The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Miguel Rafael Martos Sánchez simply referred to as Raphael, is a worldwide acclaimed Spanish singer and television and theater actor. A pioneer of modern Spanish music, he is considered a major influence in having opened the door and paving the way to the flood of Spanish singers that followed on the wake of his enormous success, his wide-range voice, added to his quality as showman, has entertained and engaged people worldwide for more than five decades. Raphael was born Miguel Rafael Martos Sánchez in Linares, province of Jaén, on May 5, 1943; as a consequence, he is nicknamed both "El Ruiseñor de Linares" and "El Divo de Linares" but is known as "El Niño". His family moved to Madrid when he was nine months old, he started singing when he was just three years-old, he joined a children's choir at age four. When he was 9, he was recognized as the best child voice in Europe at a contest in Salzburg, Austria, his two idols, when he was growing up, with whom he announced, on October 6, 2014, his plans to record posthumous duets with, were said to be US singer Elvis Presley and French diva Edith Piaf.
Raphael began his professional career by signing with the Dutch record label Philips. To distinguish himself, he adopted the "ph" of the company's name and christened himself'Raphael', his first singles were "Te voy a contar mi vida" and "A pesar de todo", among others. Raphael adopted his own peculiar singing style from the beginning, it is not unusual for Raphael to ad lib lyrics as to localize a song depending on the venue he's singing at, wear Latin American peasant costumes and dance folk dances within a song and demolishing a mirror, or doing the moves of a flamenco dancer or a bullfighter onstage. He possesses a wide vocal range, which he used in the beginning of his career as to evoke a choirboy approach to some songs; when he was nineteen, he won first and third awards at the famous Benidorm International Song Festival, Spain, 1962, with the songs: "Llevan", "Inmensidad" and "Tu Conciencia". After a brief relation with Barclay record label, who produced just an EP, he signed a contract with Hispavox recording company, began a long artistic relationship with the musical director of this label, the late, talented argentinian orchestrator Waldo de los Ríos and intensify the partnership with outstanding Spanish songwriter Manuel Alejandro.
In 1966 and 1967 he represented Spain at the XII and XIII Eurovision Song Contest in Luxembourg, singing "Yo soy aquél" and Vienna, "Hablemos del amor" and placing both 7th and 6th position, although he did not win. It was the first time that Spain obtained a high place in the competition, leaving the door open for victory the following year, which Spain achieved with "La, la, la", another song of modern style too, which for political reasons still in Spain was sung instead by Massiel; this served as a turning point in Raphael's career. He traveled and performed worldwide in Europe, Latin America, Puerto Rico, the United States and Japan. Songs such as "Yo soy aquel", "Cuando tú no estás", "Mi gran noche", "Digan lo que digan", "Tema de amor", "Estuve enamorado" and "Desde aquel día" cemented his status as a major international singing star. Raphael began a lucrative film career, appearing in, Cuando tú no estás, followed by Al ponerse el Sol Digan lo que digan, El golfo, El ángel, Sin Un Adiós and Volveré a nacer.
As Raphael became a success in Latin America, he made a habit of recording Latin American folk standards including "Huapango torero", "Sandunga" and "Llorona". He appeared live on The Ed Sullivan Show with great success on October 25, 1970, singing "Hallelujah" and "Hava Nagila." He appeared again on December 27, 1970, with the songs "Maybe", "When my love is around" and "The sound of the trumpet". In 1975, Raphael began his own successful program on Spanish Television called El Mundo de Raphael, where he sang with international stars, he had a radio program, where he and his wife spoke with and interviewed outstanding personalities, he starred in soap operas, starting with the Mexican production Donde termina el camino, shown in the spring of 1978 and in other countries like Peru and Chile. Raphael succeeded in the early 1980s with songs such as "¿Qué tal te va sin mí?", "Como yo te amo", "En carne viva" and "Estar enamorado". During 1984 and 1985 he recorded two albums with songs written by José Luis Perales like "Ámame", "Yo sigo siendo aquel", "Dile que vuelva", "Y...
