North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
A marsh is a wetland, dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, they are dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs; this form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat. Marshes provide a habitat for many species of plants and insects that have adapted to living in flooded conditions; the plants must be able to survive in wet mud with low oxygen levels. Many of these plants therefore have aerenchyma, channels within the stem that allow air to move from the leaves into the rooting zone. Marsh plants tend to have rhizomes for underground storage and reproduction. Familiar examples include cattails, sedges and sawgrass. Aquatic animals, from fish to salamanders, are able to live with a low amount of oxygen in the water.
Some can obtain oxygen from the air instead, while others can live indefinitely in conditions of low oxygen. Marshes provide habitats for many kinds of invertebrates, amphibians and aquatic mammals. Marshes have high levels of biological production, some of the highest in the world, therefore are important in supporting fisheries. Marshes improve water quality by acting as a sink to filter pollutants and sediment from the water that flows through them. Marshes are able to absorb water during periods of heavy rainfall and release it into waterways and therefore reduce the magnitude of flooding; the pH in marshes tends to be neutral to alkaline, as opposed to bogs, where peat accumulates under more acid conditions. Marshes differ depending on their location and salinity. Both of these factors influence the range and scope of animal and plant life that can survive and reproduce in these environments; the three main types of marsh are salt marshes, freshwater tidal marshes, freshwater marshes. These three can be found worldwide and each contains a different set of organisms.
Saltwater marshes are found around the world in mid to high latitudes, wherever there are sections of protected coastline. They are located close enough to the shoreline that the motion of the tides affects them, sporadically, they are covered with water, they flourish where the rate of sediment buildup is greater than the rate at which the land level is sinking. Salt marshes are dominated by specially adapted rooted vegetation salt-tolerant grasses. Salt marshes are most found in lagoons, on the sheltered side of shingle or sandspit; the currents there carry the fine particles around to the quiet side of the spit and sediment begins to build up. These locations allow the marshes to absorb the excess nutrients from the water running through them before they reach the oceans and estuaries; these marshes are declining. Coastal development and urban sprawl has caused significant loss of these essential habitats. Although considered a freshwater marsh, this form of marsh is affected by the ocean tides.
However, without the stresses of salinity at work in its saltwater counterpart, the diversity of the plants and animals that live in and use freshwater tidal marshes is much higher than in salt marshes. The most serious threats to this form of marsh are the increasing size and pollution of the cities surrounding them. Ranging in both size and geographic location, freshwater marshes make up the most common form of wetland in North America, they are the most diverse of the three types of marsh. Some examples of freshwater marsh types in North America are: Wet meadows occur in areas such as shallow lake basins, low-lying depressions, the land between shallow marshes and upland areas, they occur on the edges of large lakes and rivers. Wet meadows have high plant diversity and high densities of buried seeds, they are flooded but are dry in the summer. Vernal pools are a type of marsh found only seasonally in shallow depressions in the land, they can be covered in shallow water, but in the summer and fall, they can be dry.
In western North America, vernal pools tend to form in open grasslands, whereas in the east they occur in forested landscapes. Further south, vernal pools form in pine flatwoods. Many amphibian species depend upon vernal pools for spring breeding. An example is the endangered gopher frog. Similar temporary ponds occur in other world ecosystems. However, the term vernal pool can be applied to all such temporary pool ecosystems. Playa lakes are a form of shallow freshwater marsh that occurs in the southern high plains of the United States. Like vernal pools, they are only present at certain times of the year and have a circular shape; as the playa dries during the summer, conspicuous plant zonation develops along the shoreline. Prairie potholes are found in the northern parts of North America as the Prairie Pothole Region; these landscapes were once covered by glaciers, as a result shallow depressions were formed in great numbers. These depressions fill with water in the spring, they provide important breeding habitats for many species of waterfowl.
