Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n
Houghton is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and largest city in the Copper Country on the Keweenaw Peninsula. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,708, it is the county seat of Houghton County. It has been listed as one of the "100 Best Small Towns in America."Houghton is sometimes confused with, or thought to be close to, Houghton Lake. Due to its location in the northwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula, Houghton is isolated from the state's most populous areas, it is farther to drive from Houghton to Detroit than it is from Detroit to Washington, D. C, it takes fewer hours to travel to Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, or Chicago, Illinois from Houghton than it does to travel to Detroit. Houghton, as its county, was named after Douglass Houghton, an American geologist and physician known for his exploration of the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. Native Americans mined copper in and around what would be Houghton thousands of years before European settlement.
"French explorers had noted... existence as early as the seventeenth century, 1772 Alexander Henry had prospected for copper on the Ontonagon River near Victoria." When Horace Greeley said, "Go West, young man" he was referring to the copper rush in "Michigan's western Upper Peninsula." Many Cornish and Finnish immigrants arrived in the Houghton area to work in the copper mines. The Finns and others called much of the area Copper Island. Smaller numbers of French-Canadian immigrants moved to Houghton, while more of them settled elsewhere in Houghton County; the last nearby mines closed in the late 1960s, but a school founded in 1885 by the Michigan State Legislature to teach metallurgy and mining engineering, the Michigan College of Mines, continues today under the name of Michigan Technological University and is the primary employer in the city. The first known European settler of Houghton was named Ransom Shelden, who set up a store named Ransom's near Portage Lake, though it is unclear whether this was in the same building as the 1852 Shelden and Shafer drugs, sometimes described as "the first commercial building constructed in Houghton," which Shelden owned with his son Ransom B.
The main street of Houghton, variously called "Sheldon Avenue," Sheldon Street, Shelden Avenue, is named for him. In the 1970s the construction of a parking deck and the connection of downtown stores to create Shelden Center changed the downtown. William W. Henderson was appointed the first postmaster of Houghton in 1852. In 1854, Ernest F. Pletschke platted Houghton, was incorporated as a village in 1861. In Houghton's first days it was said that "only thieves, crooks and Indians" lived there; the postwar boom and increasing demand for copper wiring fueled the development of Houghton in the 1860s and 1870s. Houghton gained in importance as a port with the opening of the Keweenaw Waterway in 1873, the waterway being the cumulative dredging and extension of the Portage Lake, Portage Shipping Canal and Lily Pond so as to isolate the northern part of the Keweenaw Peninsula into Copper Island. By 1880 Houghton had become "a burgeoning city" and in 1883, the railroad was extended from Marquette. 1909 saw the founding of what would become Portage Lake District Library.
During the bitter Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the Michigan National Guard was called in after the sheriff petitioned the governor. Houghton was the birthplace of professional ice hockey in the United States when the Portage Lakers were formed in 1903. Houghton is the home of the Portage Lake Pioneers Senior Hockey Team; the team's home ice is Dee Stadium, named after James R. Dee. Dee Stadium was called the Amphidrome, before it was damaged in a 1927 fire. Houghton was incorporated as a city in 1970. In the winter of 2001, Houghton was the site of one of the first lumitalos to be constructed in the United States. On October 28, 2002, the first day of issue ceremony was held in Houghton for the "snowman stamps" issued by the United States Postal Service. One of the 2006 United States Postal Service snowflake stamps were unveiled in Houghton. A pictorial postmark commemorating Winter Carnival 2007, "Ancient Worlds Come to Play in Snowy Drifts of Modern Day", was applied at the Winter Carnival temporary station in Michigan Technological University's Memorial Union Building, February 10, 2007.