Cómo es él" and "Estoy llorando hoy por ti". In 1984 a parody of "Yo soy aquél" was used in a radio spot in Puerto Rico's gubernatorial race. Then-governor Carlos Romero Barceló used the parody namely as a jab against opponent, Raphael's namesake, former governor Rafael Hernández Colón. Raphael was surprised by the unauthorized use of the music, but was amused by the reference. In 1987 he left Hispavox and signed a contract with Columbia, where he again recorded songs written by Roberto Livi like "Toco madera" and "Maravilloso corazón". In 1991 he had a hit with "Escándalo" in Spain, Latin America, in Japan, where it reached number one. At the end of the 1990s, after ending a contract with PolyGram, he went back to EMI. In 1998 the artist p
Juan Esteban Aristizábal Vásquez, known professionally as Juanes, is a Colombian musician, a member of the rock band Ekhymosis and is now a solo artist. In 2000, his solo debut album Fíjate Bien won three Latin Grammy Awards. According to his record label, Juanes has sold more than 15 million albums worldwide. Raised in Colombia, Juanes began playing piano at age two; when Juanes was 17, he started his first band, Ekhymosis, in 1988, which went on to release Eight albums, achieving recognition in his native country of Panama. The track "Dos" from the album Niño Gigante in 1992 was popular. In 1997 after the band broke up, Juanes continued solo and in 2000 he released the album, Fíjate Bien, which earned him three Latin Grammys, his follow-up album, Un Día Normal, was released in 2000 and was certified platinum in Guatemala and Uruguay throughout Latin America. Juanes' third album, Mi Sangre, which became an international bestseller, managing to position well in a number of countries around the world, achieved success due to the single "La Camisa Negra".
He has since released La Vida... Es Un Ratico and P. A. R. C. E.. On May 29, 2012 Juanes released the album Juanes MTV Unplugged. According to his label, Universal Music, Juanes has won, among others, twenty Latin Grammy Awards and two Grammy Awards. Juanes received the BMI President's Award at the 2010 BMI Latin Awards. Presented By James Edward Taylor Juanes is known for his humanitarian work with aid for Colombian victims of anti-personnel mines through his NGO Fundacion Mi Sangre. On April 2013, Juanes released an autobiography titled Chasing The Sun in which he tells his story through narratives and pictures. Juanes was born in Carolina del Príncipe, Colombia; when he was seven years old, his father and brothers began to teach him. His passion for the instrument led him to discover simple genres of music such as traditional sounds such as tango and Vallenato, as well as Russian folk music, he grew up in Medellín during the height of drug kingpin Pablo Escobar's reign, when the city had the highest homicide rate in the world.
During his childhood, Juanes witnessed a civil war. His cousin was killed by kidnappers, gunmen executed a close friend. To add further to Juanes' grief and desperation, his father died from cancer; this period shaped Juanes' social consciousness, saying "Colombia has suffered so much that the only way to go forward is to imagine a better country."As a teenager, Juanes was influenced by rock and metal acts such as The Beatles and Metallica. He started the rock band Ekhymosis in 1988, it released its debut album, Niño Gigante, that same month; the band released seven studio albums during its career and shared the stage with acts including Alejandro Sanz and Ricky Martin. Juanes disbanded the group in 1998. In 2000, Juanes released his solo debut Fíjate Bien, produced by Gustavo Santaolalla; the album fared well in Colombia, spending ten weeks at the number one position, but was unsuccessful in other countries. The album earned him three Latin Grammys for Best New Artist, Best Rock Solo Vocal Album, Best Rock Song, Juanes performed at the award show.
That night, Juanes brought demos for over forty new songs to Santaolalla's studio, ready to begin work on another album. The follow-up, Un Día Normal produced by Gustavo Santaolalla who signed him with his first solo album, was released in 2002 and was successful in Latin America; the album was certified gold in Colombia during its first day of sales and was certified platinum and multi-platinum in countries including Colombia and Spain. The album spent 92 weeks in the top ten of Billboard's Top Latin Albums chart, setting a new record, spent a total of two years on the chart; the album was released after the eligibility deadlines for the 2002 Latin Grammy Awards, but the advance airdate for the lead single, "A Dios le Pido", allowed it to be nominated for three awards and win Best Rock Song."A Dios le Pido" topped the singles charts of twelve countries and spent 47 consecutive weeks on the Billboard Hot Latin Tracks. The album featured "Fotografía", a duet with Portuguese Canadian pop singer Nelly Furtado about the isolation between lovers.
