Rockabye Baby! is a series of CDs geared toward infants and newborns, containing instrumental lullaby versions of popular rock bands including The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin. This CMH Records series debuted in 2006, garnered many reviews from the music and entertainment industry, including MTV, The Boston Globe, Chicago Sun-Times, Entertainment Weekly, In Style magazine, ABC World News, The Washington Post. Rockabye Baby CDs were included in gift bags given to all of the presenters and performers at the 49th Annual Grammy Awards. In 2011, Rockabye Baby! Released their five-year anniversary compilation, Good Day, Goodnight, a 2-CD set featuring songs from released albums as well as several new songs; as of January 2012 there are 50+Rockabye Baby! Albums on the market, from a diverse of artists, such as Journey, Björk and Kanye West; the Spokesman Review said "the series is designed for modern-music-minded parents who want to share songs like Paranoid Android with their kids without scarring them for life."
Several songs from the 2006 Rockabye Baby! release, Lullaby Renditions of Nirvana appear in the 2015 Kurt Cobain biographical film, Montage of Heck, directed by Brett Morgen. On February 4, 2018, the Rockabye Baby! Version of Nirvana's "All Apologies" appeared in a Super Bowl commercial for T-mobile. Rockabye Baby has been reviewed in the national media and child-rearing magazines Parents, American Baby and Child. Rockabye Baby! Baby's Favorite Rock Songs, available at Starbucks March 23-April 19, 2010, reached #3 on Billboard’s Kids Albums chart, #18 on the Billboard Independent Albums, #111 on the Billboard Top 200. Rockabye Baby! and Hushabye Baby CDs were featured on Good Day LA's "Style File: Jill's Favorite Baby Gifts" on December 9, 2009. 2007 Greatest Product - iParenting Media Award for three of their albums: Lullaby Renditions of Green Day, Lullaby Renditions of The Rolling Stones, Lullaby Renditions of U2. Best Kids' Album - The 2007 ESKY Awards - Favorite Audio/Video Source - Baby and Children's Product News Cribsie Award for Catchiest Kids Tune - First annual Cribsie award with over 135,000 votes cast Scott Kirkland of The Crystal Method and his wife, have stated that the Rockabye Baby!
CDs play nightly in the nursery of their 14-month-old son Jett. During a videotaped interview Metallica guitarist, Kirk Hammett, mentioned playing the Rockabye Baby! Lullaby Renditions of Metallica for his own son. In the episode of Rachael Ray that aired February 15, 2008, Rachael Ray presented Kate Hudson with Rockabye Baby! CDs as a gift for soon-to-be father, Matthew Bellamy. In the March 17, 2008 issue of People, Rockabye Baby! is mentioned in the cover story, Nicole's Baby Girl, that features an interview with Nicole Richie and Joel Madden. A blurb in the article says, "Rockabye Baby! CDs: Lullaby versions of Radiohead and Nirvana sooth Harlow on car trips." Other celebrities who have expressed interest in Rockabye Baby! CDs include Tori Spelling, Scott Baio, Denise Richards and Carnie Wilson
Christy's Minstrels, sometimes referred to as the Christy Minstrels, were a blackface group formed by Edwin Pearce Christy, a well-known ballad singer, in 1843, in Buffalo, New York. They were instrumental in the solidification of the minstrel show into a fixed three-act form; the troupe invented or popularized "the line", the structured grouping that constituted the first act of the standardized three-act minstrel show, with the interlocutor in the middle and "Mr. Tambo" and "Mr. Bones" on the ends. In 1846 they first performed in Polmer's Opera House in New York City. From March 1847, they ran for a seven-year stint at New York City's Mechanics' Hall. After performing at a benefit performance for Stephen Foster in Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 25, 1847, the group specialized in performances of Foster's works. Foster sold Old Folks at Home, to Christy for his exclusive use; the troupe's commercial success was phenomenal: Christy paid Foster for the exclusive rights to the song. Besides Christy himself, the troupe included Christy's stepson George Christy considered the greatest blackface comic of the era.
