GameFan was a publication started by Tim Lindquist and Dave Halverson in September 1992 that provided coverage of domestic and import video games. It was notable for its extensive use of game screenshots in page design because of the lack of good screen shots in other U. S. publications at the time. The original magazine ceased publishing in December 2000. On April 2010, Halverson relaunched GameFan as a hybrid video game/film magazine. However, this relaunch was short-lived and suffered from many internal conflicts, advertising revenue being the main one; the idea for the name Gamefan came from the Japanese Sega magazine called Megafan. Although it began as an advertising supplement to sell imported video games from Japan, the small text reviews and descriptions soon took on a life all their own due to the lack of refinement and sense of passion. Caricatures were given in place of actual editor profile, with profiles drawn by Terry Wolfinger; this particular method of reviewing and commenting freed its editors from the creative restraints associated with competing publications.
It allowed certain editors like Dave Halverson to write multiple reviews of the same game under different pseudonyms. GameFan Magazine was well known for its extensive import game coverage and its expansive coverage of the emerging interest in anime. Another major feature that separated GameFan from other gaming magazines was the high quality paper it was printed on. Gamefan's game screen shots faithfully resembled the game graphics; the death of GameFan Magazine is attributed to several factors. The primary cause was a series of lawsuits which had haunted the magazine for nearly its entire run, following it through numerous corporate iterations and change of hands, it is this lawsuit that, in fact, had prevented the sale of the print magazine and its continuation as a going concern. After its demise, several staff members attempted to have the brand resurrected by the publisher of Computer Strategy Plus, based in Burlington, Vermont. A deal could not be reached and the magazine was shuttered shortly thereafter In the September 1995 issue of GameFan, an article was printed that contained several derogatory comments about Japanese people.
The text took. The article discussed a Namco flight-simulator, Ace Combat, rather than College Football'96 and was poorly written. GameFan's official explanation was that a rogue employee had sabotaged the magazine in order to alienate its Japanese audience and fanbase; however reports indicated that it was filler text that someone had neglected to remove, the whole thing was an internal joke that accidentally got printed. A long apology was published in DieHard GameFan's October 1995 issue in both English and Japanese, a further apology appeared in the November 1995 issue. Staff members of GameFan magazine had amusing aliases. Within the magazine there was The Adventures of Monitaur, an anime-derived series. Although the title character Monitaur was only drawn for the strip, the rest of the magazine's staff personae appeared as characters. Monitaur's main storylines were his struggles against The Blowmeister, who metaphorically represented the leadership of rival magazines such as Electronic Gaming Monthly.
The winners of GameFan's annual Golden Megawards were chosen by editors. GameFan's original editor-in-chief, Dave Halverson, went on to publish Gamer's Republic, Play Magazine consisting of former GameFan and Gamer's Republic staff members. Gamer's Republic had a short run of 35 issues and has ceased publication back in July 2001 when the dot-com bubble burst. Play had a far more successful run of 97 issues until the publishing company filed for bankruptcy. After GameFan ceased publication, Eric Mylonas went on to edit GameGO! magazine. Only one issue of the magazine reached publication with the completed second issue being distributed in PDF format only. More Mylonas has had success writing strategy guides for Prima Games. Tim Lindquist, along with several other members of the original GameFan team, began a new magazine, Hardcore Gamer, they began developing strategy guides as a part of their publishing company, DoubleJump Books. The magazine had a short run of 36 issues before they began focusing on their website.
The DieHard GameFan name was resurrected by Alex Lucard as a website, Diehard GameFAN, with Dave Halverson's blessings. While there is plenty of coverage on the major releases, the site prides itself on reviewing more "indie" games, much in the spirit of the original magazine. After the bankruptcy of Fusion Publishing and the closure of Play, Dave Halverson began work on his latest magazine, a relaunch of GameFan; the magazine returned to newsstands on April 2010, headed by Halverson and a few key staffers from Play with Rob Duenas serving as the new art director. It was available in both print and digital formats, the latter of, sold directly through GameFan's online shop. For the first two issues, GameFan featured a s
All Media Network
RhythmOne is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame, SideReel and Celebified. The company was founded in 1990 by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine. RhythmOne offices are located in San Francisco and Ann Arbor, United States, several other locations across the country. All Music Guide was launched in 1991. In 1994 the All Movie Guide was launched and in 1998 the All Game Guide; the company was founded in Michigan in 1990 by Michael Erlewine. With the All Music Guide the aim was to " discographic information on every artist who's made a record since Enrico Caruso gave the industry its first big boost", which launched in 1991, they expanded with the All Movie Guide in 1994, the All Game Guide in 1998. Moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1999 to take advantage of the "rich talent pool". AMG was a business unit within Alliance Entertainment Corporation from 1996 until early 2005. Alliance was acquired in 1999 by a multibillion-dollar fund based in California. Macrovision announced on November 6, 2007 that it had agreed to purchase All Media Guide for a reported $102 million.
For a time, all of the guides were controlled by Rovi's nameservers and combined access to the All Music and All Movie Guides was provided via AllRovi.com from 2011 until 2013. In 2013, Rovi sold consumer access of the content to the newly established All Media Network, LLC, but retained control of licensing the content to other businesses; the overall website is allmedianetwork.com. Rovi sold the consumer access to them to newly established All Media Network, LLC in 2013, while retaining ownership and maintenance of the content itself; the AllGame section of the site was shut down on December 12, 2014. On April 16, 2015 Blinkx Plc acquired All Media Network and rebranded the website under the new unified RhythmOne Group banner. AllMusic is an online database which provides access to information about songs, musicians and musical styles alongside staff-authored news, biographies and recommendations; the content was published in book form in 1991 as the All Music Guide, is now available to the public for online reference and information as well as available via licensing for point-of-sale systems, media players, online music stores.
RhythmOne produces the AllMusic guide series that includes the All Music Guide to Jazz and the All Music Guide to the Blues. Vladimir Bogdanov is the president of the series. AllMovie, launched in 1994 as the All Movie Guide, provides access to information about actors and filmmakers with staff-authored news, reviews and recommendations, it offers limited information about Television productions, focused on those released on DVD. Like AllMusic, this content is available via licensing to point-of-sale systems, media players, online stores. AllGame was active between 1998–2014 as the All Game Guide, it offered information and reviews about many console, hand held, PC games released in the US; the site started in February 1998 with the goal of becoming the most comprehensive game database available. In a farewell message on their site, the staff noted that they "didn't all know what we were doing in those early days but it was an exciting time to be helping build an online game database before the Internet exploded with numerous websites dedicated to video games."
SideReel, launched in 2007, is a TV community site which provides information about TV shows and episodes. Celebified offers celebrity news and interviews and started in 2012. RhythmOne's database was set up by Vladimir Bogdanov to hold the information of Erlewine's many lists. Information in the database is licensed and used in point-of-sale systems by some music retailers, includes the following: Basic data: names, credits, copyright information, product numbers. Descriptive content: styles, moods, nationalities. Relational content: similar artists and albums, influences. Editorial content: biographies, rankings; the company claims to have the largest digital archive of music, including about six million digital songs, as well as the largest cover art library, with more than half a million cover image scans. The AllMusic database is used by several generations of Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox to identify and organize music collections. Windows Media Player 11 and the integrated MTV Urge music store have expanded the use of AllMusic data to include related artists, reviews and other data.