Juanes worked with Furtado on a remix of "Powerless", the lead single from her 2003 album Folklore, on "Te busqué", a single from her 2006 album Loose. Juanes won the most awards at the 2003 Latin Grammy Awards, where he won each of the 5 awards for which he had been nominated, including Song of the Year, Record of the Year, Album of the Year. Mi Sangre, was released in September 2004 and debuted at number one on the Billboard Top Latin Albums; the album produced three consecutive number one singles, which held the top chart position for a combined 6 months. The album's third single, "La Camisa Negra", was used in Italy in support of neo-fascism by relating it to the uniform used under the regime of Benito Mussolini. In response, left-wing media network Indymedia called for a boycott of the song. Juanes stated that "'La Camisa Negra' has got nothing to do with fascism or Mussolini... People can interpret music in all kinds of ways I guess." At the 2005 Latin Grammy Awards, Juanes won three additional awards to his nine previous Grammy awards.
He took the award for Best Rock Song for "Nada Valgo Sin Tu Amor"
La Bamba (song)
"La Bamba" is a Mexican folk song from the state of Veracruz, best known from a 1958 adaptation by Ritchie Valens, a top 40 hit in the U. S. charts and one of early rock and roll's best-known songs. Valens' version of "La Bamba" is included in Robert Christgau's "Basic Record Library" of 1950s and 1960s recordings—published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies —and ranked number 345 on Rolling Stone magazine′s list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, it is the only song on the list sung in a language other than English. "La Bamba" has been covered by numerous artists, most notably by Los Lobos, whose version was the title track of the 1987 film La Bamba and reached No. 1 in the U. S. and UK singles charts in the same year. The Los Lobos version remained No. 1 for three weeks in the summer of 1987. The music video for Los Lobos' version, directed by Sherman Halsey, won the 1988 MTV Video Music Award for Best Video from a Film. "La Bamba" is a classic example of the son jarocho musical style, which originated in the Mexican state of Veracruz and combines Spanish and African musical elements.
The song is played on one or two arpas jarochas along with guitar relatives the jarana jarocha and the requinto jarocho. Lyrics to the song vary as performers improvise verses while performing. However, versions such as those by musical groups Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlan and Los Pregoneros del Puerto have survived because of the artists' popularity; the traditional aspect of "La Bamba" lies in the tune, which remains the same through most versions. The name of the dance, which has no direct English translation, is connected with the Spanish verb bambolear, meaning "to shake" or "to stomp". Or the name may be derived from the kimbundu word "mbamba" meaning "master" as in someone who does something adeptly or skillfully. A traditional huapango song, "La Bamba" is played during weddings in Veracruz, where the bride and groom perform the accompanying dance. Today this wedding tradition is observed less than in the past, but the dance is still popular through the popularity of ballet folklórico.
The dance is performed displaying the newly wed couple's unity through the performance of complicated, delicate steps in unison as well as through creation of a bow from a listón, a long red ribbon, using only their feet. The "arriba00" part of the song suggests the nature of the dance, in which the footwork, called "zapateado", is done faster and faster as the music tempo accelerates. A repeated lyric is "Yo no soy marinero, soy capitán", meaning "I am not a sailor, I am the captain". Although an obscure and non-existent 1908 Mexican recording has been cited, the earliest certain recording of the song is that by Alvaro Hernández Ortiz, credited as El Jarocho, released on the Victor label in Mexico in about 1939; this recording was reissued on a 1997 compilation by Yazoo Records, The Secret Museum Of Mankind Vol. 4. According to a 1945 article in Life magazine, the song and associated dance were brought "out of the jungle" at Veracruz by American bandleader Everett Hoagland, who introduced it at Ciro's nightclub in Mexico City.
It became popular, the song was adopted by Mexican presidential candidate Miguel Alemán Valdés who used it in his successful campaign. In 1945, the music and dance were introduced at the Stork Club in New York City by Arthur Murray. A popular version by Andrés Huesca and his brother Victor, billed as Hermanos Huesca, was issued on Peerless Records in Mexico in about 1945–46. Huesca re-recorded the song for RCA Victor in 1947, the same year the song featured as a production number in the MGM musical film Fiesta, performed by a group called Los Bocheros and with the songwriting credited to Luis Martinez Serrano; the Swedish-American folk singer William Clauson recorded the song in several languages in the early and mid 1950s. He claimed to have heard the song in Veracruz, in performance slowed down the tempo to encourage audience participation. Another version, "somewhat bowdlerized", was recorded by Cynthia Gooding on her 1953 Elektra album, Mexican Folk Songs; the song was recorded for the French market in 1956 by Juanita Linda and her backing group Los Mont-Real.