The city is located on the south shore of the Keweenaw Waterway "on rolling wooded hills less than a mile" across Portage Lake." From Hancock. The city is bounded on the east by Portage Township and Pilgrim, on the west by Dakota Heights and on the south by Hurontown and Isle Royale Location, unincorporated communities that are part of Portage Township. Houghton is named after discoverer of copper nearby. Houghton is the home of Michigan Technological University; the city is served by Houghton County Memorial Airport in nearby Oneco. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.69 square miles, of which 4.45 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water. In the West Houghton neighborhood is West Houghton Park, containing an outdoor ice rink and lawn tennis courts. Along Portage Lake is the Raymond Kestner Waterfront Recreation Area, the principal feature of, a large "Chutes and Ladders" playground.
Rock Harbor Light
The Rock Harbor Lighthouse is a light station located in Rock Harbor on Isle Royale National Park, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977; the Rock Harbor Lighthouse is a 50-foot-tall cylindrical tower with a 16-foot-diameter base, constructed of randomly placed stone and brick, capped with an octagonal beacon with a copper roof. A one-and-a-half-story keeper's house with gabled roof is connected to the tower on one end. In 1852, due to the increase in shipping in Lake Superior, it was recommended that a new light be constructed on Isle Royale. Construction began in 1855, was completed in 1856; the Rock Island Light was the first lighthouse constructed on Isle Royale. The first keeper arrived at the station on October 24, 1856, the lighthouse went into operation a short time later; the light had been manned for less than three years when it was determined that, due to the decrease in mining traffic, it was no longer required. It was extinguished on August 1, 1859, the lighthouse was abandoned.
During the American Civil War, copper mining increased once more, in 1873 renovations began on the station, leading to the reactivation of the light on August 5, 1874. However, after another drop in copper prices, following the activation in 1875 of the Isle Royale Light at Menagerie Island, the Rock Harbor Light was rendered less useful. On October 4, 1879, the Rock Harbor lighthouse was deactivated for the second and last time, having been in service for a total of only eight years since its construction. In 1910, the keeper's house was altered, including the addition of dormers. In the 1950s, the tower began to tilt, an emergency stabilization was undertaken; the original wooden roof of the structure was replaced with asphalt in 1962, the foundation was stabilized in 1969. The station is unmanned. Isle Royale National Park: Outdoor Activities Rock Harbor Lighthouse, Survey number HABS MI-386, Historic American Buildings Survey
Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior, part of the U. S. state of Michigan. The island and the 450 surrounding smaller waters make up Isle Royale National Park; the island is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide, with an area of 206.73 square miles, making it the largest natural island in Lake Superior, the second largest island in the Great Lakes, the third largest in the contiguous United States, the 33rd largest island in the United States. Isle Royale is defined by the United States Census Bureau as Census Tract 9603 of Keweenaw County, Michigan; as of the 2000 census there was no permanent population. After the island was made a national park, some existing residents were allowed to stay, a few leases are still in effect. Ferries from Michigan and Wisconsin land at Rock Harbor on the eastern end of the island. Ferries from Minnesota run to Windigo on the western end, which has a visitor center and campground. In 1875, Isle Royale was set off from Keweenaw County, as a separate county, "Isle Royale County".
In 1897, the county was dissolved, the island was reincorporated into Keweenaw County. The highest point on the island is about 800 feet above lake level. Isle Royale is within about 15 miles of the Canadian and Minnesotan shores of the lake, is 56 miles from the Michigan shore, on the Keweenaw Peninsula. There are seasonal passenger ferry services to the island from Minnesota. There is a seasonal sea plane service. There are no roads on the island, wheeled vehicles or devices, other than wheelchairs, are not permitted. Rock Harbor has wheeled carts available to move personal belongings from the Rock Harbor marina to the cabins and hotel; the National Park Service employs tractors and a few World War II jeeps to move items around the ranger station area at Windigo, Rock Harbor, Mott Island. Topsoil tends to be thin, which favors trees that have horizontal root patterns such as balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce. Siskiwit Lake is the largest lake on the island, it has cold, clear water, low in nutrients.