All Media Network licenses large databases of metadata about movies, video games, audio books, music releases from Rovi Corporation and publishes them online for consumer use. This includes credits, staff-written biographies, reviews and recommendations as well as categories such as theme or mood. Rovi makes this content available for point of sale systems in stores globally, for CD and DVD recognition in software media players such as Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox, for providing content for a variety of websites including iTunes and Spotify. All Media Guide sold print compilations of its information. Stephen Thomas Erlewine, senior editor of AllMusic List of online music databases Official website
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company. It was founded in 1927 in Illinois, by William Bernard Ziff Sr. and Bernard George Davis. Throughout most of Ziff Davis' history, it was a publisher of hobbyist magazines ones devoted to expensive, advertiser-rich technical hobbies such as cars and electronics. However, since 1980, Ziff Davis has published computer-related magazines, its websites, derived from its magazines, have established Ziff Davis as an internet information company. Ziff Davis had several broadcasting properties, first during the mid-1970s, with its own technology network ZDTV renamed to TechTV, sold to Vulcan Ventures in 2001. Ziff Davis' magazine publishing and internet operations offices are based in New York City and San Francisco. On January 6, 2009, the company sold 1UP.com to UGO Entertainment, a division of Hearst Corporation and announced the January 2009 issue of the long-running Electronic Gaming Monthly magazine as the final one. Former Time Inc. executive Vivek Shah, with financial backing from Boston private equity company Great Hill Partners, announced on June 4, 2010, the acquisition of Ziff Davis Inc. as the "first step in building a new digital media company that specializes in producing and distributing content for consumers making important buying decisions."On November 12, 2012, Ziff Davis Inc. was acquired by cloud computing services company j2 Global of Hollywood, Calif. for $167 million cash.
According to a late 2015 Fortune article, Ziff Davis comprises 30% of parent company j2 Global's $600 million annual revenue and is increasing 15% to 20% each year. Analyst Gregory Burns of Sidoti & Company calculates; the William B. Ziff Company, founded in 1920, was a successful Chicago advertising agency that secured advertising from national companies such as Procter & Gamble for all African American weekly newspapers. In 1923, Ziff acquired E. C. Auld Company, a Chicago publishing house. Ziff's first venture in magazine publishing was Ziff's Magazine, which featured short stories, one-act plays, humorous verse, jokes; the title was changed to America's Humor in April 1926. Bernard George Davis was the student editor of the University of Pittsburgh's humor magazine, the Pitt Panther, was active in the Association of College Comics of the East. During his senior year he attended the association's convention and met William B. Ziff; when Davis graduated in 1927 he joined Ziff as the editor of America's Humor.
Ziff, an aviator in World War I, created a new magazine, Popular Aviation, in August 1927, published by Popular Aviation Publishing Company of Chicago, Illinois. Under editor Harley W. Mitchell it became the largest aviation magazine, with a circulation of 100,000 in 1929; the magazine's title became Aeronautics in June 1929 and the publishing company's name became Aeronautical Publications, Inc. The title was changed back to Popular Aviation in July 1930; the magazine is still published today by the Bonnier Corporation. The magazine celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2017; the company histories give the founding date as 1927. This is when B. G. Davis joined and Popular Aviation magazine started. However, it was not until 1936 that the company became the "Ziff-Davis Publishing Company". Davis was given a substantial minority equity interest in the company and was appointed a vice-president and director, he was named president in 1946. Davis was a photography enthusiast and the editor of the Popular Photography magazine started in May 1937.
In early 1938, Ziff-Davis acquired the magazines Amazing Stories. These were started by Hugo Gernsback but sold as a result of the Experimenter Publishing bankruptcy in 1929. Both magazines had declined since the bankruptcy but the resources of Ziff-Davis rejuvenated them starting with the April 1938 issues. Radio News was published until 1972; the magazine Popular Electronics, derived from Radio News, was begun in 1955 and published until 1985. Amazing Stories was a leading science fiction magazine and Ziff Davis soon added a new companion, Fantastic Adventures. In 1954 FA was merged into the newer magazine Fantastic, founded in 1952 to great initial success. ZD published a number of other pulp magazines and digest-sized fiction magazines during the 1940s and 1950s, continued to publish Amazing and Fantastic until 1965. Ziff-Davis published comic books during the early 1950s, operating by their own name and the name Approved Comics. Eschewing superheroes, they published horror, sports and Western comics, though most titles didn't last more than a few issues.
