American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Conyers is the only city in Rockdale County, United States. The city is twenty-four miles east of Atlanta; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 15,195. The city is the county seat of Rockdale County; the separate town of Milstead is now part of Conyers. Between 1816 and 1821, the area known as Rockdale was open for settlement. John Holcomb, a blacksmith, was the first settler in, he settled where the current Rockdale County Courthouse is located, in the middle of Conyers on Main Street. There was pressure for a railroad to cross Georgia. John Holcomb was against the railroad and refused to sell his land, threatened to shoot anyone from the railroad who came onto his property. Dr. W. D. Conyers, a banker from Covington persuaded John Holcomb into selling his land for $700. Dr. Conyers sold the land to the Georgia Railroad. What is now Conyers began as a watering post along this line, named after Dr. Conyers. By 1845, the railroad was in full operation. By 1854, nearly 400 residents lived around the watering post, Conyers was incorporated.
Conyers has been nearly destroyed several times by fire. It is said that it survived Sherman's March to the Sea thanks to a friend of Sherman's who lived in the area between Conyers and Covington; the story goes. In 1870, the surrounding area was incorporated into Rockdale County out of Newton County and Conyers became the county seat. Over the next decade, Conyers grew into a wild town, it had five brothels. The more reputable side of the town had 40 stores, Conyers College, a hotel, a carriage manufacturer and good schools; the Conyers post office contains The Ploughman, painted in 1940 by Elizabeth Terrell. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department; the WPA was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing individuals to carry out public works projects. Conyers was home to "sidewalk churches". Along Main Street grew First Methodist, Conyers Presbyterian, First Baptist.
It is said that at some point the congregants persuaded the brothels and saloons to close and leave Conyers for Covington, having persuaded them with a mob. This rose out of revivals began in 1878 with the Presbyterian churches. First Baptist Church of Conyers moved out of downtown in late 2000, moving about two miles or three kilometers south of the Georgia International Horse Park to their current location. Connected to Conyers is Milstead, a mill town now incorporated into Conyers. At its peak and Conyers had a private railroad which delivered products, such as cotton, from the mill to Conyers for shipping to the textile mills. In the 1960s, the mill closed. In 1944, a Trappist monastery, Abbey of the Holy Spirit, was established south of the city by Dom Frederic Dunne; the Protestant community of Rockdale County helped with the completing of the current structure. M. Basil Pennington, one of the founders of the Centering Prayer movement, was abbot of the monastery from 2000 to 2002. In the 1950s, Conyers had a Coca-Cola bottling facility.
In 1957, Lithonia Lighting moved from Lithonia. In the 1960s, Interstate 20 was built through the county. Gus Barksdale, Clarence Vaughn, Roland Reagan, Harry Downs helped establish the community for the future by pushing for business expansion. In the 1970s, parts of the first five episodes of the Dukes of Hazzard were filmed in the town. In the 1980s, Conyers became known for "White Road", where resident Nancy Fowler claimed to have seen apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, Conyers played host to pilgrims. In the early 1990s, several scenes of In the Heat of the Night were filmed around the Conyers Depot. Alan Autry, who played the character of Captain Bubba Skinner, was seen as a regular around Conyers during the filming. In 1996 Conyers hosted the equestrian and mountain biking events for the 1996 Olympic Games held in Atlanta. For this, Conyers built the Georgia International Horse Park. On May 20, 1999 a school shooting took place known as the Heritage High School shooting.
Six students were injured before the 15-year-old gunman surrendered to the police. In October 1999 Rockdale County, by extension the county seat of Conyers gained substantial notoriety when the Public Broadcasting Service series Frontline aired a nationwide documentary entitled The Lost Children of Rockdale County detailing a syphilis outbreak among middle and high school aged teenagers within the county; the documentary was well received outside Conyers, with rave reviews from such outlets as the Wall Street Journal and Entertainment Weekly. In 2010, Conyers was thrust into the spotlight when identical twins and former residents Tasmiyah Janeesha Whitehead and Jasmiyah Kaneesha Whitehead were arrested on May 21, 2010 for having committed matricide; the victim was Jarmecca Yvonne Whitehead who went by the nickname "Nikki". She was beaten and stabbed and placed in a tub full of water where her daughters left her to die as they left for Rockdale County High School; the crime occurred on January 2010 in the Bridle Ridge Walk subdivision on Appaloosa Way.
The crime sent shockwaves throughout the community. Jarmecca's autopsy revealed that she suffered injuries to her lungs, jugular vein and had a severed spinal cord; the twins proclaimed their innocence but in 2014 the twins pleaded guilty and are ser
Lithonia is a city in eastern DeKalb County, United States. The city's population was 1,924 at the 2010 census. Lithonia is in the Atlanta metropolitan area. "Lithonia" means "city/town of stone". Lithonia is in the heart of the Georgian granite-quarrying and viewing region, hence the name of the town, from the Greek λίθος lithos, for stone; the huge nearby granite dome, Stone Mountain, is composed of a rock called Lithonia gneiss, a form of granite. The area has a history of rock quarries; the mines were served by Atlanta, Stone Mountain & Lithonia Railway. Some of the rock quarries have been converted to parkland and the rail lines to rail-trail. Lithonia is one of the gateways to the Arabia Mountain National Heritage Area, contained inside Stonecrest, GA. Lithonia is located in southeastern DeKalb County at 33°42′46″N 84°6′21″W. Interstate 20 passes just south of the community, with access from Exits 74 and 75. Lithonia is 18 miles east of the center of Atlanta; some areas in extreme southern Gwinnett County use a Lithonia postal address near the county line.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.89 square miles, all land. In 1805, Lithonia began as a small crossroads settlement of farmers; the town grew with the coming of the Atlanta Augusta Railroad in 1845, which allowed the granite quarrying industry in the area to flourish. Lithonia is the birthplace of the Lithonia Lighting company, one of North America's largest manufacturers of commercial, institutional and residential light fixtures, founded in the city in 1946 but moved to nearby Conyers in the 1950s. New Birth Missionary Baptist Church, a megachurch, known for many high-profile funerals, is located in Stonecrest, GA, near Lithonia; the Lithonia Historic District consists of a commercial core surrounded by residential areas, with a period of significance spanning from 1845 to 1964. Stylistic influences in the district include Second Empire, Queen Anne, Folk Victorian, Neoclassical Revival, English Vernacular Revival and Colonial Revival; the district is bisected by the Georgia/CSX Railroad, which runs perpendicular to the historic commercial core's primary thoroughfare, Main Street.
The commercial area extends south from the intersection of Main Street and the railroad, covering a two-block area. The commercial buildings are brick and local granite masonry, with little decorative detailing. Commercial styles include single retail, multiple retail, retail and office types. Within the historic district, there is some non-historic infill construction such as the 1968 Lithonia Plaza shopping center; the residential areas consist architecture typical of late 19th- to mid 20th-century types and styles. Residential neighborhoods feature locally quarried granite and gneiss. House types and styles include the central hall Georgian cottage, gabled-wing cottage, Queen Anne cottage, New South cottage, pyramid cottage, Ranch house, I-House and Queen Anne house. Landmark properties include the Masonic Lodge, The Lithonia Women's Club, the Lithonia First United Methodist Church, Antioch Baptist Church, Lithonia Presbyterian Church, The Union Missionary Church, the Bruce Street equalization school, The Seminary.
Contributing sites in the district include two cemeteries, two parks, the former Georgia Railroad Quarry, the ruins of the Bruce Street School for African-Americans. The district is significant under National Register criterion A and C, with areas of significance in Architecture and European Ethnic Heritage, Community Planning and Development and Transportation. Lithonia's city population was 19,024 at the 2010 census, over 799 households, 560 families residing in the city; the population density is about 19,024 inhabitants per square mile. There were 892 housing units at an average density of 1,129.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.3% Black, 8.5% White, 0.05% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 1.42% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population. There were 799 households out of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.3% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families.
15.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.25. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over there were 63.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $53,397, the median income for a family was $54,792. Males had a median income of $29,500 versus $24,788 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,605. About 12.6% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under the age of 18 and 25.7% of those 65 and older. The unincorporated communities located outside the city limits make up 75% of the population estimated at over 15,000 inhabitants. Neighborhoods are broken into two ZIP codes: 30058 which includes the City proper, communities directly outside the city limit, 30038 located south of Interstate 20 which includes some of the most affluent neighborhoods in DeKalb County.
Lithonia is near to a super-regional shopping center, the Mall at Stonecrest (also known as
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Georgia's 4th congressional district
Georgia's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Hank Johnson, though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia; the first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. The newly drawn district retains its majority African American status and includes the cities of Conyers, Decatur, Lilburn and portions of Atlanta. DeKalb Gwinnett Newton Rockdale As of July 2018, there are six living former members of the House from this district. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Georgia United States House elections, 2006 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 4th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 4th district at GovTrack.us
Interstate 20 in Georgia
In the U. S. state of Georgia, Interstate 20 travels from the Alabama state line to the Savannah River, the South Carolina state line. The highway enters the state near Tallapoosa, it travels through exits the state in Augusta. The highway travels through the cities of Bremen, Conyers and Madison. I-20 has the unsigned state highway designation of State Route 402. I-20 is four lanes wide in much of the state. In the Atlanta metropolitan area, the highway ranges from six lanes wide in the most outlying counties to 10 lanes wide in downtown Atlanta. I-20 enters Georgia from Alabama south-southwest of Tallapoosa; the state line is the Central–Eastern time zone boundary. It crosses over Williams Creek, it passes the Georgia Visitor Information Center. The highway crosses over Walton Creek just before entering the city limits of Tallapoosa. After it leaves the city limits, it has an interchange with SR 100. Within the interchange, I-20 enters the city limits of Tallapoosa twice more. After crossing over Blalock Creek, it curves to the east.
After it curves back to the east-northeast, it crosses over Walker Creek twice. It curves to the east-southeast and travels along the southern edge of Waco, where it has an interchange with Waco Road; the interstate enters Bremen. It enters Carroll County. I-20 curves to the east and has an interchange with US 27/SR 1, it travels southeast of the city. It crosses over Buck Creek. Right after the creek, the westbound lanes have a weigh station; the highway travels south of Spence Lake. It crosses over Allen Creek, it crosses over Bethel Creek. After a crossing of Webster Creek, the highway curves to the east-northeast and has an interchange with SR 113, it leaves Temple. It crosses the Little Tallapoosa River and curves back to the east-northeast, it enters Villa Rica. It travels just south of Villa Rica High School, it has an interchange with SR 61/SR 101. It passes the Glanton -- Hindsman Elementary School, it enters Douglas County. After I-20 starts curving to the east-southeast, it has an interchange with Liberty Road.
It curves to the east. It crosses over Keaton Creek, it has an interchange with Post Road southwest of Winston. It crosses over Mobley Creek, it enters Douglasville. It has an interchange with SR 5, it passes the Arbor Place Mall on its northern side. It crosses over Anneewakee Creek and has an interchange with Chapel Hill Road; the highway passes the WellStar Douglas Hospital on its eastern side. After crossing over Slater Mill Creek, it has an interchange with SR 92. Within the interchange, I-20 crosses over Little Anneewakee Creek, it travels along the Lithia Springs–Douglasville city line before re-entering Douglasville proper. It very travels along the Lithia Springs–Dawsonville city line. There, it crosses over Beaver Creek. After the interchange begins, the interstate enters Lithia Springs proper, it leaves the city limits of Lithia Springs and crosses over Sweetwater Creek on the Blair Bridge. Upon re-entering the city, it curves to the east-southeast and has an interchange with SR 6. Right after leaving the interchange, it enters Cobb County.
I-20 has an interchange with both the northern terminus of Riverside Parkway and the eastern terminus of Six Flags Drive. Is a partial interchange with Six Flags Parkway; this interchange is only accessible from the westbound lanes. At this interchange, the highway begins to travel along the southern edge of Mableton, it crosses over the Chattahoochee River on the Debra Mills Commemorative Bridge. This marks the eastern end of Mableton, as well as the Fulton County line. I-20 has an interchange with SR 70, it curves to the east-northeast and enters the western part of Atlanta, on the Adamsville–Old Gordon neighborhood line. At a bridge over SR 139, the highway begins traveling along the Adamsville–Fairburn Heights neighborhood line. After passing Collier Heights Park, it curves to the southeast and has an interchange with I-285; this interchange is just south of the Basoline E. Usher Elementary School and on the southwestern edge of Harwell Heights Park. Right after the I-285 interchange, the highway travels on the Westhaven–Collier Heights neighborhood line.
It crosses over Sandy Creek and has an interchange with SR 280. At this interchange, it begins to travel on the Westhaven–Dixie Hills neighborhood line. Just southeast of this interchange, it travels along the Florida Heights–Dixie Hills neighborhood line. At a crossing of Fairfield Place NW, I-20 begins to parallel SR 139. Just north of Westview Cemetery, it travels along the southern edge of the Penelope Neighbors neighborhood; the highway curves to the east-northeast and has an interchange with Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, it curves back to the southeast and begins to travel along the southern edge of the Mozley Park neighborhood. Upon traveling under a bridge that carries Westview Drive SW, it begins traveling along the Westview–Mozley Park neighborhood line. Upon reaching a partial interchange with Langhorn Street SW, only accessible from the westbound lanes, it enters the