Some pools only occur seasonally. Many kinds of marsh occur along the fringes of large rivers; the different types are produced by factors such as water level, ice scour, waves. Large tracts of marshland have been embanked and ar
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Caledonian main line
The Caledonian Railway main line in Scotland connected Glasgow and Edinburgh with Carlisle, via Carstairs and Beattock. It was opened in 1847 by the Caledonian Railway; the approach to Glasgow used railways built for mineral traffic. Today, the route forms the northern section of the West Coast Main Line, was electrified in the early 1970s. From 1830 onwards considerable attention was given to the means by which Glasgow and Edinburgh might be connected to London, as English railways began to develop into a network, the urgency of making a railway accelerated; the difficult terrain of the Southern Uplands and Cumberland made the selection of a route controversial. After much difficulty, the Caledonian Railway was authorised to build a line via Beattock. On 10 September 1847 the line was opened between Beattock; the station at Carlisle was operated jointly with the London and North Western Railway. Construction continued and on 15 February 1848 the line was opened between Beattock and Glasgow, completing the Carlisle to Glasgow route.
The line from Carstairs to Edinburgh opened on 1 April 1848. At first the southern termination of the line was at Carlisle station named Carlisle Citadel; the line ran broadly north across undulating country at first, crossing the River Esk and entering Scotland near Gretna climbing following the Kirtle Water to Lockerbie. Climbing further, the line followed the Annan Water to Beattock, on to Beattock Summit. Crossing the watershed, the line now descended in the upper Clyde Valley. Now turning north-west, the Glasgow line continues past Lanark and near Carluke, joining the Wishaw and Coltness Railway at Garriongill Junction; the W&CR had been built as a "coal railway" intended for the haulage of coal and iron ore. It had been upgraded and modernised, leased by the Caledonian Railway; the main line used the W&CR line to Motherwell, from which point the original route is not part of the modern main line. It turned north through to Whifflat, joining the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway; this too had been built as a coal railway, had been upgraded and renamed the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway.
From Whifflat the line ran to Coatbridge, turned west on through Garnkirk, terminating at the GG&CR Glasgow terminus at Townhead. The approach to Glasgow made a long northward sweep, the Townhead terminus was not well located for central Glasgow. During the process of obtaining Parliamentary authorisation for its line, the Caledonian discovered that an independent Clydesdale Junction Railway was being authorised; the Caledonian took control of the Clydesdale Junction by leasing it during construction. Its route left the Wishaw and Coltness line at Motherwell, ran via Uddingston and Rutherglen to a terminus called Southside in Glasgow, at the junction of Cathcart Road and Pollokshaws Road; this too was inconveniently located for the city centre, but the Caledonian now had two routes to two terminal stations in Glasgow. The Clydesdale Junction route now forms the northern end of the modern Caledonian main line, extended from South Side to cross the River Clyde to Glasgow Central Station; the Edinburgh section of the Caledonian main line ran north-east.
For several years passenger trains from Carlisle divided at Carstairs. It is that goods trains too ran to Carstairs and remarshalled there. A cut-off line was constructed enabling direct running from Carlisle towards Edinburgh, but it was little used and it was soon closed. A shorter chord line was built having the same effect; the line continued past Cobbinshaw and Kirknewton, descending into Edinburgh in the valley of the Water of Leith. The terminus was at Lothian Road; the main line as planned was hoped to be the sole connection between Scottish cities and the English network. In fact this proved ill-founded, as the North British Railway opened its line to Berwick-upon-Tweed, forming part of a line to London that became known as the East Coast Main Line in alliance with English lines. At first this route involved two changes of trains until bridges over the River Tweed at Berwick and the River Tyne at Newcastle were completed; this route was competitive for transits from Edinburgh to London, but Glasgow was less conveniently served.
On the west side of the country the Glasgow and South Western Railway had a route between Glasgow and Carlisle. The G&SWR route was uncompetitive for traffic to and from Edinburgh. A third route was another North British Railway route that became known as the Waverley Route between Edinburgh and Carlisle; this route too suffered from the dominance of the LNWR at Carlisle. When the Midland Railway opened its line from London to Carlisle via Leeds, the G&SWR and the NBR Waverley route had access southwards over a friendly railway at last. In its early years the Caledonian Railway sought to become dominant in large areas of Scotland by leasing nascent
City of Carlisle
The City of Carlisle is a local government district of Cumbria, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Brampton and Longtown, as well as outlying villages including Dalston and Wetheral; the city has a population of 107,524. and an area of 1,039.97 square kilometres, making it the largest city in England by area. The current city boundaries were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, cover an amalgamation of two former local government districts, the City and County Borough of Carlisle and the Border Rural District of Cumberland; the City of Carlisle shares a border with Scotland, is bounded on the southwest by the borough of Allerdale, on the south by the district of Eden. The county of Northumberland is to the east. Although the present boundaries date to the 20th century, the city traces its origins to a 1st-century Roman outpost associated with Hadrian's Wall.