When by September 1855 George and Edwin Christy had retired from the group, the company continued under the name of'Christy's Minstrels', until Edwin Christy took out an injunction to prevent them. Christy was affected by the American Civil War, committed suicide in 1862. J. W. Raynor and Earl Pierce formed a new troupe, it opened in London, England, as "Raynor & Pierce's Christy Minstrels" at the St. James's Theatre on 3 August 1857, they performed at the Surrey Theatre and the "Polygraphic Hall" on King William Street, where they appeared for ten months. "Nellie Grey" by Michael Balfe, as sung by Raynor, became popular. In 1859, the troupe moved to the St. James's Hall, performing for another four months and touring the British provinces, it returned to Polygraphic Hall, disbanding in August 1860. The success of this troupe led to the phrase "Christy Minstrels" coming to mean any blackface minstrel show. Soon, four new companies were formed, each claiming to be the "original" Christy Minstrels, because they each boasted one or two former members of the old troupe.
One group played in Dublin at the Chester Theatre in 1864, moving to London at the Standard Theatre in Shoreditch in 1865. The Dublin performances were evidently popular enough that James Joyce mentions them in his short story collection Dubliners and alludes to them on the opening page of Finnegans Wake. Three months it moved to St. James's Hall, where it began a run of 35 years until 1904; the original members of that troupe retired or died, leaving only "Pony" Moore and Frederic Burgess surviving into the 1870s. Therefore, the troupe changed its name to the "Moore & Burgess's Minstrels". Other groups continued to use the title "Christy", but historian Frank Andrews describes their quality as poor; some of them continued to perform into the twentieth century. Christy's novel three-part shows began with a "walkaround", the company marching onto the stage singing and dancing. A staple of the walkaround was the cakewalk, which white audiences loved despite not realizing that it originated with plantation slaves imitating their masters' walks.
The troupe was seated in a semicircle, with one member on each end playing the tambourine or the bones. The endmen were named Brother Tambo and Brother Bones, they engaged in an exchange of jokes between the group's songs and dances, it was customary for Tambo to be Bones to be fat. A character called Mr. Interlocutor sat in the middle of the group, acting as the master of ceremonies; as the interlocutor took his place in the middle of the semicircle he uttered the time-honored phrase: "Gentlemen, be seated. We will commence with the overture." During the performance he conducted himself in a dignified manner that contrasted well with the behavior of the rowdy endmen. Part two was a precursor to vaudeville, it included singers, dancers and other novelty acts, as well as parodies of legitimate theater. A preposterous stump speech served as the highlight of this act, during which a performer spoke in outrageous malapropisms as he lectured; the performer's demeanor was meant to be reminiscent of the hilarious pomposity of Zip Coon.
Part three ended the show with a one-act play a vignette of carefree life on the plantation. After Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in 1852 and the play became famous, minstrel shows appropriated the major characters for sketches that changed the abolitionist themes in the original into an argument for the benign character of slavery; the New Christy Minstrels, a folk group from the 1960s, were named with reference to this group, but they did not perform in blackface. Edwin Pearce Christy, at the University of Pennsylvania site. Accessed 6 Sept 2005. Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509641-X. Toll, Robert. C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502172-1. Foster and the Christy Minstrels Sheet music - 1848 Sheet music - 1850 "Old Folks at Home" - 1851 Illustrated "Christmas Annual" - 1868
The figure of Mother Goose is the imaginary author of a collection of French fairy tales and of English nursery rhymes. As a character, she appeared in a song, the first stanza of which functions now as a nursery rhyme. This, was dependent on a Christmas pantomime, a successor to, still performed in the United Kingdom; the term's appearance in English dates back to the early 18th century, when Charles Perrault’s fairy tale collection, Contes de ma Mère l'Oye, was first translated into English as Tales of My Mother Goose. A compilation of English nursery rhymes, titled Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, helped perpetuate the name both in Britain and the United States. Mother Goose's name was identified with English collections of stories and nursery rhymes popularised in the 17th century. English readers would have been familiar with Mother Hubbard, a stock figure when Edmund Spenser published the satire Mother Hubberd's Tale in 1590, as well as with similar fairy tales told by "Mother Bunch" in the 1690s.
An early mention appears in an aside in a versified French chronicle of weekly events, Jean Loret's La Muse Historique, collected in 1650. His remark, comme un conte de la Mère Oye shows that the term was understood. Additional 17th-century Mother Goose/Mere l'Oye references appear in French literature in the 1620s and 1630s. In the 20th century, Katherine Elwes-Thomas theorised that the image and name "Mother Goose" or "Mère l'Oye" might be based upon ancient legends of the wife of King Robert II of France, known as "Berthe la fileuse" or Berthe pied d'oie described as spinning incredible tales that enraptured children. Other scholars have pointed out that Charlemagne's mother, Bertrada of Laon, came to be known as the goose-foot queen. There are sources that trace Mother Goose's origin back to the biblical Queen of Sheba. Despite evidence to the contrary, it has been claimed in America that the original Mother Goose was the Bostonian wife of Isaac Goose, either named Elizabeth Foster Goose or Mary Goose.