The same year, Harry Belafonte recorded the song, but a version by Belafonte was not commercially released until a live recording made at Carnegie Hall in 1960. The traditional song inspired Ritchie Valens' rock and roll version "La Bamba" in 1958. Valens' "La Bamba" infused the traditional tune with a rock drive, in part provided by session musicians Earl Palmer and Carol Kaye, making the song popular with a much wider record audience and earning it a place in rock history; the musicians on that session were Buddy Clark: string bass, Ernie Freeman: piano, Carol Kaye: acoustic rhythm guitar, Rene Hall: Danelectro guitar, Earl Palmer: drums and claves, Ritchie Valens: vocals, lead guitar. The song features a simple verse-chorus form. Valens, proud of his Mexican heritage, was hesitant at first to merge "La Bamba" with rock and roll but agreed; the song ranked No. 98 in VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Rock and Roll in 1999, No. 59 in VH1's 100 Greatest Dance Songs in 2000. Furthermore, Valens' recording of the song was inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame.
When the Los Lobos cover of Valens' version peaked at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1987, Valens was retroactively credited with writing a No. 1 single. In 2019, Valens' version was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. It combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American rhythm and blues. Ska is characterized by a walking bass line accented with rhythms on the off beat, it was developed in Jamaica in the 1960s when Prince Buster, Clement "Coxsone" Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems to play American rhythm and blues and began recording their own songs. In the early 1960s, ska was popular with British mods, it became popular with many skinheads. Music historians divide the history of ska into three periods: the original Jamaican scene of the 1960s. There are multiple theories about the origins of the word ska. Ernest Ranglin claimed that the term was coined by musicians to refer to the "skat! skat! skat!" Scratching guitar strum. Another explanation is that at a recording session in 1959 produced by Coxsone Dodd, double bassist Cluett Johnson instructed guitarist Ranglin to "play like ska, ska", although Ranglin has denied this, stating "Clue couldn't tell me what to play!"
A further theory is that it derives from Johnson's word skavoovie, with which he was known to greet his friends. Jackie Mittoo insisted that the musicians called the rhythm Staya Staya, that it was Byron Lee who introduced the term "ska". Derrick Morgan said: "Guitar and piano making a ska sound, like'ska, ska," After World War II, Jamaicans purchased radios in increasing numbers and were able to hear rhythm and blues music from Southern United States cities such as New Orleans by artists such as Fats Domino and Louis Jordan. Domino's rhythm, accentuating the offbeat as in the song "Be My Guest", was a particular influence; the stationing of American military forces during and after the war meant that Jamaicans could listen to military broadcasts of American music, there was a constant influx of records from the United States. To meet the demand for that music, entrepreneurs such as Prince Buster, Coxsone Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems; as the supply of unheard tunes in the jump blues and more traditional R&B genres began to dry up in the late 1950s, Jamaican producers began recording their own version of the genres with local artists.
These recordings were made to be played on "soft wax", but as demand for them grew some time in the second half of 1959 producers such as Coxsone Dodd and Duke Reid began to issue these recording on 45rpm 7-inch discs. At this point the style was a direct copy of the American "shuffle blues" style, but within two or three years it had morphed into the more familiar ska style with the off-beat guitar chop that could be heard in some of the more uptempo late-1950s American rhythm and blues recordings such as Fats Domino's "Be My Guest"; this "classic" ska style was of bars made up of four triplets but was characterized by a guitar chop on the off beat—known as an upstroke or'skank'—with horns taking the lead and following the off-beat skank and piano emphasizing the bass line and, playing the skank. Drums kept the bass drum was accented on the third beat of each four-triplet phrase; the snare would accent the third beat of each 4-triplet phrase. The upstroke sound can be found in other Caribbean forms of music, such as mento and calypso.
Ernest Ranglin asserted that the difference between R&B and ska beats is that the former goes "chink-ka" and the latter goes "ka-chink". One theory about the origin of ska is that Abby Greene created it during the inaugural recording session for his new record label Wild Bells; the session was financed by Duke Reid, supposed to get half of the songs to release. The guitar began giving rise to the new sound; the drums were taken from traditional Jamaican marching styles. To create the ska beat, Prince Buster flipped the R&B shuffle beat, stressing the offbeats with the help of the guitar. Prince Buster has explicitly cited American rhythm and blues as the origin of ska: Willis Jackson's song "Later for the Gator", Duke Reid's number-one spin "Hey Hey Mr. Berry", to this day by an unidentified artist and with this given title, the joke amongst surviving Jamaican soundmen who were there at the time being that "This is the one Duke took to the grave with him"; the first ska recordings were created at facilities such as Federal Records, Studio One and WIRL Records in Kingston, Jamaica with producers such as Dodd, Prince Buster, Edward Seaga.