The Brythonic settlement that expanded from this outpost was destroyed by the Danes in 875. Thereafter the region formed part of the Southern Uplands of Scotland, until colonised under King William II of England in 1092. William II built Carlisle Castle. Carlisle Cathedral, founded in the 12th century, is one of the smallest in England. A border city, the second most northerly city in England, Carlisle predominantly spans the flood plain of the River Eden. Commercially, it is linked to the rest of England via the M6 motorway, to the Scottish Lowlands via the A74 and M74 motorways. Following both the Local Government Act 1888 and Local Government Act 1894, local government in England had been administered via a national framework of rural districts, urban districts, municipal boroughs and county boroughs, shared power with strategic county councils of the administrative counties; the areas that were incorporated into the City of Carlilse in 1974 had formed part of the Border Rural District from the administrative county of Cumberland, the politically independent County Borough of Carlisle.
After the exploration of reform during the mid-20th century, such as the proposals made by the Redcliffe-Maud Report in the late 1960s, the Local Government Act 1972 restructured local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established the City of Carlisle as a local government district of the new shire county of Cumbria on 1 April 1974; the new dual local authorities of Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council had been running since elections in 1973 however. The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect claimed that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively"; the residents of the City of Carlisle are represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom by Members of Parliament for two parliamentary constituencies.
At the 2010 general election, Conservative Party MPs won the seats of Carlisle and Penrith and The Border, John Stevenson and Rory Stewart respectively. The City of Carlisle is part of the North West England constituency in the European Parliament. North West England elects nine MEPs, as at 2008 made up of four Conservatives, three from the Labour Party, one Liberal Democrat, one member of the United Kingdom Independence Party. In 1974, Carlisle City Council was created to administer the newly formed non-metropolitan district, which shares power with the strategic Cumbria County Council; the council offices are located at the Civic Centre. The Labour Party controlled the council for much of the first 25 years and from 1979 to the 1999 election had an overall majority; until 2003 the Conservative Party controlled the council with a majority, from the 2003 elections they ran the council with no majority, but in alliance with the Liberal Democrats. At the 2012 election Labour gained a majority of the seats, which they have held since and below is the composition of the City Council as of the 2015 election.
There are 52 councillors representing the electoral wards of the City of Carlisle. Together they form the Carlisle City Council. Councillors are elected and accountable to the residents of their wards. Civil parishes form the bottom tier of local government in England; the City of Carlisle is entirely parished, the exception being the central settlement of Carlisle—an unparished area. As of 2008, there were 36 civil parishes in the city, covered by 34 parish councils, which are: The coat of arms of Carlisle City Council are those granted to the city council of the County Borough of Carlisle by the College of Arms on 7 July 1924; these arms are relating to Carlisle and its governance. The city council's coat of arms are emblematic of the city's history; the arms incorporate a golden shield with a red cross, upon a green mount, surmounted by a mural crown, relating to Carlisle's history as an ancient walled city. This is supported by two red wyverns—legendary dragons used in heraldry—their wings strewn with golden roses, with reference to the city's Brythonic history.
The motto beneath the arms comes from Thomas Wolsey's speech to Thomas Cromwell, in Shakespeare's play, Henry VIII: Be just and fear not. The
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website
Cumbria Constabulary is the territorial police force in England covering Cumbria. As of September 2017, the force had 1,108 police officers, 535 police staff, 93 police community support officers, 25 designated officers and 86 special constables. In terms of officer numbers, it is the 7th smallest of the 48 police forces of the United Kingdom. Conversely, its geographic area of responsibility is the 7th largest police area of a territorial police force in the United Kingdom; the force area's size and its population of just under 500,000 people makes it sparsely populated. The only major urban areas are Barrow-in-Furness. There are significant areas of isolated and rural community, the county has one of the smallest visible minority ethnic populations in the country at under 3.0%. Each year Cumbria, which incorporates the Lake District National Park, attracts over 23 million visitors from all over the world; the county has some 700 miles of trunk and primary roads. The Chief Constable is Michelle Skeer.
The headquarters of the force are at Penrith. In terms of operational policing the force is divided into two commands - the Territorial Policing Command and the Crime Command, each headed by a Chief Superintendent; this command is further divided into three geographic Territorial Policing Areas to cover the county, an operational support section and a command and control section. Each TPA is led by a Superintendent and is further divided into districts and teams for the purposes of neighbourhood policing; the major elements of the Territorial Policing Command are as follows: Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Carlisle District Eden District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas: Barrow Borough District South Lakeland District Responsible for neighbourhood and response policing across the following geographic areas Allerdale District Copeland District Within this section are force wide units which support the TPAs or units from the Crime Command, or provide a specialist service: Roads Policing Firearms Dog section PSG Civil Contingencies Collision Investigation Firearms Licensing Safety Camera/CTO Within this section is the Command and Control Room, including the Force Incident Manager and the call taking centre.
This command is responsible for significant investigations and is predominantly staffed by detectives. The command is divided as follows: Intelligence Force Intelligence Bureau Intelligence Analysis Area Intelligence Units Operations Public Protection Units CID Volume Crimes Force Major Investigations Safeguarding Hub Forensics Cumbria Constabulary is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit Cumberland and Westmorland Constabulary was formed in 1856. In 1947 this force absorbed Kendal Borough Police. Less than 20 years this amalgamated force absorbed Carlisle City Police to form a force broadly the same as today's force called the Cumberland and Carlisle Constabulary. In 1965, it had an establishment of 652 and an actual strength of 617. In 1967 the force name was changed to Cumbria Constabulary. In 1974 the force's boundaries were expanded to include the new non-metropolitan county of Cumbria, in particular Furness and Sedbergh Rural District.
The Home Secretary proposed on 6 February 2006 to merge it with Lancashire Constabulary. These proposals were accepted by both forces on 25 February and the merger would have taken place on 1 April 2007. However, in July 2006, the Cumbria and Lancashire forces decided not to proceed with the merger because the Government could not remedy issues with the differing council tax precepts. Cumbria Constabulary 1968–1980: William Cavey 1980–1987: Barry David Keith Price 1991–1997: Alan Elliott 1997–2001: Colin Phillips 2001–2007: Michael Baxter 2007-2012: Sir Craig Thomas Mackey QPM 2012-2013 Stuart Hyde QPM 2014-2018 Jerry Graham QPM 2018–: Michelle Skeer The Police Roll of Honour Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty; the force's first, to date only, murder of an officer occurred on 10 February 1965. Constable George William Russell, aged 36, was fatally shot when and knowing that colleagues had been fired on, he confronted an armed suspect and called upon him to surrender at a railway station in Kendal.
Russell was posthumously awarded the Queen's Police Medal for gallantry and a memorial plaque has been unveiled on a wall at Carlisle Cathedral. PC Keith Easterbrook was fatally injured in a road traffic accident, while assisting in a vehicle pursuit, when a van he was overtaking pulled out and collided with his police motorcycle, on the A595 near Workington. PC William "Bill" Barker was killed whilst on duty on 20 November 2009. At night during severe weather and flooding across the county, the officer was directing motorists to safety off Northside Bridge, in a dangerous condition, when the bridge was destroyed by the flood and he was swept away and killed, his body found on a beach at Allonby that afternoon. Barker had completed 25 years police service and was a traffic officer attached to the Roads Policing Unit based at Workington. Cumbria Police and Crime Commissioner Policing in the United Kingdom PC John Kent - The first black British police officer, who served with the Carlisle City Police between 1837 and 1844 Official website