Alternatively, the original Mother Goose lived in Boston in the 1660s as the second wife of Isaac Goose, who brought to the marriage six children of her own to add to Isaac's ten. After Isaac died, Elizabeth went to live with her eldest daughter, who had married Thomas Fleet, a publisher who lived on Pudding Lane. According to Early, "Mother Goose" used to sing songs and ditties to her grandchildren all day, other children swarmed to hear them, her son-in-law gathered her jingles together and printed them, though no evidence of such prints has been found. Iona and Peter Opie, leading authorities on nursery lore, give no credence to either the Elwes-Thomas or the Boston suppositions, it is accepted that the term does not refer to any particular person. Charles Perrault, one of the initiators of the literary fairy tale genre, published a collection of such tales in 1695 called Histoires ou contes du temps passés, avec des moralités under the name of his son, which became better known under its subtitle of Contes de ma mère l'Oye or Tales of My Mother Goose.
Perrault's publication marks the first authenticated starting-point for Mother Goose stories. In 1729, an English translation appeared of Perrault's collection, Robert Samber's Histories or Tales of Past Times, Told by Mother Goose, which introduced Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Puss in Boots and other Perrault tales to English-speaking audiences; the first public appearance of the Mother Goose stories in America was in Worcester, where printer Isaiah Thomas reprinted Samber's volume under the same title in 1786. Maurice Ravel ‘s Ma mère l'oye suite is dependent on Perrault’s collection. Starting with five pieces for piano duet in 1908-10, he orchestrated them for a ballet in which two of the episodes were named after the fairy tale characters Sleeping Beauty and Tom Thumb; the ballet was first performed in Paris in 1912 and that year in Chicago. John Newbery was once believed to have published a compilation of English nursery rhymes titled Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the cradle some time in the 1760s, but the first edition was published in 1780 or 1781 by Thomas Carnan, one of Newbery's successors.
This edition was registered with the Stationers' Company, London in 1780. However, no copy has been traced, the earliest surviving edition is dated 1784; the name "Mother Goose" has been associated in the English-speaking world with children's poetry since. In 1834, John Bellenden Ker Gawler published a book deriving the origin of the Mother Goose rhymes as arising from political disaffection expressed in a invented Flemish language, an effort described by the Opies as "the most extraordinary example of misdirected labour in the history of English letters". In addition to being the purported author of nursery rhymes, Mother Goose is herself the title character in one recorded by the Opies, only the first verse of which figures in editions of their book. Titled "Old Mother Goose and the Golden Egg", this verse prefaced a 15-stanza poem that rambled through a variety of adventures involving not only the egg but Mother Goose's son Jack. There exists an illustrated chapbook omitting their opening stanza that dates from the 1820s and another version was recorded by J. O. Halliwell in his The Nursery Rhymes of England.
Other shorter versions were recorded later. All of them, were dependent on a successful pantomime first performed
The Glorious Revolution called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689. King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition from members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the King's Catholicism and his close ties with France; the crisis facing the King came with the birth of his son, James, on 10 June. This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive with young James as heir apparent; the establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the British kingdoms now seemed likely. Some Tory members of parliament worked with members of the opposition Whigs in an attempt to resolve the crisis by secretly initiating dialogue with William of Orange to come to England, outside the jurisdiction of the English Parliament.
Stadtholder William, the de facto head of state of the Dutch United Provinces, feared a Catholic Anglo–French alliance and had been planning a military intervention in England. After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed because of a lack of resolve shown by the king; this was followed, however, by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland. In England's distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December 1688, James and his wife Mary fled England. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William, in February 1689, convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs.
The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both and politically: For over a century Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament; the Revolution led to limited tolerance for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued by Whig historians, that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power. Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe, it has been seen as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force; the resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch navies, shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and to Great Britain.
The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in late 1689, is an expression, still used by the British Parliament. The Glorious Revolution is occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately; the English Civil War was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688, for them, in comparison to that war the deaths in the conflict of 1688 were few. During his three-year reign, King James II became directly involved in the political battles in England between Catholicism and Protestantism, between the concept of the divine right of kings and the political rights of the Parliament of England. James's greatest political problem was his Catholicism, which left him alienated from both parties in England; the low church Whigs had failed in their attempt to pass the Exclusion Bill to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681, James's supporters were the high church Anglican Tories. In Scotland, his supporters in the Parliament of Scotland stepped up attempts to force the Covenanters to renounce their faith and accept episcopalian rule of the church by the monarch.
When James inherited the English throne in 1685, he had much support in the'Loyal Parliament', composed of Tories. His Catholicism was of concern to many, but the fact that he had no son, his daughters and Anne, were Protestants, was a "saving grace". James's attempt to relax the Penal Laws alienated his natural supporters, because the Tories viewed this as tantamount to disestablishment of the Church of England. Abandoning the Tories, James looked to form a'King's party' as a counterweight to the Anglican Tories, so in 1687 James supported the policy of religious toleration and issued the Declaration of Indulgence; the majority of Irish people backed James II for this reason and because of his promise to the Irish
Eugene Field Sr. was an American writer, best known for his children's poetry and humorous essays. He was known as the "poet of childhood". Field was born in St. Louis, Missouri at 634 S. Broadway where today his boyhood home is open to the public as The Eugene Field House and St. Louis Toy Museum. After the death of his mother in 1856, he was raised by a cousin, Mary Field French, in Amherst, Massachusetts. Field's father, attorney Roswell Martin Field, was famous for his representation of Dred Scott, the slave who sued for his freedom. Field filed the complaint in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case on behalf of Scott in the federal court in St. Louis, whence it progressed to the U. S. Supreme Court. Field attended Williams College in Massachusetts, his father died when Eugene turned 19, he subsequently dropped out of Williams after eight months. He went to Knox College in Galesburg, but dropped out after a year, followed by the University of Missouri in Columbia, where his brother Roswell was attending.
Field was spent much of his time at school playing practical jokes. He led raids on the president's wine cellar, painted the president's house school colors, fired the school's landmark cannons at midnight. Field tried acting, studied law with little success, wrote for the student newspaper, he set off for a trip through Europe but returned to the United States six months penniless. Field set to work as a journalist for the St. Joseph Gazette in Saint Joseph, Missouri, in 1875; that same year he married Julia Comstock. For the rest of his life he arranged for all the money he earned to be sent to his wife, saying that he had no head for money himself. Field soon rose to city editor of the Gazette, he became known for his light, humorous articles written in a gossipy style, some of which were reprinted by other newspapers around the country. It was during this time that he wrote the famous poem "Lovers Lane" about a street in St. Joseph, Missouri. From 1876 through 1880, Field lived in St. Louis, first as an editorial writer for the Morning Journal and subsequently for the Times-Journal.
After a brief stint as managing editor of the Kansas City Times, he worked for two years as editor of the Denver Tribune. In 1883, Field moved to Chicago where he wrote a humorous newspaper column called Sharps and Flats for the Chicago Daily News, his home in Chicago was near the intersection of N. Clarendon and W. Hutchinson in the neighborhood now known as Buena Park; the Sharps and Flats column ran in the newspaper's morning edition. In it, Field made quips about issues and personalities of the day in the arts and literature. A pet subject was the intellectual greatness of Chicago compared to Boston. In April 1887, Field wrote, "While Chicago is humping herself in the interests of literature and the sciences, vain old Boston is frivoling away her precious time in an attempted renaissance of the cod fisheries." That year, Chicago's National League baseball club sold future baseball Hall of Famer Mike "King" Kelly to Boston, coincidentally soon after, famous Boston poet and diplomat James Russell Lowell made a speaking tour of Chicago.
"Chicago feels a special interest in Mr. Lowell at this particular time because he is the foremost representative of the enterprising and opulent community which within the last week has secured the services of one of Chicago's honored sons for the base-ball season of 1887," Field wrote. "The fact that Boston has come to Chicago for the captain of her baseball nine has reinvigorated the bonds of affection between the metropolis of the Bay state and the metropolis of the mighty west. Four months upon Kelly's first return to Chicago as a player for Boston, Field would speak to "Col. Samuel J. Bosbyshell, the Prairie avenue millionaire." Bosbyshell said, "I like Mr. Kelly better; when Lowell was here I had him out to the house to a $3,500 dinner, do what I could, I couldn't get him waked up. He didn't seem to want to talk about anything but literature. Now, when I'm out in society I make it a point never to talk shop, Lowell's peculiarity mortified me. If it hadn't been for Frank Lincoln, with his imitations and funny stories, the dinner would have been a stupid affair.
But Kelly is another kind of man. I don't believe he mentioned books once during the four hours we sat at dinner last Saturday evening. Nor did he confine his conversation to base-ball topics. Over a dozen volumes of poetry followed and he became well known for his light-hearted poems for children, among the most famous of which are "Wynken and Nod" and "The Duel". Famous is his poem about the death of a child, "Little Boy Blue". Field published a number of short stories, including "The Holy Cross" and "Daniel and the Devil." Field died in Chicago of a heart attack at the age of 45. He is buried at the Church of the Holy Comforter in Illinois. Slason Thompson's 1901 biography of Field states that he was buried in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, but his son-in-law, Senior Warden of the Church of the Holy Comforter, had h
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, played for children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural tradition. In addition, lullabies are used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, regulation of behavior. One of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants; as a result, the music is simple and repetitive. Lullabies can be found in many countries, have existed since ancient times. Although not accepted as a standard etymology, it has been argued that the term "lullaby" derives from "Lilith-Abi". In the Jewish tradition, Lilith was a demon, believed to steal children's souls in the night. To guard against Lilith, Jewish mothers would hang four amulets on nursery walls with the inscription "Lilith – abei". Lullabies tend to share exaggerated melodic tendencies, including simple pitch contours, large pitch ranges, higher pitch.
These clarify and convey heightened emotions of love or affection. When there is harmony, infants always prefer consonant intervals over dissonant intervals. Furthermore, if there is a sequence of dissonant intervals in a song, an infant will lose interest and it becomes difficult to regain its attention. To reflect this, most lullabies contain consonant intervals. Tonally, most lullabies are simple merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies. In addition to pitch tendencies, lullabies share several structural similarities; the most frequent tendencies long pauses between sections. This dilutes the rate of material and appeals to infants' slower capacity for processing music. Rhythmically, there are shared patterns. Lullabies are in triple meter or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion." This mimics the movement. In addition, infants' preference for rhythm shares a strong connection with what they hear when they are bounced, their own body movements; the tempos of lullabies tend to be slow, the utterances are short.
Again, this aids in the infant's processing of the song. Lullabies never have instrumental accompaniments. Infants have shown a strong preference for unaccompanied lullabies over accompanied lullabies. Again, this appeals to infants' more limited ability to process information. Lullabies are used for their soothing nature for non-infants. One study found lullabies to be the most successful type of music or sound for relieving stress and improving the overall psychological health of pregnant women; these characteristics tend to be consistent across cultures. It was found that adults of various cultural backgrounds could recognize and identify lullabies without knowing the cultural context of the song. Infants have shown a strong preferences for songs with these qualities. Lullabies are used to pass down or strengthen the cultural roles and practices. In an observation of the setting of lullabies in Albanian culture, lullabies tended to be paired with the rocking of the child in a cradle; this is reflected in the swinging rhythmicity of the music.
In addition to serving as a cultural symbol of the infant's familial status, the cradle's presence during the singing of lullabies helps the infant associate lullabies with falling asleep and waking up. Studies conducted by Dr. Jeffery Perlman, chief of newborn medicine at New York–Presbyterian Hospital's Komansky Center for Children's Health, find that gentle music therapy not only slows down the heart rate of prematurely delivered infants but helps them feed and sleep better; this speeds their recovery. A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics under the aegis of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City found that the type of music matters. Therapeutically designed "live" music – and lullabies sung in person – can influence cardiac and respiratory function. Another study published in February 2011 in Arts in Psychotherapy by Jayne M. Standley of the National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy at Florida State University suggests that babies who receive this kind of therapy leave the hospital sooner.
Additional research by Jayne M. Standley has demonstrated that the physiological responses of prematurely delivered infants undergoing intensive care can be regulated by listening to gentle lullabies through headphones. In addition to slowing heart and respiration rates, lullabies have been associated with increased oxygen saturation levels and the possible prevention of life-threatening episodes of apnea and bradycardia. Gentle music can provide stimulation for premature infants to behave in ways that boost their development and keep them alive. Lullabies can serve as a low-risk source of stimulation and reinforcement for increasing nipple sucking rates, providing infants with the nutrition they require for growth and development. Lullabies are thus associated with encouraging the rapid development of the neurological system and with a shorter length of hospitalization. More recent research has shown that lullabies sung live can have beneficial effects on physiological functioning and development in premature infants.
The live element of a slow, repetitive entrained rhythm can regulate sucking behavior. Infants have a natural tendency to entrain to the sounds. Beat perception begins during fetal development in the womb and infants are born with an innate musical preference; the elem