawford of Topeka.
The post office moved from Doyle to Florence on March 13, 1871. In 1871, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway extended a main line from Emporia through Florence to Newton. In 1996, it renamed to the current BNSF Railway; the Santa Fe depot building still has been closed for decades. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado, in 1881 it was extended to Douglass, to Arkansas City; the line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942; the original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Douglass, Akron, Arkansas City. As early as 1875, city leaders of Marion held a meeting to consider a branch railroad from Florence. In 1878, the Marion and McPherson Railway Company was chartered. In 1879, a branch line was built from Florence to McPherson, in 1880 it was extended to Lyons, in 1881 it was extended to Ellinwood.
The line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to Marion, was abandoned in 1968. In 1992, the line from Marion to McPherson was sold to Central Kansas Railway. In 1993, after heavy flood damage, the line from Marion to McPherson was abandoned; the original branch line connected Florence, Canada, Lehigh, Galva, McPherson, Windom, Little River, Lyons, Ellinwood. In 1877, Fred Harvey, an entrepreneur, credited with establishing the first restaurant chain in the United States, bought the Clifton Hotel near the Florence railroad station for $5,370. Harvey redecorated the hotel and early in 1878, the second Harvey House Restaurant opened in Florence - the first Harvey House to offer sleeping rooms in addition to a restaurant. There have been numerous floods during the early history of Florence. In June and July 1951, due to heavy rains and streams flooded numerous cities in Kansas, including Florence. Many reservoirs and levees were built in Kansas as part of a response to the Great Flood of 1951.
From 1964 to 1968, the Marion Reservoir was constructed north-west of Marion. Downstream from the Marion Reservoir, levees were built in low-lying areas of Florence. Florence is located at 38°14′34″N 96°55′46″W, in the scenic Flint Hills of the Great Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.77 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Florence has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Florence Labor Day Celebration, 76th annual in 2013. Florence High School Alumni Banquet, 117th annual in 2013, Memorial Day Weekend Harvey House Picnic, 15th annual in June 2013. Tour de Florence, mountain bike tour of the Flint Hills area around Florence, held in October. Florence Farmers Market, Moses Shane Memorial Park, May through September, Tuesday 5:30PM to 7:30PM. Florence has five buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
1876 Harvey House, 221 North Marion Street. Part of the first Fred Harvey House, of the Fred Harvey Company, which stood south of the Santa Fe railroad tracks until the early 1900s; the existing structure was the original
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c