Superman co-creator Jerry Siegel was the art director of the comics line. In 1953, the company abandoned comics, selling its most popular titles—the romance comics Cinderella Love and Romantic Love, the Western Kid Cowboy, the jungle adventure Wild Boy of the Congo—to St. John Publications. Ziff-Davis continued to publish one title, G. I. Joe, until 1957, a total of 51 issues. William B. Ziff, Sr. died in 1953 and son William B. Ziff, Jr. returned from Germany to assume his role in the company. In 1958 Bernard G. Davis sold his share of Ziff Davis to found Davis Publications, although Ziff-Davis continued to use his surname. With the younger Ziff's direction, ZD soon became a successful publisher of enthusiast magazines. Ziff Davis purchased titles like Car And Driv
The Nintendo 64, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America and Brazil, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France, it is the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until Nintendo's seventh console, the Nintendo Switch, released in 2017. The console was discontinued in mid-2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001, it is the first Nintendo console to feature true 3D effects. Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64 were made to show this off. Codenamed "Project Reality", the Nintendo 64 design was complete by mid-1995, but its launch was delayed until 1996, when Time named it Machine of the Year, it was launched with Pilotwings 64 and Saikyō Habu Shōgi. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn.
The suggested retail price at its United States launch was US$199.99, 32.93 million units were sold worldwide. The console was released in a range of designs over its lifetime. In 2015, IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time. Around the end of the 1980s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System. Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES, was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies. Silicon Graphics, Inc. a long-time leader in graphics visualization and supercomputing, was interested in expanding its business by adapting its technology into the higher volume realm of consumer products, starting with the video game market.
Based upon its MIPS R4000 family of supercomputing and workstation CPUs, SGI developed a CPU requiring a fraction of the resources—consuming only 0.5 watts of power instead of 1.5 to 2 watts, with an estimated target price of US$40 instead of US$80–200. The company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an well established partner in that market. Jim Clark, founder of SGI offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, the CEO of Sega of America; the next candidate would be Nintendo. The historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were "quite impressed" with SGI's prototype, inviting their hardware team to travel from Japan to meet with SGI; the engineers from Sega Enterprises claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies. Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had decided against SGI's design.
Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the real reason for SGI's ultimate choice of partner is that Nintendo was a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis. Michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, "The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendo's phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume never dreamed of". Jim Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993. On August 23, 1993, the two companies announced a global joint development and licensing agreement surrounding Project Reality, projecting that the yet unnamed eventual product would be "developed for Nintendo, will be unveiled in arcades in 1994, will be available for home use by late 1995... below $250". This announcement coincided with Nintendo's August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show."Reality Immersion Technology" is the name SGI had given the set of core componentry, which would be first utilized in Project Reality: the MIPS R4300i CPU, the MIPS Reality Coprocessor, the embedded software.
Some chip technology and manufacturing was provided by NEC, Sharp. SGI had acquired MIPS Computer Systems, the two worked together to be responsible for the design of the Reality Immersion Technology chips under engineering director Jim Foran and chief hardware architect Tim Van Hook; the initial Project Reality game development platform was developed and sold by SGI in the form of its US$100,000–US$250,000 Onyx supercomputer loaded with the namesake US$50,000 RealityEngine2 graphics boards and four 150 MHz R4400 CPUs, with early Project Reality application and emulation APIs based upon Performer and OpenGL. This graphics supercomputing platform had served as the source design which SGI had reduced down to become the Reality Immersion Technology for Project Reality; the system's game controller was a Super NES controller modified to have a primitive analog joystick and Z trigger. Under maximal secrecy from the rest of the company, a LucasArts developer said his team would "furtively hide the prototype controller in a cardboard box while we used it.
In answer to the inevitable questions about what we were doing, we replied jokingly that it was a new type of controller—a bowl of liquid that absorbed your thoughts through your fingertips. Of course, you had to think in Japanese..."On June 23, 1994, Nintendo announced the new official name of the st
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie