Charles Edward Anderson Berry was an American singer and songwriter, one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. With songs such as "Maybellene", "Roll Over Beethoven", "Rock and Roll Music" and "Johnny B. Goode", Berry refined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive. Writing lyrics that focused on teen life and consumerism, developing a music style that included guitar solos and showmanship, Berry was a major influence on subsequent rock music. Born into a middle-class African-American family in St. Louis, Berry had an interest in music from an early age and gave his first public performance at Sumner High School. While still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, Berry worked at an automobile assembly plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker, Berry began performing with the Johnnie Johnson Trio.
His break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. With Chess, he recorded "Maybellene"—Berry's adaptation of the country song "Ida Red"—which sold over a million copies, reaching number one on Billboard magazine's rhythm and blues chart. By the end of the 1950s, Berry was an established star, with several hit records and film appearances and a lucrative touring career, he had established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berry's Club Bandstand. However, he was sentenced to three years in prison in January 1962 for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had several more hits, including "No Particular Place to Go", "You Never Can Tell", "Nadine", but these did not achieve the same success, or lasting impact, of his 1950s songs, by the 1970s he was more in demand as a nostalgic performer, playing his past hits with local backup bands of variable quality.
However, in 1972 he reached a new level of achievement when a rendition of "My Ding-a-Ling" became his only record to top the charts. His insistence on being paid in cash led in 1979 to a four-month jail sentence and community service, for tax evasion. Berry was among the first musicians to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on its opening in 1986. Berry is included in several of Rolling Stone magazine's "greatest of all time" lists; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll includes three of Berry's: "Johnny B. Goode", "Maybellene", "Rock and Roll Music". Berry's "Johnny B. Goode". Born in St. Louis, Berry was the fourth child in a family of six, he grew up in the north St. Louis neighborhood known as the Ville, an area where many middle-class people lived, his father, Henry William Berry, was a deacon of a nearby Baptist church. Berry's upbringing allowed him to pursue his interest in music from an early age, he gave his first public performance in 1941 while still a student at Sumner High School.
Berry's account in his autobiography is that his car broke down and he flagged down a passing car and stole it at gunpoint with a nonfunctional pistol. He was convicted and sent to the Intermediate Reformatory for Young Men at Algoa, near Jefferson City, where he formed a singing quartet and did some boxing; the singing group became competent enough that the authorities allowed it to perform outside the detention facility. Berry was released from the reformatory on his 21st birthday in 1947. On October 28, 1948, Berry married Themetta "Toddy" Suggs, who gave birth to Darlin Ingrid Berry on October 3, 1950. Berry supported his family by taking various jobs in St. Louis, working as a factory worker at two automobile assembly plants and as a janitor in the apartment building where he and his wife lived. Afterwards he trained as a beautician at the Poro College of Cosmetology, founded by Annie Turnbo Malone, he was doing well enough by 1950 to buy a "small three room brick cottage with a bath" on Whittier Street, now listed as the Chuck Berry House on the National Register of Historic Places.
By the early 1950s, Berry was working with local bands in clubs in St. Louis as an extra source of income, he had been playing blues since his teens, he borrowed both guitar riffs and showmanship techniques from the blues musician T-Bone Walker. He took guitar lessons from his friend Ira Harris, which laid the foundation for his guitar style. By early 1953 Berry was performing with Johnnie Johnson's trio, starting a long-time collaboration with the pianist; the band played blues and ballads, but the most popular music among whites in the area was country. Berry wrote, "Curiosity provoked me to lay a lot of our country stuff on our predominantly black audience and some of our black audience began whispering'who is that black hillbilly at the Cosmo?' After they laughed at me a few times they began requesting the hillbilly stuff and enjoyed dancing to it."Berry's calculated showmanship, along with a mix of country tunes and R&B tunes, sung in the style of Nat King Cole set to the music of Muddy Waters, brought in a wider
Royal Enfield was a brand name under which The Enfield Cycle Company Limited of Redditch, Worcestershire sold motorcycles, bicycles and stationary engines which they had manufactured. Enfield Cycle Company used the brand name Enfield without Royal; the first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901. The Enfield Cycle Company is responsible for the design and original production of the Royal Enfield Bullet, the longest-lived motorcycle design in history. Enfield's remaining motorcycle business became part of Norton Villiers in 1967 and that business closed in 1978. George Townsend set up a business in 1851 in Redditch making sewing needles. In 1882 his son named George, started making components for cycle manufacturers including saddles and forks. By 1886 complete bicycles were being sold under the names Ecossais; this business suffered a financial collapse in 1891. Albert Eadie, sales manager of Birmingham's Perry & Co Ltd, pen makers who had begun to supply components for cycles, Robert Walker Smith, an engineer from D. Rudge & Co, were chosen by Townsend's bankers to run the business.
In 1892, the firm was re-incorporated and named Eadie Manufacturing Company Limited. In 1907, after serious losses from their newly floated Enfield Autocar business, Eadie Manufacturing and its pedal-cycle component business was absorbed by Birmingham Small Arms Company. Years the BSA chairman was to tell shareholders that the acquisition had "done wonders for the cycle department". Eadie still retained a separate identity when Raleigh bought BSA's cycle interests in 1957. Eadie had won contracts to supply precision parts for fire arms to the government's long-established Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield, now the London Borough of Enfield with its offshoot in Sparkbrook and had assumed the brand name Royal Enfield. In 1896 they incorporated a new subsidiary company, The New Enfield Cycle Company Limited, to handle much of the cycle work and in 1897 Enfield making complete cycles as well parts for other assemblers took all the cycle assembly work from Eadie. Enfield diversified into motor cycles, 1901 and motor cars, 1902.
The motor department was put into a separate subsidiary, Enfield Autocar Company Limited incorporated in 1906 and established in new works at Hunt End, Redditch. However Enfield Autocar after just 19 months reported a substantial loss and, aside from Eadie himself, shareholders were unwilling to provide more capital so in early 1907 Eadie sold his control of Eadie Manufacturing to BSA. Albert Eadie and Robert Walker Smith had been appointed directors of BSA before the proposed sale had been put to shareholders; the new combined BSA and Eadie business manufactured "military and sporting rifles and cycle components, motor-cars etc." "BSA and Eadie cycle specialities". But there were still minority Eadie shareholders alongside BSA in 1957; the business of Enfield Autocar, to say the plant and stock, was sold to Birmingham's Alldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering. Enfield Cycle Company took over the Hunt End premises. In 1955, Enfield Cycle Company partnered with Madras Motors in India in forming Enfield of India, based in Chennai, started assembling the 350cc Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle in Madras.
The first machines were assembled from components imported from England. Starting in 1957, Enfield of India acquired the machines necessary to build components in India, by 1962 all components were made in India. Frank Walker Smith, eldest son of Robert Walker Smith, joined Enfield Cycle Company in 1909. Appointed joint managing director in 1914 he took over the full responsibility when his father died in 1933. After his death Enfield was bought by investors E & H P Smith who sold Enfield for £82,500 to Norton Villiers in 1967. While Norton Villiers acquired 33 per cent of Enfield India the assets of Enfield's diesel engine division and pedal cycle and spares divisions were not picked up. Royal Enfield produced bicycles at its Redditch factory until it closed in early 1967; the company's last new bicycle was the'Revelation' small wheeler, released in 1965. Production of motorcycles ceased in 1970 and the original Redditch, Worcestershire-based company was dissolved in 1971. Enfield of India continued producing the'Bullet', began branding its motorcycles'Royal Enfield' in 1999.
A lawsuit over the use of'Royal', brought by trademark owner David Holder, was judged in favour of Enfield of India, who now produce motorcycles under the Royal Enfield name. The models produced and marketed in India include Cafe Racers, Cruisers and Adventure Tourers. By 1899, Royal Enfield were producing a quadricycle – a bicycle modified by adding a wrap-around four-wheeled frame, retaining a rear rider-saddle with handlebars – having a front-mounted passenger seat, driven by a rear-mounted De Dion engine. After experimenting with a heavy bicycle frame fitted with a Minerva engine clamped to the front downtube, Enfield built their first motorcycle in 1901 with a 239 cc engine. A light car was introduced in 1903 powered by either a French Ader V-twin or De Dion single cylinder engine. In 1906 car production was transferred to a new company, the Enfield Autocar Co Ltd with premises in Hunt End, Redditch; the independent company only lasted until 1908 when it was purchased by Onions. In 1907, Enfield merged with the Alldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering Co. of Birmingham, began manufacturing the Enfield-Allday automobile.