Siskiwit Lake contains several islands, including Ryan Island, the largest, which contains Moose Flats, a seasonal pond, which contains Moose Boulder. When Moose Flats is a pond, Moose Boulder becomes the largest island in the largest lake on the largest island in the largest lake on the largest island in the largest lake in the world. Chicken Bone Lake Lake Desor Feldtmann Lake Intermediate Lake Lake Ritchie Sargent Lake There is no reliable climate data for Isle Royale. Isle Royale boasts the purest copper to be found anywhere in the world. A freak volcanic event in the distant past twisted the copper-bearing bedrock above the water line, which permitted all sulfur impurities to burn away in the open air; the island is composed of ridges, running southwest-to-northeast. The main ridge, Greenstone Ridge, is over 1,000 feet in many places. Greenstone belts are exposed, with rounded stones of chlorastrolite known as greenstone, near and in the lake. According to the National Park Service, the north sides of the ridges tend to be steeper than the south sides.
Coastal areas were once submerged beneath prehistoric lake waters, contain many tumbled boulders and other large rocks. The island was a common hunting ground for native people from nearby Ontario. A canoe voyage of thirteen miles is necessary to reach the island's west end from the mainland. In prehistoric times, large quantities of copper were mined on Isle Royale and the nearby Keweenaw Peninsula; the region is scarred by ancient mine trenches up to 20 feet deep. Carbon-14 testing of wood remains found in sockets of copper artifacts indicates that they are at least 5700 years old. In Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, published in 1961, Drier and Du Temple estimated that over 750,000 tons of copper had been mined from the region. However, David Johnson and Susan Martin contend that their estimate was based on exaggerated and inaccurate assumptions. In 1670, a Jesuit missionary named Dablon published an account of "an island called Menong, celebrated for its copper." Menong, or Minong, was the native term for the island, is the basis for the name of the Minong Ridge on the island.
Isle Royale was given to the United States by the 1783 treaty with Great Britain, but the British remained in control until after the War of 1812, the Ojibwa peoples considered the island to be their territory. The Ojibwas ceded the island to the U. S. in the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe, with the Grand Portage Band unaware that neither they nor Isle Royale were in British territory. With the clarification to the Ojibwas of the 1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty, signed before the Treaty of La Pointe, the Ojibwas re-affirmed the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe in the 1844 Isle Royale Agreement, with the Grand Portage Band signing the agreement as an addendum to the 1842 treaty. In the mid-1840s, a report by Douglass Houghton, Michigan's first state geologist, set off a copper boom in the state, the first modern copper mines were opened on the island. Evidence of the earlier mining efforts was everywhere, in the form of many stone hammers, some copper artifacts, places where copper had been worked out of the rock but left in place.
The ancient pits and trenches led to the discovery of many of the copper deposits that were mine
Greenstone Ridge Trail
The Greenstone Ridge Trail is a 40-mile-long hiking trail on Isle Royale, in Lake Superior, northern Michigan. The island is within Isle Royale National Park. There are no roads on the island, a wilderness area and national park, so the trail doubles as the primary means of land transportation across the island; the trail extends from Windigo Harbor and the Windigo Ranger Station on the island's western end, east across Isle Royale, to Rock Harbor and the Rock Harbor Lodge. The Greenstone Ridge Trail follows the top of Greenstone Ridge, a low ridge that forms the east/west spine of the island and surmounts Mount Desor, the highest point of Isle Royale. Hikers may appreciate the higher elevations as they can reduce biting mosquitoes, which are found in great numbers in the lower elevation wetlands. Hikers may moose on Isle Royale; the Greenstone Ridge and its Trail are both named after Chlorastrolite, a local semiprecious stone, the state gem of the U. S. state of Michigan. Greenstone can be seen in various locations including shoreline pebbles.
