Otis Adelbert Kline
Otis Adelbert Kline born in Chicago, Illinois, USA, was a songwriter, an adventure novelist and literary agent during the pulp era. Much of his work first appeared in the magazine Weird Tales. Kline was an amateur orientalist and a student of Arabic, like his friend and sometime collaborator, E. Hoffmann Price. Kline is best known for an apocryphal literary feud with fellow author Edgar Rice Burroughs, in which he raised the latter's ire by producing close imitations of Burroughs's Martian novels, though set on Venus. Kline's jungle adventure stories, reminiscent of Burroughs's Tarzan tales, have been cited as evidence of the conflict. While the two authors did write the works in question, the theory that they did so in contention with each other is supported only circumstantially, by the resemblance and publication dates of the works themselves; the feud theory was set forth in a fan press article, "The Kline-Burroughs War," by Donald A. Wollheim, afterward given wider circulation by Sam Moskowitz in his book Explorers of the Infinite.
Richard A. Lupoff debunked the case in his book Edgar Rice Burroughs: Master of Adventure. Among the evidence cited by Lupoff discounting the feud: no comment from either writer acknowledging the feud is documented, family members of the two authors have no recollection of hearing them mention it. In response to Lupoff's investigations Moskowitz identified his original source as Wollheim's article, while Wollheim stated, when questioned on the source of his own information: "I made it up!" Kline was an assistant editor at Weird Tales from its inception. He contributed numerous stories to the magazine and edited a single issue — that for May–July 1924. In the mid-1930s Kline abandoned writing to concentrate on his career as a literary agent. Kline represented Howard from the spring of 1933 till Howard's death in June 1936, continued to act as literary agent for Howard's estate thereafter, it has been suggested that Kline may have completed Howard's "planetary romance" Almuric, which he submitted to Weird Tales for posthumous publication in 1939, although this claim is disputed.
Kline's novels received serial publication in magazines before their release in book form. The Mars novels appeared in Argosy, The Port of Peril in Weird Tales; the Planet of Peril The Prince of Peril The Port of Peril The Swordsman of Mars The Outlaws of Mars The Call of the Savage, or Jan of the Jungle Jan in India "The Secret Kingdom," Amazing Stories 3-part serial, with brother Allen S. Kline Maza of the Moon, Argosy 4-part serial "The Man Who Limped," Oriental Stories "Spawn of the Comet," Argosy "The Thing That Walked in the Rain," Amazing Stories "The Dragoman's Revenge," Oriental Stories "The Dragoman's Secret," Oriental Stories "The Dragoman's Slave Girl," Oriental Stories "The Dragoman's Confession," Oriental Stories "The Dragoman's Jest," Oriental Stories with E. Hoffman Price "The Dragoman's Pilgrimage," Magic Carpet Magazine "The Fang of Amm Jemel," Argosy "The Murder Room," New Detective "The Iron World," Thrilling Wonder Stories "Stolen Centuries," Thrilling Wonder Stories Satans on Saturn, 5-part serial, with E. Hoffmann Price "Meteor Men of Mars," Planet Stories, with Harry Cord "The Thing of a Thousand Shapes" 2-part serial "The Phantom Wolfhound" "The Corpse on the Third Slab" "The Cup of Blood" "The Malignant Entity" "The Phantom Rider" "The Bride of Osiris" 3-part serial "The Demon of Tlaxpam" "The Bird-People" "Thirsty Blade", with E. Hoffmann Price "Tam, Son of the Tiger" 6-part serial "Midnight Madness" "Lord of the Lamia" 3-part serial "The Cyclops of Xoatl", with E. Hoffmann Price "Spotted Satan", with E. Hoffmann Price "Return of the Dead", with Frank Belknap Long The Man Who Limped and Other Stories The Dragoman's Revenge Sheldon Jaffery and Fred Cook, The Collector's Index to Weird Tales, Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1985.
John Locke, "Otis Adelbert Kline and the Invisible Hand" in The Thing's Incredible! The Secret Origins of Weird Tales. Elkhorn, CA: Off-Trail Publications, 2018, ISBN 1935031252. E. Hoffmann Price, "Chapter II: Otis Adelbert Kline" in Book of the Dead: Friends of Yesteryear: Fictioneers & Others, Sauk City, Wisconsin: Arkham House, 2001. Specific Works by or about Otis Adelbert Kline at Internet Archive Works by Otis Adelbert Kline at Faded Page Kline ebooks at Project Gutenberg of Australia Otis Adelbert Kline at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Whiteside County, Illinois
Whiteside County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 58,498, its county seat is Morrison. The county is bounded on the west by the Mississippi River. Whiteside County comprises the Sterling, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dixon-Sterling, IL Combined Statistical Area. Former U. S. President Ronald Reagan was born in the Whiteside County community of Tampico; this area was long occupied by varying cultures of Native Americans. Whiteside County was organized by European Americans in 1836 from parts of Jo Daviess and Henry counties, it was named for General Samuel Whiteside, an Illinois officer in the War of 1812 and Black Hawk War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 697 square miles, of which 684 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Morrison have ranged from a low of 10 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −30 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 112 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.51 inches in February to 4.69 inches in August. Carroll County Ogle County Lee County Bureau County Henry County Rock Island County Clinton County, Iowa Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 58,498 people, 23,740 households, 16,005 families residing in the county; the population density was 85.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 25,770 housing units at an average density of 37.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.2% white, 1.3% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 3.5% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.5% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 8.7% were Dutch, 8.6% were English, 6.0% were American. Of the 23,740 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families, 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age was 41.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,266 and the median income for a family was $54,242. Males had a median income of $41,862 versus $29,157 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,405. About 8.2% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Fulton Morrison Prophetstown Rock Falls Sterling Tampico Albany Coleta Deer Grove Erie Lyndon Tampico Galt Malvern Como Whiteside County is divided into these townships: Whiteside County has a political history typical of Northern Illinois. Between its first election in 1840, 1852, it always favored the Whig Party, although Whiteside was not as strong for the Free Soil Party as counties to the east like Boone and Lake, it gave substantial votes to that party in 1848 and 1852 and became powerfully Republican for the next century-and-a-quarter.
Between 1856 and 1988 the only time Whiteside County did not vote for the Republican candidate was in 1912 when the GOP was mortally divided and Whiteside County voted for Progressive Party nominee and former President Theodore Roosevelt over conservative incumbent William Howard Taft. Between at least 1880 and 1960, no Democratic Presidential nominee won forty percent of Whiteside County’s vote, Alf Landon in 1936 carried the county by 22 percent when losing 46 of 48 states. In 1964 the Republican Party nominated Barry Goldwater, whose hostility to the Yankee establishment and conservative policies were sufficient to leave many traditional Republicans to stay home or to vote for Lyndon Johnson, who lost the county only by 404 votes out of over twenty-five thousand; the county returned to solid Republican voting for the next twenty years, but when its most famous native came within 3,818 votes of sweeping all fifty states voted marginally more Democratic than the nation at-large in 1984, repeated this in 1988 and voted Democratic for the first time in its history by giving a plurality to Bill Clinton in 1992.
The county would give its first-ever Democratic majority to president Clinton in 1996 and continue to vote Democratic until 2016, when concern over employment declines in the “Rust Belt“ saw Donald Trump become the first Republican to carry the county since George Bush senior. List of counties in Illinois National Register of Historic Places listings in Whiteside County, Illinois County History History of Whiteside County website
U.S. Route 30
U. S. Route 30 is an east–west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country, it is the third longest U. S. route, after U. S. Route 20 and U. S. Route 6; the western end of the highway is at Oregon. Despite long stretches of parallel and concurrent Interstate Highways, it has not been decommissioned unlike other long haul routes such as U. S. Route 66. Much of the historic Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, became part of US 30; the west end of US 30 is at an intersection with U. S. Route 101 at the south end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge in downtown Astoria, Oregon 5 miles from the Pacific Ocean, it heads east to Portland, where it uses a short section of freeway built for the canceled Interstate 505. From there it heads around the north side of downtown on Interstate 405 and Interstate 5 to reach Interstate 84. Most of the rest of the route is concurrent with I-84, with only about 70 miles, under 1/5 of its remaining length, off the freeway on old alignments.
Upon entering Idaho, US 30 runs along its old surface route through Fruitland and New Plymouth before joining I-84. It leaves at Bliss and soon crosses the Snake River, running south of it through Twin Falls and Burley before crossing it again and rejoining I-84. At the split with Interstate 86, US 30 continues east with I-86 to its end at Pocatello. US 30 cuts southeast through downtown Pocatello to Interstate 15. There it exits and heads east and southeast, not parallel to an Interstate for the first time since Portland, into Wyoming; the Thousand Springs Scenic Byway is a picturesque section of old US 30 in southern Idaho between the towns of Bliss and Buhl, dipping down into the Hagerman Valley and a canyon of the Snake River. The byway takes its name from the numerous streams and rivulets springing forth out of the east wall of that canyon, many of them plainly visible from the road, with the panoramic river in the foreground; these springs are outlets from the Snake River Aquifer, which flows through thousands of square miles of porous volcanic rock and is one of the largest groundwater systems in the world.
The aquifer is believed In Wyoming, US 30 heads southeast through Kemmerer to Granger, where it joins Interstate 80 across southern Wyoming. It is here that it joins the historic Lincoln Highway; as in the previous two states, US 30 remains with the Interstate for most of its path, only leaving for the old route in the following places: 97 miles from Walcott to Laramie 12 miles through Cheyenne 2 miles through Pine Bluffs to the Nebraska state line Unlike the three states to the west, Nebraska keeps US 30 separate from its parallel Interstates. From the state line to Grand Island, US 30 parallels I-80. East of Grand Island, US 30 diverges from I-80 and runs northeast towards Columbus on a highway parallel to the Platte River. At Columbus, it turns east towards Schuyler and Fremont and crosses the Missouri River into Iowa east of Blair. US 30 crosses Iowa from west to east 20 miles north of Interstate 80. Between Missouri Valley and Denison, the highway runs in a southwest-to-northeast direction.
Several freeway bypasses have been built around the major cities on US 30 - Ames, Tama, Cedar Rapids and DeWitt. It crosses the Mississippi River into Illinois on the Gateway Bridge at Clinton. U. S. Route 30S and U. S. Route 30A are two previous alternate alignments of U. S. Route 30 in Iowa, they followed the original alignment of US 30 in Iowa. They both began in Nebraska, entered Iowa in Council Bluffs, extended north to Missouri Valley via Crescent to meet the current highway. US 30 heads east in Illinois to Rock Falls, where it begins to parallel Interstate 88. At Aurora it turns southeast to Joliet, where it is a major thoroughfare in the city of Joliet, back east through New Lenox, Mokena, Olympia Fields, Chicago Heights, Ford Heights, Lynwood to the Indiana state line, bypassing Chicago to the south; the original 1926 routing of US 30 ran directly through downtown Chicago, however. US 30 in Indiana is a major rural divided highway, it is not a freeway except at Fort Wayne, where it runs around the north side on Interstate 69 and Interstate 469.
Between I-65 and I-69, there are over 40 traffic signals on this divided highway, hindering smooth traffic flow. This is pronounced near Warsaw and Columbia City, where the speed limit is reduced and there are many driveways from businesses, as well as traffic signals that are too near each other and poorly timed, causing frequent bottlenecks. Warsaw's Mayor, Joe Thallemer, has caused most of the bottleneck by continuing to allow new signal lights to pop up on US 30 during his tenure in office. Many of the other signals are concentrated between Hobart and Valparaiso, the two cities being about 20 miles apart, it is, however, a four lane divided road through its entirety within Indiana avoiding small towns. Speed limits range, but are 60 miles per hour. US 30 heads east across northern Ohio via Canton. After several upgrades, it is now a four-lane divided highway from the Indiana state line to Canton with controlled-access freeway sections between Van Wert and Delphos and Canton, Ohio. At Upper Sandusky, the highway runs concurrent with US 23.
After Canton, the road continues on to East Liverpool as two-lane highway (until, near the unincorporated
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Luigi Paulino Alfredo Francesco Antonio Balassoni, known by the stage name Louie Bellson, was an American jazz drummer. He was a composer, arranger and jazz educator, is credited with pioneering the use of two bass drums. Bellson was an internationally acclaimed artist who performed in most of the major capitals around the world. Bellson and his wife and singer Pearl Bailey, had the second highest number of appearances at the White House. Bellson was a vice president at a drum company, he was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1985. Bellson started playing drums at three years of age. At 15, he pioneered using two bass drums at the same time. At age 17, he triumphed over 40,000 drummers to win the Slingerland National Gene Krupa contest. After graduating from high school, he worked with big bands throughout the 1940s, with Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Harry James, Duke Ellington. In 1952, he married jazz singer Pearl Bailey. During the 1950s, he played with the Dorsey Brothers, Jazz at the Philharmonic, acted as Bailey's music director, recorded as a leader for Norgran Records and Verve Records.
Over the years, his sidemen included Ray Brown and Conte Candoli, Chuck Findley, John Heard, Roger Ingram, Don Menza, Blue Mitchell, Larry Novak, Nat Pierce, Frank Rosolino, Bobby Shew, Clark Terry, Snooky Young. In an interview in 2005 with Jazz Connection magazine, he cited as influences Jo Jones, Sid Catlett, Chick Webb. "I have to give just dues to two guys who got me off on the drums – Big Sid Catlett and Jo Jones. They were my influences. All three of us realized what it influenced a lot of us. We all three looked to Jo as the'Papa' who did it. Gene helped bring the drums to the foreground as a solo instrument. Buddy was a great natural player, but we have to look back at Chick Webb's contributions, too."During the 1960s, he returned to Ellington's orchestra for Emancipation Proclamation Centennial stage production, My People in and for A Concert of Sacred Music, sometimes called The First Sacred Concert. Ellington called these concerts "the most important thing I have done."Bellson's album The Sacred Music of Louie Bellson and the Jazz Ballet appeared in 2006.
In May 2009, Francine Bellson told The Jazz Joy and Roy syndicated radio show, "I like to call'how the Master used two maestros,'" adding, "When did his sacred concert back in 1965 with Louie on drums, he told Louie that the sacred concerts were based on'in-the-beginning,' the first three words of the bible." She recalled how Ellington explained to Louie that "in the beginning there was lightning and thunder and that's you!" Ellington exclaimed. Both Ellington and Louie, says Mrs. Bellson, were religious. "Ellington told Louie,'You ought to do a sacred concert of your own' and so it was," said Bellson, adding, "'The Sacred Music of Louie Bellson' combines symphony, big band and choir, while'The Jazz Ballet' is based on the vows of Holy Matrimony..."On December 5, 1971 he took part in a memorial concert at London's Queen Elizabeth Hall for drummer Frank King. This tribute show featured Buddy Rich and British drummer Kenny Clare; the orchestra was led by Irish trombonist Bobby Lamb and American trombonist Raymond Premru.
A few years Rich paid Bellson a compliment by asking him to lead his band on tour while he was temporarily disabled by a back injury. Bellson accepted; as a prolific creator of music, both written and improvised, his compositions and arrangements embrace jazz, jazz/rock/fusion, romantic orchestral suites, symphonic works and a ballet. Bellson was a poet and a lyricist, his only Broadway venture, was a resounding flop that closed after three performances. As an author, he published more than a dozen books on drums and percussion, he was at work with his biographer on a book chronicling his career and bearing the same name as one of his compositions, "Skin Deep". In addition, "The London Suite" was performed at the Hollywood Pilgrimage Bowl before a record-breaking audience; the three-part work includes a choral section in which a 12-voice choir sings lyrics penned by Bellson. Part One is a collaboration with Jack Hayes. In 1987, at the Percussive Arts Society convention in Washington, D. C. Bellson and Harold Farberman performed a major orchestral work titled "Concerto for Jazz Drummer and Full Orchestra", the first piece written for jazz drummer and full symphony orchestra.
This work was recorded by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra in England, was released by the Swedish label BIS. Bellson was known throughout his career to conduct drum and band clinics at high schools and music stores. Bellson maintained a tight schedule of clinics and performances of both big bands and small bands in colleges and concert halls. In between, he continued to record and compose, resulting in more than 100 albums and more than 300 compositions. Bellson's Telarc debut recording, Louie Bellson And His Big Band: Live From New York, was released in June 1994, he created new drum technology for Remo, of which he was vice-president. Bellson received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters in 1985 at Northern Illinois University; as of 2005, among other performing activities, Bellson had visited his home town of Rock Falls, Illinois every July for Louie Bellson Heritage Days, a weekend in his honor c
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website