By 1910, Royal Enfield was using 344 cc Swiss Motosacoche V-Twin engines, or large-displacement JAP and Vickers-Wolseley engines. In 1912, the Royal Enfield Model 180 sidecar combination was introduced with a 770 cc V-twin JAP engine, raced in the Isle of Man TT and
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Vincent Eugene Craddock, known as Gene Vincent, was an American musician who pioneered the styles of rock and roll and rockabilly. His 1956 top ten hit with his Blue Caps, "Be-Bop-A-Lula", is considered a significant early example of rockabilly, he was inducted into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Craddock was born February 11, 1935, in Norfolk, Virginia, to Mary Louise and Ezekiah Jackson Craddock, his musical influences included country and blues and gospel music. His favourite composition was Beethoven's Egmont overture, he showed his first real interest in music while his family lived in Munden Point, in Princess Anne County, near the North Carolina line, where they ran a country store. He received his first guitar at the age of twelve as a gift from a friend. Vincent's father volunteered to serve in the U. S. Coast Guard and patrolled American coastal waters to protect Allied shipping against German U-boats during World War II. Vincent's mother maintained the general store in Munden Point, his parents moved the family to Norfolk, the home of a large naval base, opened a general store and sailors' tailoring shop.
Vincent dropped out of school in 1952, at the age of seventeen, enlisted in the United States Navy. As he was under the age of enlistment, his parents signed the forms allowing him to enter the Navy, he completed boot camp and joined the fleet as a crewman aboard the fleet oiler USS Chukawan, with a two-week training period in the repair ship USS Amphion, before returning to the Chukawan. He never completed a Korean War deployment, he sailed home from Korean waters aboard the battleship USS Wisconsin but was not part of the ship's company. Craddock planned a career in the Navy and, in 1955, used his $612 re-enlistment bonus to buy a new Triumph motorcycle. In July 1955, while he was in Norfolk, his left leg was shattered in a motorcycle crash, he refused to allow the leg to be amputated, the leg was saved, but the injury left him with a limp and pain. He wore a steel sheath around the leg for the rest of his life. Most accounts relate the accident as the fault of a drunk driver who struck him, but some claim Craddock had been riding drunk.
Years in some of his music biographies, there is no mention of an accident, but it was claimed that his injury was due to a wound incurred in combat in Korea. He spent time in the Portsmouth Naval Hospital and was medically discharged from the Navy shortly thereafter. Craddock became involved in the local music scene in Norfolk, he formed a rockabilly band, Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps. The band included Willie Williams on rhythm guitar, Jack Neal on upright bass, Dickie Harrell on drums, Cliff Gallup on lead guitar, he collaborated with another rising musician, Jay Chevalier of Rapides Parish, Louisiana. Vincent and His Blue Caps soon gained a reputation playing in various country bars in Norfolk. There they won a talent contest organized by a local radio DJ, "Sheriff Tex" Davis, who became Vincent's manager. In 1956 he wrote "Be-Bop-A-Lula", which drew comparisons to Elvis Presley and which Rolling Stone magazine listed as number 103 on its "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Local radio DJ "Sheriff Tex" Davis arranged for a demo of the song to be made, this secured Vincent a contract with Capitol Records.
He signed a publishing contract with Bill Lowery of the Lowery Group of music publishers in Atlanta, Georgia. "Be-Bop-A-Lula" was not on Vincent's first album and was picked by Capitol producer Ken Nelson as the B-side of his first single, Woman Love. Prior to the release of the single, Lowery pressed promotional copies of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" and sent them to radio stations throughout the country. By the time Capitol released the single, "Be-Bop-A-Lula" had gained attention from the public and radio DJs; the song was picked up and played by other U. S. radio stations and became a hit, peaking at number 5 and spending 20 weeks on the Billboard pop chart and reaching number 5 and spending 17 weeks on the Cashbox chart, launching Vincent's career as a rock-and-roll star. After "Be-Bop-A-Lula" became a hit and His Blue Caps were unable to follow it up with the same level of commercial success, although they released critically acclaimed songs like "Race with the Devil" and "Bluejean Bop". Cliff Gallup left the band in 1956, Russell Williford joined as the new guitarist for the Blue Caps.
Williford played and toured Canada with Vincent in late 1956 but left the group in early 1957. Gallup came back to do the next album and left again. Williford exited again before Johnny Meeks joined the band; the group had another hit in 1957 with "Lotta Lovin'". Vincent was awarded gold records for two million sales of "Be-Bop-A-Lula", 1.5 million sales of "Lotta Lovin'". The same year he toured the east coast of Australia with Little Richard and Eddie Cochran, drawing audiences totaling 72,000 to their Sydney Stadium concerts. Vincent made an appearance in the film The Girl Can't Help It, with Jayne Mansfield, performing "Be-Bop-A-Lula" with the Blue Caps in a rehearsal room. "Dance to the Bop" was released by Capitol Records on October 28, 1957. On November 17, 1957, Vincent and His Blue Caps performed the song on the nationally broadcast television program The Ed Sullivan Show; the song spent nine weeks on the Billboard c
Chelsea Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames in west London, connecting Chelsea on the north bank to Battersea on the south bank. There have been two Chelsea Bridges, on the site of; the first Chelsea Bridge was proposed in the 1840s as part of a major development of marshlands on the south bank of the Thames into the new Battersea Park. It was a suspension bridge intended to provide convenient access from the densely populated north bank to the new park. Although built and operated by the government, tolls were charged in an effort to recoup the cost of the bridge. Work on the nearby Chelsea Embankment delayed construction and so the bridge called Victoria Bridge, did not open until 1858. Although well-received architecturally, as a toll bridge it was unpopular with the public, Parliament felt obliged to make it toll-free on Sundays; the bridge was less of a commercial success than had been anticipated because of competition from the newly built Albert Bridge nearby. It was acquired by the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1877, the tolls were abolished in 1879.
The bridge was narrow and structurally unsound, leading the authorities to rename it Chelsea Bridge to avoid the Royal Family's association with a potential collapse. In 1926 it was proposed that the old bridge be rebuilt or replaced, due to the increased volume of users from population growth, the introduction of the automobile, it was demolished during 1934–1937, replaced by the current structure, which opened in 1937. The new bridge was the first self-anchored suspension bridge in Britain, was built with materials sourced from within the British Empire. During the early 1950s it became popular with motorcyclists, who staged regular races across the bridge. One such meeting in 1970 erupted into violence, resulting in the death of one man and the imprisonment of 20 others. Chelsea Bridge is floodlit from below during the hours of darkness, when the towers and cables are illuminated by 936 feet of light-emitting diodes. In 2008 it achieved. In 2004 a smaller bridge, Battersea Footbridge, was opened beneath the southern span, carrying the Thames Path beneath the main bridge.
The Red House Inn was an isolated inn on the south bank of the River Thames in the marshlands by Battersea fields, about one mile east of the developed street of the prosperous farming village of Battersea. Not on any major road, its isolation and lack of any police presence made it a popular destination for visitors from London and Westminster since the 16th century, who would travel to the Red House by wherry, attracted by Sunday dog fighting, bare-knuckle boxing bouts and illegal horse racing; because of its lawless nature, Battersea Fields was a popular area for duelling, was the venue for the 1829 duel between the Prime Minister the Duke of Wellington and the Earl of Winchilsea. The town of Chelsea, on the north bank of the Thames about three miles west of Westminster, was an important industrial centre. Although by the 19th century its role as the centre of the British porcelain industry had been overtaken by the West Midlands, its riverside location and good roads made it an important centre for the manufacture of goods to serve the nearby and growing London.
The Chelsea Waterworks Company occupied a site on the north bank of the Thames opposite the Red House Inn. Founded in 1723, the company pumped water from the Thames to reservoirs around Westminster through a network of hollow elm trunks; as London spread westwards, the former farmland to the west became populated, the Thames became polluted with sewage and animal carcasses. In 1852 Parliament banned water from being taken from the Thames downstream of Teddington, forcing the Chelsea Waterworks Company to move upstream to Seething Wells. Since 1771, Battersea and Chelsea had been linked by the modest wooden Battersea Bridge; as London grew following the advent of the railways, Chelsea began to become congested, in 1842 the Commission of Woods and Land Revenues recommended the building of an embankment at Chelsea to free new land for development, proposed the building of a new bridge downstream of Battersea Bridge and the replacement of Battersea Bridge with a more modern structure. In the early 1840s Thomas Cubitt and James Pennethorne had proposed a plan to use 150,000 tons of rocks and earth from the excavation of the Royal Victoria Dock to infill the marshy Battersea Fields and create a large public park to serve the growing population of Chelsea.
In 1846 the Commissioners of Woods and Forests purchased the Red House Inn and 200 acres of surrounding land, work began on the development that would become Battersea Park. It was expected that with the opening of the park the volume of cross river traffic would increase putting further strain on the dilapidated Battersea Bridge. In 1846 an Act of Parliament authorised the building of a new toll bridge on the site of an ancient ford one mile downstream of Battersea Bridge; the approach road on the southern side was to run along the side of the new park, while that on the northern side was to run from Sloane Square, through the former Chelsea Waterworks site, to the new bridge. Although previous toll bridges in the area had been built and operated by private companies, the new bridge was to be built and operated by the government, under the control of the Metropolitan Improvement Commission, despite protests in Parliament from Radicals objecting to the Government profiting from a toll-paying bridge.
It was intended that the bridge would be made toll-free once the costs of building it had been recouped. Engineer Thomas Page was appointed to build the bridge, presented the Commission with several
Norton Motorcycle Company
The Norton Motorcycle Company is a British motorcycle marque from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of "fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade". By 1902 the company had begun manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908 a Norton-built engine was added to the range; this began a long series of production of single and twin-cylinder motorcycles, a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Norton's contribution to the WWII war effort 100,000 being manufactured; when major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953 the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc 600 cc 650 cc and the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant with sales to the United States. In 1968 the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared, with the engine/gearbox/swingarm unit isolastically insulated from the frame with a series of rubber mountings.
This kept the vibrations from the rider. The Commando was a best seller, voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain. 850 cc models appeared for 1973. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3; the largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs and antiquated factory conditions. A merger with Norton Motorcycles was proposed; the Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, a company more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all but killed the once extensive UK motorcycle industry. In late 2008 Stuart Garner, a UK businessman, bought the rights to Norton from some US concerns and relaunched Norton in its Midlands home at Donington Park where it will develop the 961cc Norton Commando, a new range of Norton motorcycles.
The original company was formed by James Lansdowne Norton at 320, Bradford Street, Birmingham, in 1898. In 1902 Norton began building motorcycles with Swiss engines. In 1907 a Norton ridden by Rem Fowler won the twin-cylinder class in the first Isle of Man TT race, beginning a sporting tradition that went on until the 1960s; the first Norton engines were made in 1907, with production models available from 1908. These were the 3.5 hp and the'Big 4', beginning a line of side-valve single-cylinder engines which continued with few changes until the late 1950s. The first Norton logo was a simple, art nouveau design, with the name spelled in capitals. However, a new logo appeared on the front of the catalogue for 1914, a joint effort by James Norton and his daughter Ethel, it became known as the "curly N" logo, with only the initial letter as a capital, was used by the company thereafter, first appearing on actual motorcycles in 1915. Ethel Norton did some testing of her father's motorcycles. In 1913 the business declined, R. T.
Shelley & Co. the main creditors and saved it. Norton Motors Ltd was formed shortly afterwards under joint directorship of James Norton and Bob Shelley. Shelley's brother-in-law was tuner Dan O'Donovan, he managed to set a significant number of records on the Norton by 1914 when the war broke out - and as competition motorcycling was suspended during the hosilities, these records still stood when production restarted after the war. 1914 Dan O'Donovan records set in April 1914: Under 500 cc flying km 81.06 mph, flying mile 78.60 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc flying km and flying mile see above Under 500 cc with sidecar flying km 65.65 mph, flying mile 62.07 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc with sidecar flying km and flying mile see aboveOn 17 July 1914 O'Donovan took the flying 5 mile record at 75.88 mph, the standing start 10 mile record at 73.29 mph, again on the 490 cc Norton. Norton continued production of their 3.5 hp and Big 4 singles well into the war period, though in November 1916 the Ministry of Munitions issued an order that no further work on motor cycles or cars would be allowed from 15 November 1916 without a permit.
By this time most motor cycle companies were either producing munitions, or devoted to the export trade. Norton were involved in exporting and earlier that year had announced a new'Colonial Model' of their 633cc Big 4; this featured an increase in ground clearance from 4.25" to 6.5", by altering the frame, larger tank, greater clearance on mudguards, a sturdy rear carrier. The engine was unaltered, transmission was via a Sturmey-Archer 3-speed gearbox. In February 1918 Motor Cycle reported on a visit to Norton Motors. Mr Norton had stated that he expected three post-war models, the 3.5 hp 490 cc TT with belt drive, two utility mounts, one with detuned TT engine, the other being the Big Four for heavy solo or sidecar work, both of these with three-speed Sturmey-Archer countershaft gearbox and all chain drive. It was stated that he had been experimenting with aluminium pistons, a
Triumph Engineering Co Ltd was a British motorcycle manufacturing company, based in Coventry and in Meriden. A new company, Triumph Motorcycles Ltd based in Hinckley, gained the name rights after the end of the company in the 1980s and is now one of the world's major motorcycle manufacturers; the company was started by Siegfried Bettmann, who had emigrated from Nuremberg, part of the German Empire, to Coventry in England in 1893. In 1884, aged 20, Bettmann had founded the S. Bettmann & Co.. Import Export Agency, in London. Bettmann's original products were bicycles, which the company bought and sold under its own name. Bettmann distributed sewing machines imported from Germany. In 1886, Bettmann sought a more specific name, the company became known as the Triumph Cycle Company. A year the company was registered as the New Triumph Co. Ltd, now with funding from the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company. During that year, another native of Nuremberg, Moritz Schulte, joined the company as a partner. Schulte encouraged Bettmann to transform Triumph into a manufacturing company, in 1888 Bettmann purchased a site in Coventry using money lent by his and Schulte's families.
The company began producing the first Triumph-branded bicycles in 1889. In 1896 Triumph opened a bicycle factory in Nuremberg. In 1898 Triumph decided to extend production at Coventry to include motorcycles, by 1902 the company had produced its first motorcycle—a bicycle fitted with a Belgian Minerva engine. In 1903, after selling more than 500 motorcycles, Triumph began motorcycle production at the Nuremberg factory. During the first few years the company based its designs on those of other manufacturers, but in 1904 Triumph began building motorcycles based on its own designs, 1905 saw the first in-house designed motorcycle. By the end of that year, the company had produced more than 250. In 1907, after the company opened a larger plant, it produced 1,000 machines. Triumph had initiated a lower-end brand, Gloria manufactured in the company's original plant. Confusion between motorcycles produced by the Coventry and Nuremberg Triumph companies resulted in the latter's products being renamed Orial for certain export markets.
However, a company named Orial existed in France, so the Nuremberg motorcycles were renamed again as "TWN", standing for Triumph Werke Nürnberg. The beginning of the First World War was a boost for the company as production was switched to provide for the Allied war effort. More than 30,000 motorcycles—among them the Model H Roadster known as the "Trusty Triumph" cited as the first modern motorcycle—were supplied to the Allies. After the war and Schulte disagreed about planning, with Schulte wishing to replace bicycle production with cars. Schulte ended his association with the company, but during the 1920s Triumph purchased the former Hillman company car factory in Coventry and produced a saloon car in 1923 under the name of the Triumph Motor Company. Harry Ricardo produced an engine for their latest motorbike. By the mid-1920s Triumph had become one of Britain's main motorcycle and car makers, with a 500,000 square feet plant capable of producing as many as 30,000 motorcycles and cars each year.
Triumph found its bicycles demanded overseas, export sales became a primary source of the company's revenues, although for the United States, Triumph models were manufactured by licence. The company's first automotive success was the Super Seven model, which debuted in 1928. Soon after, the Super Eight model was developed; when the Great Depression began in 1929, Triumph sold its German subsidiary as a separate, independently owned company, which merged with the Adler company to become Triumph-Adler Company. The Nuremberg company continued to manufacture motorcycles as TWN until 1957. In 1932, Triumph sold another part of the company, its bicycle manufacturing facility to Raleigh Bicycle Company. By Triumph had been struggling financially, Bettmann had been forced out of the job of chairman, he retired in 1933. In 1936, the company's two components became separate companies. Triumph always struggled to make a profit from cars, after becoming bankrupt in 1939 was acquired by the Standard Motor Company.
The motorcycle operations fared better, having been acquired in 1936 by Jack Sangster, who owned the rival Ariel motorcycle company. That same year, the company began its first exports to the United States, which grew into the company's single most important market. Sangster formed the Triumph Engineering Co Ltd. directed by ex-Ariel employees, including Edward Turner who designed the 500 cc 5T Triumph Speed Twin—released in September 1937, the basis for all Triumph twins until the 1980s. Contrary to popular belief, this was not Triumph's first parallel twin; the first was the Val Page designed model 6/1, introduced in 1933. This first twin performed well as a racer but was unpopular with the public and did not sell well. After Turner arrived, with his usual brusque manner, the 6/1 ended to be replaced with Turner's design; the 6/1 engine was reused, somewhat modified, as the BSA A10. In 1939, the 500 cc Tiger T100, capable of 100 miles per hour, was released, the war began. Motorcycles were produced at Coventry until the Second World War.
The city of Coventry was destroyed in the Coventry Blitz. Tooling and machinery was recovered from the site of the devastation and production restarted at the new plant at Meriden, Warwickshire in 1942; the Triumph Speed Twin designed by Edward Turner before the war was produced in large numbers after the war. Efforts to settle the Lend-Lease debts caused nearly 70% of Triumph'