Index list of Isle Royale National Park
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Isle Royale National Park
Isle Royale National Park is an American national park consisting of Isle Royale and hundreds of adjacent islands, as well as the surrounding waters of Lake Superior, in the state of Michigan. Isle Royale National Park was established on April 3, 1940 additionally protected from development by wilderness area designation in 1976, declared a UNESCO International Biosphere Reserve in 1980; the park covers 894 square miles, with 209 square miles of land and 685 square miles of surrounding waters. The park's northern boundary lies adjacent to the Canadian Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area along the international border. Isle Royale, the largest island in Lake Superior, is over 45 miles in length and 9 miles wide at its widest point; the park is made up of Isle Royale itself and 400 smaller islands, along with any submerged lands within 4.5 miles of the surrounding islands. Large quantities of copper artifacts found in indian mounds and settlements, some dating back to 3000 B. C. were most mined on Isle Royale and the nearby Keweenaw Peninsula.
The island has hundreds of pits with most in the McCargoe Cove area. Carbon-14 testing of a charred log found at one of these pits yielded an age of 1,500 B. C; the Jesuit missionary Dablon published an account in 1669-70 of "an island called Menong, celebrated for its copper." Menong, or Minong, was the native term for the island, is the basis for Minong Ridge. Prospecting began in earnest when the Chippewas relinquished their claims to the island in 1843, starting with many of the original native pits; this activity had ended by 1855. The Minong Mine and Island Mine were the result of renewed but short-lived activity from 1873 to 1881. In Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, published in 1961, Drier and Du Temple estimated that over 1.5 billion pounds of copper had been mined from the region. However, David Johnson and Susan Martin contend that their estimate was based on exaggerated and inaccurate assumptions. In the mid-1840s, a report by Douglass Houghton, Michigan's first state geologist, set off a copper boom in the state, the first modern copper mines were opened on the island.
Evidence of the earlier mining efforts was everywhere, in the form of many stone hammers, some copper artifacts, places where copper had been worked out of the rock but left in place. The ancient pits and trenches led to the discovery of many of the copper deposits that were mined in the 19th century; the island was once the site of a resort community. The fishing industry has declined but continues at Edisen Fishery; because numerous small islands surround Isle Royale, ships were once guided through the area by lighthouses at Passage Island, Rock Harbor, Rock of Ages, Isle Royale Lighthouse on Menagerie Island. Within the waters of Isle Royale National Park are several shipwrecks; the area’s notoriously harsh weather, dramatic underwater topography, the island’s central location on historic shipping routes, the cold, fresh water have resulted in intact, well preserved wrecks throughout the park. These were documented in the 1980s, with follow up occurring in 2009, by the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center.
The predominant floral habitats of Isle Royale are within the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province. The area is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome transition zone between the true boreal forest to the north and Big Woods to the south, with characteristics of each, it has areas of both broadleaf and conifer forest cover, bodies of water ranging from conifer bogs to swamps. Conifers include jack pines and white spruces, balsam firs, eastern redcedars. Deciduous trees include quaking aspens, red oaks, paper birches, American mountain ash, red maples, sugar maples, mountain maples. Isle Royale National Park is known for its wolf and moose populations which are studied by scientists investigating predator-prey relationships in a closed environment; this is made easier because Isle Royale has been colonized by just one third of the mainland mammal species, because it is so remote. In addition, the environment is unique in that it is the only known place where wolves and moose coexist without the presence of bears.
Neither moose nor wolves inhabited Isle Royale. Just prior to becoming a national park the large mammals on Isle Royale were Canada lynx and the boreal woodland caribou. Archeological evidence indicates both of these species were present on Isle Royale for 3,500 years prior to being removed by direct human actions; the last caribou documented on Isle Royale was in 1925. Though lynx were removed by the 1930s some have periodically crossed the ice bridge from neighboring Ontario, the most recent being an individual sighting in 1980. Although lynx are no longer present on the island, their primary prey, snowshoe hares, remain. Before the appearance of wolves, coyotes were predators on the island. Coyotes disappeared shortly after wolves arrived in the 1950s. Moose are believed to have colonized Isle Royale sometime between 1905 and 1912, it was believed that a small herd of moose colonized the islands by crossing the ice from the adjacent mainland.