Fort Defiance, Arizona
Fort Defiance is a census-designated place in Apache County, United States. The population was 3,624 at the 2010 census; the land on which Fort Defiance was established was first noted by the U. S. military when Colonel John Washington stopped there on his return journey from an expedition to Canyon de Chelly. Fort Defiance was established on September 18, 1851, by Col. Edwin V. Sumner to create a military presence in Diné bikéyah. Sumner broke up the fort at Santa Fe for this purpose, creating the first military post in what is now Arizona, he left Major Electus Backus in charge. Fort Defiance was built on valuable grazing land that the federal government prohibited the Navajo from using; as a result, the appropriately named fort experienced intense fighting, culminating in two attacks, one in 1856 and another in 1860. The next year, at the onset of the Civil War, the army abandoned Fort Defiance. Continued Navajo raids in the area led Brigadier General James H. Carleton to send Kit Carson to impose order.
The fort was reestablished as Fort Canby in 1863 as a base for Carson's operations against the Navajo. General Carleton's "solution" was brutal: thousands of starving Navajo were forced on a Long Walk of 450 miles and interned near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, much of their livestock was destroyed. Following completion of this campaign in 1864 the fort was abandoned once again and it was burned by remaining Navajo, with only its walls remaining; the Navajo Treaty of 1868 allowed those interned to return to a portion of their land, Fort Defiance was reestablished as an Indian agency that year. In 1870, the first government school for the Navajo was established there. Today, the site of Fort Defiance is populated by buildings dating from the 1930s to the present day used by various governmental agencies including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, the Navajo Nation; the largest of these buildings was the Fort Defiance Indian Hospital until 2002. Fort Defiance is located at 35°44′31″N 109°4′0″W, on the Defiance Plateau about 4 miles north of Window Rock, Arizona.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the 2000 census, there were 4,061 people, 1,115 households, 890 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 669.3 people per square mile. There were 1,321 housing units at an average density of 217.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.86% Native American, 4.53% White, 0.30% Asian, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races. 1.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,115 households out of which 49.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 30.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.61 and the average family size was 4.15. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 40.0% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $33,125, the median income for a family was $35,448. Males had a median income of $35,455 versus $24,522 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,716. About 27.9% of families and 29.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.0% of those under age 18 and 32.5% of those age 65 or over. Fort Defiance is a part of Window Rock Unified School District. Fort Defiance is served by Window Rock Elementary School, Tse Ho Tso Middle School, Window Rock High School; the Navajo Nation operates Tséhootsooí Diné Bi'ólta', a Navajo language immersion school for grades K-8 in Fort Defiance, Arizona. Located on the Arizona-New Mexico border in the southeastern quarter of the Navajo Reservation, the school strives to revitalize Navajo among children of the Window Rock Unified School District. Tséhootsooí Diné Bi'ólta' has thirteen Navajo language teachers who instruct only in the Navajo language, no English, while five English language teachers instruct in the English language.
Kindergarten and first grade are taught in the Navajo language, while English is incorporated into the program during third grade, when it is used for about 10% of instruction. Clayton R. Newell, "Fort Defiance, Arizona." On Point: Journal of Army History, 14#1 pp. 44–47 Parts adapted from US Senate website, product of the US Government
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Springerville is a town in Apache County, United States, within the White Mountains. Its postal ZIP code is 85938; as of the 2010 census, the population of the town was 1,961. Springerville sits at an elevation of 6,974 feet above sea level. Along with its neighbor Eagar, the communities make up the place known as Round Valley, in the central-eastern part of Arizona close to the New Mexico border; the town that grew around Henry Springer's trading post was given its name on May 10, 1876. Before that time it had gone by names such as Colorado Chiquito, Milligan Settlement, Valle Redondo. Outlaw Cowboy Ike Clanton, present at the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, was shot dead in Springerville on June 1, 1887, by detective Jonas V. Brighton when he resisted arrest on charges of cattle rustling. Springerville is the home of Arizona's Madonna of the Trail statue, unveiled on September 29, 1928; the town was incorporated in 1948. In 1951, Twentieth Century Fox filmed an adaptation of Fred Gipson's novel The Home Place titled Return of the Texan at several locations in and around Springerville.
In June 2011, the entire town was evacuated due to a nearby wildfire. Springerville is located at 34°8′11″N 109°16′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 11.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.40%, is water. Springerville has a semi-arid climate; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,972 people, 753 households, 499 families residing in the town. The population density was 170.8 people per square mile. There were 896 housing units at an average density of 77.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 79.46% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 6.54% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 10.24% from other races, 3.04% from two or more races. 25.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 753 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.18. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,769, the median income for a family was $36,331. Males had a median income of $32,313 versus $19,519 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,830. About 14.7% of families and 21.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 26.1% of those age 65 or over. The town is served by the Round Valley Unified School District; the school's mascot is the elk and its school colors are black and gold.
The St. Johns Redskins are the school's biggest rival. Round Valley Primary School serves the town. Round Valley Intermediate School, Round Valley Middle School, Round Valley High School serve the town are in nearby Eagar. In addition, White Mountain Academy, a K-12 charter school, is located in Eagar; the high school's football stadium, The Round Valley Ensphere located in Eagar, is the eighth biggest geodesic dome in the world with a diameter of 440 feet / 134 m. The school board voted to give the Dome a pinkish looking color, it was completed in 1992, it was used as a shelter for evacuees from the Rodeo-Chediski fire in 2002. Round Valley is the only high school in the world to have a domed stadium; the first Springerville School House was dedicated September 3, 1884. In 1969—the Springerville, Vernon, Nutrioso and Colter Schools consolidated with each other to form the Round Valley Unified School District; the Springerville Municipal Airport is a town-owned public-use airport located one nautical mile west of the central business district of Springerville.
Casa Malpais is located near Springerville. It is a nationally recognized archeological site; the name Casa Malpais means "House built from Malapai", which describes the type volcanic vesicular basalt from which the ancient village was constructed. It is thought; the Springerville volcanic field contains over 400 volcanoes within a 50-mile radius of Springerville, making it the third largest volcanic field in the continental United States. The first visit to Casa Malpais by a professional anthropologist was in 1883, when Frank Cushing, living at Zuni, visited a site at "El Valle Redondo on the Colorado Chiquito", was impressed by what he termed "the fissure type pueblo" he found there. In his journal he sketched dry masonry, upon which the pueblo is constructed. Unique and unusual features characterize the site; the Great Kiva, painstakingly constructed of volcanic rock, is the centerpiece. A steep basalt staircase set into a crevice of the high red cliff wall leads to the top of the mesa. Both the Hopi and Zuni people still consider Casa Malpais a sacred ancestral place.
The town contains one of the twelve Madonna of the Trail monuments created by sculptor August Leimbach. The town is close to the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest, it is close to the Sunrise Ski Resort. The El Rio opened in 1915, it was originally
Cornfields is a chapter of the Navajo Nation and a census-designated place in Apache County, United States. The population was 255 at the 2010 census. Cornfields is part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Cornfields is located at 35°39′08″N 109°40′45″W, about 10 miles southwest of Burnside. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.39 square miles, all land. Cornfields is part of the greater Ganado area which includes Ganado, Cornfields, Wood Springs and Steamboat and the family ranches dispersed amongst these sub-areas
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Apache County, Arizona
Apache County is located in the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 71,518; the county seat is St. Johns. Part of the county is assigned to the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Apache County was formed during the Tenth Territorial Legislation in 1879 out of the eastern section of Yavapai County. By 1895, Navajo County and parts of Graham and Gila Counties were formed from this land; the county seat was placed in the town of Snowflake, but was moved a year to St. Johns. From 1880 to 1882, the county seat was temporarily in Springerville before being returned to St. Johns. A history of the area, written in 1896, records the following about the county: Apache County was created in 1879 and lies in the northeastern corner of the Territory; until March, 1895, it embraced what is now Navajo County, but at that date the latter was set apart and established as a separate county. Apache County is justly noted for its great natural advantages, it is destined some day in the early future to have a large agricultural population.
Now, immense herds of cattle and flocks of sheep roam over its fertile valleys. The Navajo Indians occupy the northern part of the county-in fact, occupy much of the remainder of the county, as they refuse to remain on their reservation, preferring to drive their sheep and cattle on lands outside their reservation, where the grazing is better; the southern part is a fine grazing country, while the northern part is cut up into picturesque gorges and canons by the floods of past centuries. In the late 1880s, the county sheriff was an Old West gunfighter legend. At that time, the county covered more than 21,177 square miles in territory. In September 1887, near Holbrook in what is now Navajo County, Owens was involved in one of the Old West's most famous gunfights, when he killed three men and wounded a fourth while serving a warrant on outlaw Andy Blevins/Andy Cooper, an active participant in a raging range war dubbed the Pleasant Valley War. In 2015, Apache County had the highest rate of death due to motor vehicles in the United States, with 82.5 deaths per 100,000 people.
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation occupies part of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 11,218 square miles, of which 11,198 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water; the county is the third-largest county by area in Arizona and the sixth-largest in the United States. Apache County contains parts of the Navajo Indian Reservation, the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Petrified Forest National Park. Canyon de Chelly National Monument is within the county. Apache County is one of two U. S. counties to border two counties of the same name, neither of, in the same state as the county itself. Apache County has the most land designated as Indian reservation of any county in the United States; the county has 68.34 percent of its total area. The reservations are, in descending order of area within the county, the Navajo Nation, the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, the Zuni Indian Reservation, all of which are located within the county. Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest Canyon de Chelly National Monument Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Petrified Forest National Park As of the census of 2000, there were 69,423 people, 19,971 households, 15,257 families residing in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 31,621 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.88% Native American, 19.50% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.13% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.75% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 4.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 58.39 % reported speaking Navajo at home, while 38.39 % speak 2.71 % Spanish. There were 19,971 households out of which 43.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.30% were married couples living together, 21.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.60% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.41 and the average family size was 4.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 38.50% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, 8.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $23,344, the median income for a family was $26,315. Males had a median income of $30,182 versus $22,312 for females; the per capita income for the county was $8,986. About 33.50% of families and 37.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.80% of those under age 18 and 36.50% of those age 65 or over. The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. Apache County is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 58.32% of the population speak Navajo at home, followed by English at 38.34% and Spanish at 2.72%. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catho
Greer is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Apache County, United States. It lies at an elevation of 8,300 feet in the White Mountains of Arizona, is surrounded by the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 41. Greer was founded around 1879 by Mormon settlers from Utah; the Greer post office has the ZIP code of 85927. Greer is a town located near the towns of Springerville and Eagar in northeast Arizona, near the New Mexico border, its position in the valley of the Little Colorado River near various lakes means that temperatures are milder than surrounding areas. Sunrise Park Resort, a skiing resort, is located about half an hour's drive west. While Greer is a four hour drive from Phoenix and a four-and-a-half hour drive from Tucson, it remains one of the most popular summer vacation destinations in Arizona, as it is 20-30 degrees cooler than the deserts. Greer was founded by Mormon Willard Lee and his family in 1879. A small community named Lee Valley developed.
The Post Office requested a shorter name, so Greer was settled on. On June 8, 2011, portions of the east side of town were overrun by the Wallow Fire. While some buildings were destroyed, most of the structures in town remain intact. Greer has a humid continental climate; the United States Postal Service operates the Greer Post Office. The Apache County Library District operates the Greer Memorial Library. Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest 630 miles of trout streams and 22 trout lakes within a 30-mile radius of Greer East Fork Trail to Mount Baldy, one of Arizona's classic streamside hikes Sunrise Park Resort ski area Hon-dah Casino on the White Mountain Apache Reservation Business Council of Greer GreerAZ.com Greer community profile at Arizona Department of Commerce Greer photo gallery