Xutos & Pontapés
Xutos & Pontapés are a Portuguese rock band, which got together in 1978, in Almada, four years after the Carnation Revolution restored most freedoms to the country. They set the trend -- singing rock tunes in Portuguese. After four decades of studio and live albums, Xutos & Pontapés continue to be considered Portugal's top rock band, still influencing new generations of Portuguese bands. In 2004 Portuguese President Jorge Sampaio granted the band a state decoration for 25 years of career achievements in the music industry. On 26 September 2009, they played in Lisbon to a packed football stadium, Estádio do Restelo, to commemorate their 30th anniversary, they played for three hours – each hour marking a decade of their successful career. It was the first time. Current members are most of the original line up João Cabeleira, Kalú and Gui. Fans refer to the band as Xutos. Both'xutos' and'pontapés' are words in reference to types of kicks, but with a twist because the first word when spelled "Chutos" is referred for kick on a ball or object, but here used as "'xutos", slang for heroin injection, while'pontapés' for kicks on people.
Founding member and guitarist Zé Pedro died on 30 November 2017, aged 61. 78/82 Cerco Circo De Feras 88 Ao Vivo Gritos Mudos Dizer Não De Vez Direito Ao Deserto Ao Vivo Na Antena 3 Dados Viciados Tentação Vida Malvada 1º De Agosto No Rock Rendez-Vous XIII Sei Onde Tu Estás – Ao Vivo 2001 Nesta Cidade Mundo Ao Contrário Ao Vivo no Pavilhão Atlântico O Cerco continua Xutos & Pontapés Puro Se Me Amas Duro Official website Blog Myspace Facebook
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Moonspell is a Portuguese heavy metal band. Formed in 1992, the group released their first EP Under the Moonspell in 1994 and followed up with their debut album Wolfheart a year later, they became one of the most recognizable metal bands from Portugal and a key figure in gothic metal. Moonspell reached the Portuguese top first with their album Sin/Pecado, were, along with Metallica and Iron Maiden, the only metal band to reach the first place of the Portuguese charts after the release of their album, Memorial, in 2006. With Memorial, Moonspell became the first Portuguese metal band to have a record certified gold status, they are popular in Germany, where their albums enter the Top 100 Chart. Although they had been playing since 1989 under the name of "Morbid God", the band became Moonspell in 1992, the same year they released the promo track "Serpent Angel". After the release of mini-album Under the Moonspell, Moonspell signed with Century Media for six CDs. Wolfheart was recorded in Germany with producer Waldemar Sorychta and was released in 1995 and was followed by a European tour.
Although the album had little or no recognition at the beginning. During the tour, guitarist Mantus was replaced by Ricardo Amorim. For 1996's Irreligious, the band again recorded with producer Waldemar Sorychta. While the previous album was considered black metal, this one fell into the genre of gothic metal; the song "Opium" became the first Moonspell single. It quoted one of Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa's heteronyms, Álvaro de Campos, on his poem "Opiário", its music video featured the character of the poet writing in a bar with the band playing. Along with the release of the album in a convent, the Convento do Beato, there were factors that helped the band sell 10,000 copies of the album in their homeland. After conflicts with the band involving lawsuits, bass player Ares left the band and was replaced by Sérgio Crestana. Sin/Pecado was released in 1998, it had a bigger experimental nature than its predecessors. The song "2econd Skin" was released as a single. At the time they released the one and only Hermeticum.
Dæmonarch was a side project composed by all Moonspell members except drummer Mike Gaspar. The album was seen as a return to their black metal roots and its lyrics were all written by singer Fernando Ribeiro between the age of 14 and 16. Sin/Pecado was followed in 1999 by The Butterfly Effect, recorded in London and produced by Andy Reilly; this album is considered to be experimental in nature as well. Featuring "down-tuned guitar riffs, eerie synthesizer passages", the album was composed by guitarist/keyboard player Pedro Paixão and was not well received by metal critics. Darkness and Hope was released in 2001 and was produced by Hiili Hiilesmaa, producer of Sentenced and HIM; the album reached 79th on German charts and special editions included covers of Madredeus, Ozzy Osbourne's "Mr. Crowley" and Joy Division's "Love Will Tear Us Apart". "Nocturna" was released as a single and music video. In 2003, the band released The Antidote, with Niclas Etelävuori from Amorphis playing as a session musician on the bass guitar.
The album was released with a book with the same title written by Portuguese writer José Luís Peixoto. Both the CD and book share the same concept and story and each song in the CD is sister to a chapter in the book that enhances the story in the lyrics. "Everything Invaded" was released as a single and music video. The band toured extensively around the world, playing at Rock in Rio Lisbon in 2004, a concert that brought them to more mainstream attention in Portugal. From this album on, the tours feature Aires Pereira on the bass. During 2003 the band recorded a cover of the jazz standard "I'll See You in My Dreams" for the soundtrack of the Portuguese short zombie horror film of the same name. There is an official music video, filmed in one day during the production of the short and under a €2,000 budget; the song was issued as a single in 2004, featuring the full and edited versions. Memorial was released in 2006. Recorded with the producer of their first three albums Waldemar Sorychta, who recorded the bass guitar parts, it was the first to be released under their new label SPV Steamhammer.
The album topped the Portuguese album chart on its first week and broke into the German Top 100 at number 68. Memorial achieved gold status in Portugal after selling 10,000 copies, making Moonspell the first Portuguese doom metal band to achieve that. Although the album is heavier than the previous, it was well received and its release was featured in various Portuguese news broadcasts. A new release of the album was released in December 2006 and featured a DVD with live performances and the music videos made for the album. Music videos for "Finisterra" and "Luna" were released; the band worked on releasing a DVD entitled Lunar Still/13 Years of Doom, but had some issues of a legal nature and was forced to delay the release expected in September 2005. It was pushed to 9 December 2008 with a new title: Lusitanian Metal. On November 2, 2006, Moonspell won an MTV Europe Music Award in the category of Best Portuguese Act; the Great Silver Eye, a best-of album, was released on June 26, 2007. In 2007, Moonspell released Under a re-recording of early songs.
Night Eternal was released on May 16, 2008. The lead single off the album, Scorpion Flower, features Dutch singer Anneke van Giersbergen. Moonspell performed the "Blackest of the Black" tour with Danzig, Winds of Plague, Dimmu Borgir and Skeletonwitch. Moonspell toured Europe with Cradle of Filth, Gorgoroth and Asrai in December 2008, took part
Blasted Mechanism is a Portuguese electro-rock band known for its theatrical live shows involving elaborated alien-themed costumes as a backdrop to their music. The band was founded in 1995 by Valdjiu. New members joined to form the current line up; as they like to put it "they weren't created but invented", blasting into the Portuguese music scene with a different sound and visuals. They became known for their extravagant audiovisual performances involving alien and tribal looking musicians and an irreverent, upbeat attitude. Over the years, they developed a unique musical style that mixes alternative rock, electronic music, reggae and folk. Blasted Mechanism Demo Blasted Mechanism EP Swinging with the Monkeys Calamidad The Atom Bride themeBalayhashi Swinging with the Monkeys Calamidad The Atom Bride theme Polaroid Gators from CongoSingleMix 00 Swinging with the Monkeys by Ragmanan Saturnia Spasm by saturnia Danka Danka mix by toolatemanPlasma Oh Landou The Art of Fitting Zapping Mahdathai Connection Spasm 18 Strings Karkow Blue Mood NazkaSingleMix 01 Karkov radio edit dj dimitrivzki The atom bride theme live Toolateman hymn radio edit by toolatemanMix 00 Mahdathai by ragmanam Nazka by ragmanam ary Spasm by saturnia Blue Mood by ragmanam ary Karkov by dj dimitrivzki Swinging With The Monkeys by ragmanam saturnia Oh Landou by ragmanam ary Calamidub by toolateman The Atom Bride Theme by ragmanam saturnia Zapping by alex fx for underdubNamaste Promotional Single Are You Ready Walking On A Better Day Taman Taman Namaste Arrival to Borubudur Taman Taman Are You Ready Walking On A Better Day I Believe Higher Than Paradise Bolivian Feel No Solution Maytsoba Rebel Tools No Black Nor Gray Write Your Soul Got To MoveDVD 1996-2004 Format: Double DVD DVD 1 Paredes de Coura Festival 2003 Extras.
Vilar de Mouros Festival 2003. 6 recorded themes on Christmas Eve in 2003. Videoclips: “Are You Ready”. Summer festivals 2003 - Behind the scenes. Slide-show DVD 2 Sudoeste Festival 2002 Extras. Videoclips: “Karkov” and “Swinging With The Monkeys”. Sudoeste Festival 1997. Behind the scenes in Sudoeste. Lisbon Street Happening Blasted Empire Promotional Single Blasted Empire *This song has featured in FIFA 07 Avatara Blasted Empire Sun Goes Down What Is All About Manipulation Kurié Mahallande Power On Enolough Sagar Mata Hand Full of Nothing So Spaced Out Take That Shot Pink Hurricane Memories Will Fade Space Hopper StecotorketorTribos Unidas Promocional Single All The WaySound in Light / Light in Sound Format: Double CD; when inserted the CD in the computer CD drive, you'll be taken by a blind link to a website where it's possible to download for free 10 extra tracks from a virtual record called "Light in Sound". The Digipack has a slot to put an extra CD, made from the extra tracks downloaded. CD 1 - Sound in Light Battle Of Tribes Total Rebellion All the Way Sound in Light Sunshine URU Mystical Power You Never Leave Me Nothing We Suddenly N’dezdai Ddu Stae Unarmed Rebellion Zimadê Sfi Nassan New AssaultCD 2 - Light in Sound Dimensional Nomads Reveal Your Art Vibe Master Rise To The Level Barbiturical Convulsion Learn Over The Perfect Shine Mahatma Saturn 1000 MilesMind At Large Under The Sun Grab a Song Start To Move Magic Dance Hello, Here Is The System Panacea Vôo de Icaro Hard To Breathe Blast Your Mind Door Of Happiness Source of Light Mind At Large Liberdade Destino Official site: http://www.blastedmechanism.com/ MySpace: http://www.myspace.com/blastedmechanism
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. It combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American rhythm and blues. Ska is characterized by a walking bass line accented with rhythms on the off beat, it was developed in Jamaica in the 1960s when Prince Buster, Clement "Coxsone" Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems to play American rhythm and blues and began recording their own songs. In the early 1960s, ska was popular with British mods, it became popular with many skinheads. Music historians divide the history of ska into three periods: the original Jamaican scene of the 1960s. There are multiple theories about the origins of the word ska. Ernest Ranglin claimed that the term was coined by musicians to refer to the "skat! skat! skat!" Scratching guitar strum. Another explanation is that at a recording session in 1959 produced by Coxsone Dodd, double bassist Cluett Johnson instructed guitarist Ranglin to "play like ska, ska", although Ranglin has denied this, stating "Clue couldn't tell me what to play!"
A further theory is that it derives from Johnson's word skavoovie, with which he was known to greet his friends. Jackie Mittoo insisted that the musicians called the rhythm Staya Staya, that it was Byron Lee who introduced the term "ska". Derrick Morgan said: "Guitar and piano making a ska sound, like'ska, ska," After World War II, Jamaicans purchased radios in increasing numbers and were able to hear rhythm and blues music from Southern United States cities such as New Orleans by artists such as Fats Domino and Louis Jordan. Domino's rhythm, accentuating the offbeat as in the song "Be My Guest", was a particular influence; the stationing of American military forces during and after the war meant that Jamaicans could listen to military broadcasts of American music, there was a constant influx of records from the United States. To meet the demand for that music, entrepreneurs such as Prince Buster, Coxsone Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems; as the supply of unheard tunes in the jump blues and more traditional R&B genres began to dry up in the late 1950s, Jamaican producers began recording their own version of the genres with local artists.
These recordings were made to be played on "soft wax", but as demand for them grew some time in the second half of 1959 producers such as Coxsone Dodd and Duke Reid began to issue these recording on 45rpm 7-inch discs. At this point the style was a direct copy of the American "shuffle blues" style, but within two or three years it had morphed into the more familiar ska style with the off-beat guitar chop that could be heard in some of the more uptempo late-1950s American rhythm and blues recordings such as Fats Domino's "Be My Guest"; this "classic" ska style was of bars made up of four triplets but was characterized by a guitar chop on the off beat—known as an upstroke or'skank'—with horns taking the lead and following the off-beat skank and piano emphasizing the bass line and, playing the skank. Drums kept the bass drum was accented on the third beat of each four-triplet phrase; the snare would accent the third beat of each 4-triplet phrase. The upstroke sound can be found in other Caribbean forms of music, such as mento and calypso.
Ernest Ranglin asserted that the difference between R&B and ska beats is that the former goes "chink-ka" and the latter goes "ka-chink". One theory about the origin of ska is that Abby Greene created it during the inaugural recording session for his new record label Wild Bells; the session was financed by Duke Reid, supposed to get half of the songs to release. The guitar began giving rise to the new sound; the drums were taken from traditional Jamaican marching styles. To create the ska beat, Prince Buster flipped the R&B shuffle beat, stressing the offbeats with the help of the guitar. Prince Buster has explicitly cited American rhythm and blues as the origin of ska: Willis Jackson's song "Later for the Gator", Duke Reid's number-one spin "Hey Hey Mr. Berry", to this day by an unidentified artist and with this given title, the joke amongst surviving Jamaican soundmen who were there at the time being that "This is the one Duke took to the grave with him"; the first ska recordings were created at facilities such as Federal Records, Studio One and WIRL Records in Kingston, Jamaica with producers such as Dodd, Prince Buster, Edward Seaga.
The ska sound coincided with the celebratory feelings surrounding Jamaica's independence from the UK in 1962. Until Jamaica ratified the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the country did not honor international music copyright protection; this created a large number of cover reinterpretations. One such cover was Millie Small's version of the R&B/shuffle tune, "My
Tantra denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most about the middle of the 1st millennium AD. The term tantra, in the Indian traditions means any systematic broadly applicable "text, system, instrument, technique or practice". Starting in the early centuries of common era, newly revealed Tantras centering on Vishnu, Shiva or Shakti emerged. In Buddhism, the Vajrayana tradition is known for its extensive tantra practices. Tantric Hindu and Buddhist traditions have influenced other Eastern religious traditions such as Jainism, the Tibetan Bön tradition and the Japanese Shintō tradition. Certain modes of non-vedic worship such as Puja are considered tantric in their conception and rituals. Hindu temple building generally conforms to the iconography of tantra; the Hindu texts that describe these topics are called Āgamas or Samhitās. In Buddhism, its tantra-genre literature has influenced the artworks in Tibet, historic cave temples of India and imagery in Southeast Asia.
Tantra means "loom, weave". The connotation of the word tantra to mean an esoteric practice or religious ritualism is a colonial era European invention; the term is based on the metaphor of weaving, states Ron Barrett, where the Sanskrit root tan means the warping of threads on a loom. It implies "interweaving of traditions and teachings as threads" into a technique or practice; the word appears in the hymns of the Rigveda such as in 10.71, with the meaning of "warp". It is found in many other Vedic era texts, such as in section 10.7.42 of the Atharvaveda and many Brahmanas. In these and post-Vedic texts, the contextual meaning of Tantra is that, "principal or essential part, main point, framework, feature". In the Smritis and epics of Hinduism, the term means "doctrine, theory, technique or chapter" and the word appears both as a separate word and as a common suffix, such as atma-tantra meaning "doctrine or theory of Atman"; the term "Tantra" after about 500 BC, in Buddhism and Jainism is a bibliographic category, just like the word Sutra.
The same Buddhist texts are sometimes referred to as sutra. The various contextual meanings of the word Tantra vary with the Indian text and are summarized in the appended table; the 5th-century BC scholar Pāṇini in his Sutra 1.4.54–55 of Sanskrit grammar, cryptically explains tantra through the example of "Sva-tantra", which he states means "independent" or a person, his own "warp, weaver, karta". Patanjali in his Mahābhāṣya quotes and accepts Panini's definition discusses or mentions it at a greater length, in 18 instances, stating that its metaphorical definition of "warp, extended cloth" is relevant to many contexts; the word tantra, states Patanjali, means "principal, main". He uses the same example of svatantra as a composite word of "sva" and tantra stating "svatantra" means "one, self-dependent, one, his own master, the principal thing for whom is himself", thereby interpreting the definition of tantra. Patanjali offers a semantic definition of Tantra, stating that it is structural rules, standard procedures, centralized guide or knowledge in any field that applies to many elements.
The ancient Mimamsa school of Hinduism uses the term tantra extensively, its scholars offer various definitions. For example: When an action or a thing, once complete, becomes beneficial in several matters to one person, or to many people, known as Tantra. For example, a lamp placed amidst many priests. In contrast, that which benefits by its repetition is called Āvāpa, such as massaging with oil. Medieval texts present their own definitions of Tantra. Kāmikā-tantra, for example, gives the following explanation of the term tantra: Because it elaborates copious and profound matters relating to the principles of reality and sacred mantras, because it provides liberation, it is called a tantra; the occultist and businessman Pierre Bernard is credited with introducing the philosophy and practices of tantra to the American people, at the same time creating a misleading impression of its connection to sex. In modern scholarship, Tantra has been studied as an esoteric practice and ritualistic religion, sometimes referred to as Tantrism.
There is a wide gap between what Tantra means to its followers, what Tantra has been represented or perceived as since colonial era writers began commenting on Tantra. Many definitions of Tantra have been proposed since, there is no universally accepted definition. André Padoux, in his review of Tantra definitions offers two rejects both. One definition, due to Padoux, is found among Tantra practitioners — it is any "system of observances" about the vision of man and the cosmos where correspondences between the inner world of the person and the macrocosmic reality play an essential role. Another definition, more common among observers and non-practitioners, is some "set of mechanistic rituals, omitting the ideological side". Tantric traditions have been studied from textual and historical perspectives. Anthropological work on living Tantric tradition is scarce, ethnography has engaged with the study of Tantra; this is arguably a result of the modern construction of Tantrism as occult and secret.
Some scholars have tried to demystify the myth of secrecy in contemporary Tantric traditions, suggesting new methodological av