The ska sound coincided with the celebratory feelings surrounding Jamaica's independence from the UK in 1962. Until Jamaica ratified the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the country did not honor international music copyright protection; this created a large number of cover reinterpretations. One such cover was Millie Small's version of the R&B/shuffle tune, "My
Charles Hardin Holley, known as Buddy Holly, was an American musician, singer-songwriter and record producer, a central and pioneering figure of mid-1950s rock and roll. He was born in Lubbock, Texas, to a musical family during the Great Depression, learned to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings, his style was influenced by gospel music, country music, rhythm and blues acts, he performed in Lubbock with his friends from high school. He made his first appearance on local television in 1952, the following year he formed the group "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob Montgomery. In 1955, after opening for Elvis Presley, he decided to pursue a career in music, he opened for Presley three times that year. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets, he was spotted by Nashville scout Eddie Crandall, who helped him get a contract with Decca Records. Holly's recording sessions at Decca were produced by Owen Bradley, who had become famous for producing orchestrated country hits for stars like Patsy Cline.
Unhappy with Bradley's musical style and control in the studio, Holly went to producer Norman Petty in Clovis, New Mexico, recorded a demo of "That'll Be the Day", among other songs. Petty became the band's manager and sent the demo to Brunswick Records, which released it as a single credited to "The Crickets", which became the name of Holly's band. In September 1957, as the band toured, "That'll Be the Day" topped the UK singles charts, its success was followed in October by another major hit, "Peggy Sue". The album Chirping Crickets, released in November 1957, reached number five on the UK Albums Chart. Holly made his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in January 1958 and soon after, toured Australia and the UK. In early 1959, he assembled a new band, consisting of future country music star Waylon Jennings, famed session musician Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, embarked on a tour of the midwestern U. S. After a show in Clear Lake, Iowa, he chartered an airplane to travel to his next show, in Moorhead, Minnesota.
Soon after takeoff, the plane crashed, killing Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper, pilot Roger Peterson in a tragedy referred to by Don McLean as "The Day the Music Died". During his short career, Holly wrote and produced his own material, he is regarded as the artist who defined the traditional rock-and-roll lineup of two guitars and drums. He was a major influence on popular music artists, including Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Elton John, he was among the first artists inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 1986. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 13 in its list of "100 Greatest Artists". Holly was born Charles Hardin Holley on September 7, 1936, in Texas. O." Holley and Ella Pauline Drake. His elder siblings were Larry and Patricia Lou. Buddy Holly was of English and Welsh descent but had small amounts of Native American ancestry as well. From early childhood, he was nicknamed "Buddy". During the Great Depression, the Holleys moved residence within Lubbock.
O. changed jobs several times. Buddy Holly was baptized a Baptist, the family were members of the Tabernacle Baptist Church; the Holleys had an interest in music. O. were able to sing. The elder Holley brothers performed in local talent shows. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry greased the strings; the brothers won the contest. During World War II, Larry and Travis were called to military service. Upon his return, Larry brought with him a guitar he had bought from a shipmate while serving in the Pacific. At age 11, Buddy abandoned them after nine months, he switched to the guitar after he saw a classmate singing on the school bus. Buddy's parents bought him a steel guitar, but he insisted that he wanted a guitar like his brother's, his parents bought the guitar from a pawnshop, Travis taught him to play it. During his early childhood, Holley was influenced by the music of Hank Williams, Jimmie Rodgers, Hank Snow, Bob Wills, the Carter Family. At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob Montgomery, the two played together, practicing with songs by the Louvin Brothers and Johnnie & Jack.
They both listened to the radio programs Grand Ole Opry on WSM, Louisiana Hayride on KWKH, Big D Jamboree. At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met in high school, including Sonny Curtis and Jerry Allison. In 1952, Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack" in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob"; the two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on KDAV in 1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm and blues. Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when local transmissions ceased. Holley modified his music by blending his earlier country and western influence with R & B. By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue a full-time career in music, he was further encouraged after seeing Elvis Presley performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV.
In February, Holley opened for Presley at the Fair Park Coliseum
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme