Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. MHI is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group. MHI's products include aerospace components, air conditioners, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, power generation equipment, printing machines and space launch vehicles. Through its defense-related activities it is the world's 23rd-largest defense contractor measured by 2011 defense revenues and the largest based in Japan. On November 28, 2018, the company was ordered by the South Korea Supreme Court to pay compensation for forced labor which the company oversaw during the Japanese occupation of Korea. In 1857, at the request of the Tokugawa Shogunate, a group of Dutch engineers began work on the Nagasaki Yotetsusho, a modern, Western-style foundry and shipyard near the Dutch settlement of Dejima, at Nagasaki; this was renamed Nagasaki Seitetsusho in 1860, construction was completed in 1861.
Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the shipyard was placed under control of the new Government of Meiji Japan. The first dry dock was completed in 1879. In 1884, Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi, leased the Nagasaki Seitetsusho from the Japanese government, renamed it the Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works and entered the shipbuilding business on a large scale. Iwasaki purchased the shipyards outright in 1887. In 1891, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Yokohama Machinery Works was started as Yokohama Dock Company, Ltd, its main business was ship repairs, to which it added ship servicing by 1897. The works was renamed Mitsubishi Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha in 1893 and additional dry docks were completed in 1896 and 1905; the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Shimonoseki Shipyard & Machinery Works was established in 1914. It produced industrial merchant ships; the Nagasaki company was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Ltd. in 1917 and again renamed as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934.
It became the largest private firm in Japan, active in the manufacture of ships, heavy machinery and railway cars. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries merged with the Yokohama Dock Company in 1935. From its inception, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipyards were involved in contracts for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the largest battleship Musashi was completed at Nagasaki in 1942. The company housed the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, which employed 90% of the city's labor force, accounted for 90% of the city's industry; these connections made Nagasaki a legitimate target for strategic bombing during World War II by the Allied air forces, which dropped an atomic bomb on the city on August 9, 1945. This attack, followed by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima three days earlier, dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese leadership, contributing to the surrender of Japan six days later.
The Kobe Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha was established in 1905. The Kobe Shipyard merged with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934; the Kobe Shipyard constructed the ocean liner Argentina Maru, the submarines the I-19 and I-25. Following the dissolution of the zaibatsu after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Mitsubishi divided into three companies. Mitsubishi Nagasaki became Ltd.. The Nagasaki Shipyard was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1952. The Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard became Central Japan Heavy Industries, Ltd. in 1950. In 1964, the three independent companies from the 1950 break-up were merged again into one company under the name of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd; the Nagasaki works was renamed the Nagasaki Engine Works. The Kobe works was renamed the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Kobe Machinery Works. In 1970, MHI's automobile parts department became an independent company as Mitsubishi Motors. In 1974, its Tokyo headquarters was targeted in a bombing.
MHI participated in a ¥540 billion emergency rescue of Mitsubishi Motors in January 2005, in partnership with Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Tokyo Financial Group. As part of the rescue, MHI acquired ¥50 billion of Mitsubishi Motors stock, increasing its ownership stake to 15 percent and making the automaker an affiliate again. In October 2009, MHI announced an order for up to 100 regional jets from the United States-based airline Trans States Holdings. MHI entered talks with Hitachi in August 2011 about a potential merger of the two companies, in what would have been the largest merger between two Japanese companies in history; the talks subsequently were suspended. In November 2012, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Hitachi agreed to merge their thermal power generation businesses into a joint venture to be owned 65% by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and 35% by Hitachi; the joint venture began operations in February 2014. In June 2014 Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries announced their formation of joint ventures to bid for Alstom's troubled energy and transportation businesses.
A rival bid by General Electric has been criticized by French government sources, who consider Alstom's operations as a "vital national interest" at a moment when the French unemployment level stands above 10% and some voters are turning towards the far-right. MHI has aerospace facilities in Nagoya, Komaki and Mississauga, Canada. In the 1950s the company began to re-enter the aeros
Zero 2 Infinity
Zero 2 Infinity is a private Spanish company developing high-altitude balloons to provide access to near space and low Earth orbit using a balloon-borne pod and a balloon-borne launcher. The company was founded in 2009 by aerospace engineer Jose Mariano López-Urdiales, the current CEO, it is headquartered in Barberà del Vallès, Spain. Zero 2 Infinity has been testing high-altitude balloons and launching small payloads to high altitudes for scientific institutions and commercial firms for testing elements above most of the Earth's atmosphere, their launch system has a lower impact on the environment, an advantage over conventional systems. The company's pod named Bloon may be used for tourism; as of late 2016, its CEO had suggested that commercial flights could take place as early as 2019. It has three lines of business: Bloostar: a balloon-borne launcher for carrying payloads such as small and nanosatellites to orbit, based on rockoon technology. Bloon: a balloon-borne zero emission craft for launching crewed vehicles to near space for scientific research and space tourism purposes.
Elevate: a service provided to fly payloads to near space for science, satellite testing and marketing purposes. Bloostar is a launch vehicle in development, intended to compete in the small satellite launch market, it is based on the rockoon concept: the first stage of the ascent is conducted by the use of a high-altitude balloon up to 30 km, where the rocket platform is ignited and detached from the balloon to insert the payload into orbit. The design is intended to be capable of delivering a 140 kg payload to a 200-km low Earth orbit, or a 75 kg payload to a 600-km sun-synchronous orbit; the launch vehicle is composed of a set of liquid fuel engines clustered as concentric toroids attached to the central payload. Each toroid works as a stage during the rocket climb once it has been ignited from around 30 km above ground level; the stages are progressively separated of the vehicle to conventional satellite launch using a rocket with parallel staging. The design includes a total of 13 engines split across three stages.
The first, outermost stage is a toroid with six Teide 2 engines each producing 15 kN of thrust. By using propellant crossfeed, all available engines will fire but only the fuel tank in the outermost stage will be depleted at a time, increasing performance; as the engines will only fire at high altitude, all 13 will be optimized to produce maximum thrust in vacuum or near-vacuum conditions, similar to the upper-stage engines of conventional rockets.. Due to their high-altitude-only use, turbopumps have been omitted from the engine design reducing cost and complexity; the combustion chambers for the Teide 1 engines are 3D printed by the Andalusian Foundation for Aerospace Development. The use of several toroid-shaped stages results in an increased stand-off distance to the sonic line during atmospheric entry, reducing the possibility of damaging the stages because of the high temperatures reached. Another promoted advantage is the capability to launch satellites with no need of folding them, as a flat-shaped vehicle is capable of fitting panel-deployed satellites right from the launch site.
The balloon components will be landed and reused. According to López Urdiales, the Bloostar rocket launch vehicle "has been designed to be reusable, but not as part of the business plan; the engines burn methane and oxygen for many reasons, but one is that it creates less soot and leaves the engines reusable. The shape of a torus has been selected to reduce the aero-heating on reentry; the optimal shape in vacuum is similar to the optimal shape for reentry. The optimal shape for ascent is different. Bloostar has been designed from its ignition taking into account ‘the way back down.’ It’s easier to do if the ‘way up’ is taken care of by the balloon." Recovery will be attempted and consideration has been given for an eventual system by which the first stage will descent top-down, using a portion of its dorsal fairing as an ablative heat shield, slow to be caught in a sea-based net. Development of Bloostar began in 2013; the first flight test was conducted in March 2017, in which a less-than-half-scale prototype of the upper two stages was carried to 25 km altitude by balloon, made a short burn using a small solid motor, was recovered intact by parachute.
According to the Payload User's Guide, Phase 2 of development will follow, which will involve suborbital flights of nanobloorstar with a 75 kg payload to 180 km altitude. At that time of the 2017 test flight the first commercial launch was projected for 2019. However, López Urdiales subsequently noted this date could slip as Zero 2 Infinity focused on its revenue-generating Elevate product line. Bloon is a zero emission craft in development, which consists of a high-altitude balloon-borne capsule to perform manned flights to near space and a steerable parachute system for returning autonomously to Earth, it refers to the balloon-borne craft prototype range of the same company: Bloon, minibloon and nanobloon which are differentiated among them by their size. Considering that only a helium balloon is responsible for lifting the load above most of the atmosphere, it is considered a zero emission craft. With this technology, Bloon would ca
North American X-15
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft. The X-15 set speed and altitude records in the 1960s, reaching the edge of outer space and returning with valuable data used in aircraft and spacecraft design; the X-15's official world record for the highest speed recorded by a manned, powered aircraft, set in October 1967 when William J. Knight flew Mach 6.70 at 102,100 feet, a speed of 4,520 miles per hour, has remained unbroken as of 2019. During the X-15 program, 13 flights by eight pilots met the Air Force spaceflight criterion by exceeding the altitude of 50 miles, thus qualifying these pilots as being astronauts; the Air Force pilots qualified for astronaut wings while the civilian pilots were awarded NASA astronaut wings in 2005, 35 years after the last X-15 flight. The only Navy pilot in the X-15 program never took the aircraft above the requisite 50 mile altitude and thus never earned astronaut wings.
The X-15 was based on a concept study from Walter Dornberger for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for a hypersonic research aircraft. The requests for proposal were published on 30 December 1954 for the airframe and on 4 February 1955 for the rocket engine; the X-15 was built by two manufacturers: North American Aviation was contracted for the airframe in November 1955, Reaction Motors was contracted for building the engines in 1956. Like many X-series aircraft, the X-15 was designed to be carried aloft and drop launched from under the wing of a B-52 mother ship. Air Force NB-52A, "The High and Mighty One", NB-52B, "The Challenger" served as carrier planes for all X-15 flights. Release took place at a speed of about 500 miles per hour; the X-15 fuselage was long and cylindrical, with rear fairings that flattened its appearance, thick and ventral wedge-fin stabilizers. Parts of the fuselage were heat-resistant nickel alloy; the retractable landing gear comprised two rear skids. The skids did not extend beyond the ventral fin, which required the pilot to jettison the lower fin just before landing.
The lower fin was recovered by parachute. The X-15 was the product of developmental research and changes were made to various systems over the course of the program and between the different models; the X-15 was operated under several different scenarios, including attachment to a launch aircraft, main engine start and acceleration, ballistic flight into thin air/space, re-entry into thicker air, unpowered glide to landing, direct landing without a main-engine start. The main rocket engine operated only for a short part of the flight, but boosted the X-15 to its high speeds and altitudes. Without main engine thrust, the X-15's instruments and control surfaces remained functional, but the aircraft could not maintain altitude; because the X-15 had to be controlled in an environment where there was too little air for aerodynamic flight control surfaces, it had a reaction control system that used rocket thrusters. There were two different X-15 pilot control setups: one used three joysticks, the other, one joystick.
The X-15 type with multiple control sticks for the pilot placed a traditional rudder and stick between a left joystick that sent commands to the Reaction Control System, a third joystick on the right used during high-G maneuvers to augment the center stick. In addition to pilot input, the X-15 "Stability Augmentation System" sent inputs to the aerodynamic controls to help the pilot maintain attitude control; the Reaction Control System could be operated in two modes -- automatic. The automatic mode used a feature called "Reaction Augmentation System" that helped stabilize the vehicle at high altitude; the RAS was used for three minutes of an X-15 flight before automatic power off. The alternative control setup used the MH-96 flight control system, which allowed one joystick in place of three and simplified pilot input; the MH-96 could automatically blend aerodynamic and rocket controls, depending on how effective each system was at controlling the aircraft. Among the many controls were the rocket engine throttle and a control for jettisoning the ventral tail fin.
Other features of the cockpit included heated windows to prevent icing and a forward headrest for periods of high deceleration. The X-15 had an ejection seat designed to operate at speeds up to Mach 4 and/or 120,000 feet altitude, although it was never used during the program. In the event of ejection, the seat was designed to deploy fins, which were used until it reached a safer speed/altitude at which to deploy its main parachute. Pilots wore pressure suits. Above 35,000 feet altitude, the cockpit was pressurized to 3.5 psi with nitrogen gas, while oxygen for breathing was fed separately to the pilot. The initial 24 powered flights used two Reaction Motors XLR11 liquid-propellant rocket engines, enhanced to provide a total of 16,000 pounds-force of thrust as compared to the 6,000 pounds-force that a single XLR11 provided in 1947 to make the Bell X-1 the first aircraft to fly faster than the speed of sound; the XLR11 used liquid oxygen. By November 1960, Reaction Motors was able to deliver the XLR99 rocket engine, generating 57,000 pounds-force of thrust.
The remaining 175 flights of the X-15 used XLR99 engines, in a single engine configuration. The XLR99 used anh
Long March (rocket family)
A Long March rocket or Changzheng rocket in Chinese pinyin is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the People's Republic of China. Development and design falls under the auspices of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. In English, the rockets are abbreviated as LM- for export and CZ- within China, as "Chang Zheng" means "Long March" in Chinese pinyin; the rockets are named after the Long March of Chinese communist history. China used the Long March 1 rocket to launch its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong 1, into Low Earth orbit on April 24, 1970, becoming the fifth nation to achieve independent launch capability. Early launches had an inconsistent record, focusing on the launching of Chinese satellites; the Long March 1 was replaced by the Long March 2 family of launchers. After the U. S. Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed in 1986, a growing commercial backlog gave China the chance to enter the international launch market. In September 1988, U. S. President Ronald Reagan agreed to allow U.
S satellites to be launched on Chinese rockets. AsiaSat 1, launched by the Space Shuttle and retrieved by another Space Shuttle after a failure, was launched by the Long March 3 in 1990 as the first foreign payload on a Chinese rocket. However, major setbacks occurred in 1992–1996; the Long March 2E was designed with a defective payload fairing, which collapsed when faced with the rocket's excessive vibration. After just seven launches, the Long March 2E destroyed the Optus B2 and Apstar 2 satellites and damaged AsiaSat 2; the Long March 3B experienced a catastrophic failure in 1996, veering off course shortly after liftoff and crashing into a nearby village. At least 6 people were killed on the ground, the Intelsat 708 satellite was destroyed. A Long March 3 experienced a partial failure in August 1996 during the launch of Chinasat-7; the involvement of U. S. companies in the Apstar 2 and Intelsat 708 investigations caused great controversy in the United States. In the Cox Report, the U. S. Congress accused Space Systems/Loral and Hughes of transferring information that would improve the design of Chinese rockets and ballistic missiles.
Although the Long March was allowed to launch its commercial backlog, the U. S. State Department has not approved any satellite export licenses to China since 1998. ChinaSat 8, scheduled for launch in April 1999 on a Long March 3B rocket, was placed in storage, sold to the Singapore company ProtoStar, launched on a French rocket in 2008. From 2005 to 2012, Long March rockets launched ITAR-free satellites made by the European company Thales Alenia Space. However, Thales Alenia was forced to discontinue its ITAR-free satellite line in 2013 after the U. S. State Department fined a U. S. company for selling ITAR components. Thales Alenia had long complained that "every satellite nut and bolt" was being ITAR-restricted, the European Space Agency accused the United States of using ITAR to block exports to China instead of protecting technology. In 2016, an official at the U. S. Bureau of Industry and Security confirmed that "no U. S.-origin content, regardless of significance, regardless of whether it’s incorporated into a foreign-made item, can go to China."
The European aerospace industry is working on developing replacements for U. S. satellite components. After the failures of 1992–1996, the troublesome Long March 2E was withdrawn from the market. Design changes were made to improve the reliability of Long March rockets. From October 1996 to April 2009, the Long March rocket family delivered 75 consecutive successful launches, including several major milestones in space flight: On October 15, 2003, the Long March 2F rocket launched the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft, carrying China's first astronaut into space. China became the third nation with independent human spaceflight capability, after the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States. On June 1, 2007, Long March rockets completed their 100th launch overall. On October 24, 2007, the Long March 3A launched the "Chang'e 1" lunar orbiting spacecraft from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center; the Long March rockets have subsequently maintained an excellent reliability record. Since 2010, Long March launches have made up 15–25% of all space launches globally.
Growing domestic demand has maintained a healthy manifest. International deals have been secured through a package deal that bundles the launch with a Chinese satellite, circumventing the U. S. embargo. The Long March is China's primary expendable launch system family; the Shenzhou spacecraft and Chang'e lunar orbiters are launched on the Long March rocket. The maximum payload for LEO is 12,000 kilograms, the maximum payload; the next generation rocket – Long March 5 variants will offer more payload in the future. Long March 1's 1st and 2nd stage uses nitric acid and UDMH propellants, its upper stage uses a spin-stabilized solid rocket engine. Long March 2, Long March 3, Long March 4, the main stages and associated liquid rocket boosters use dinitrogen tetroxide as the oxidizing agent and UDMH as the fuel; the upper stages of Long March 3 rockets use YF-73 and YF-75 engines, using Liquid hydrogen as the fuel and Liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. The new generation of Long March rocket family, Long March 5, its derivations Long March 6, Long March 7 will use LOX and kerosene as core stage and liquid booster propellant, with LOX and LH2 in upper stages.
Long March 11 is a solid-fuel rocket. The Long March rockets are organized into several series: Long March 1 rocket family Long March 2 rocket family Long March 3 rocket family Long
The Proton-M, GRAU index 8K82M or 8K82KM, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton. It is built by Khrunichev, launched from sites 81 and 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services, use Site 200/39; the first Proton-M launch occurred on 7 April 2001. The Proton-M launch vehicle consists of three stages; the first stage is unique in that it consists of a central cylindrical oxidizer tank with the same diameter as the other two stages with six fuel tanks attached to its circumference, each carrying an engine. The engines in this stage can swivel tangentially up to 7° from the neutral position, providing full thrust vector control; the rationale for this design is logistics: the diameter of the oxidizer tanks and the two following stages is the maximum that can be delivered by railroad to Baikonur. However, within Baikonur the assembled stack is transported again by rail, as it has enough clearance.
The second stage uses a conventional cylindrical design. It is powered by one RD-0211 engine; the RD-0211 is a modified version of the RD-0210 used to pressurize the propellant tanks. The second stage is joined to the first stage through a net instead of a closed inter-stage, to allow the exhaust to escape because the second stage begins firing seconds before separation. Thrust vector control is provided by engine gimballing; the third stage is of a conventional cylindrical design. It contains the avionics system, it uses one RD-0213, a fixed version of the RD-0210, one RD-0214, a four nozzle vernier engine used for thrust vector control. The nozzles of the RD-0214 can turn up to 45°; the Proton-M features modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, utilise more propellant. A closed-loop guidance system is used on the first stage, which allows more complete consumption of propellant; this increases the rocket's performance compared to previous variants, reduces the amount of toxic chemicals remaining in the stage when it impacts downrange.
It can place up to 21 tonnes into low Earth orbit. With an upper stage, it can place a 3 tonne payload into geosynchronous orbit, or a 5.5 tonne payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Efforts were made to reduce dependency on foreign component suppliers. Most Proton-M launches have used a Briz-M upper stage to propel the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Launches have been made with Blok-DM upper stages: six launches were made with the Blok DM-2 upper stage carrying GLONASS spacecraft, while two further GLONASS launches have used the Blok DM-03; the DM-03 will be used for a total of five launches. As of 2013, no Proton-M launches have been made without an upper stage. However, this configuration is manifested to launch the Multipurpose Laboratory Module and European Robotic Arm of the International Space Station scheduled to be launched together in December 2018. Commercial launches conducted by ILS use two kinds of fairings: PLF-BR-13305 short faring. PLF-BR-15255 long faring. Both fairings have a diameter of 4.35 m.
On 7 July 2007, International Launch Services launched the first Proton-M Enhanced rocket, which carried the DirecTV-10 satellite into orbit. This was the 326th launch of a Proton, the 16th Proton-M/Briz-M launch, the 41st Proton launch to be conducted by ILS, it features more efficient first stage engines, updated avionics, lighter fuel tanks and more powerful vernier engines on the Briz-M upper stage, mass reduction throughout the rocket, including thinner fuel tank walls on the first stage, use of composite materials on all other stages. The second launch of this variant occurred on 18 August 2008, was used to place Inmarsat 4 F3 into orbit; the baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant. Frank McKenna, CEO of ILS, has indicated that in 2010 the Phase III Proton design would become the standard ILS configuration, with the ability to lift 6.15 tonnes to GTO. On 19 October 2011 Viasat-1 weighing 6,740 kg was lifted into GTO by the Proton-M/Briz-M Phase III. Proton Light and Proton Medium were two proposed variants with a lower payload capacity at a reduced price.
Proposed end of 2016, Proton Light was cancelled in 2017 and Proton Medium was put on "indefinite hold" in 2018. The variants were designed to reduce the cost for launching medium and small commercial communications satellites into Geostationary Transfer Orbit; the variants were planned with a 2+1 stage architecture based on 3 stage Proton+Briz M, but dispensing with the 2nd stage and featuring minor lengthening of the other two stages. The Proton Light 1st stage was planned with 4 main engines and external tanks to the 6 used by Proton Medium and Proton-M; the cost was expected to be competitive with Ariane and SpaceX. The planned maiden flights were 2019 for Proton Light, they were expected to use Baikonur launch complex 81/24 and would have required a new transporter-erector system and other ground infrastructure changes. The full-sized Proton-M can lift 6.3 Tonnes into a standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit. The 3-5 tonne paylo
A rocket is a missile, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed from propellant carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. Multistage rockets are capable of attaining escape velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations. To control their flight, rockets rely on momentum, auxiliary reaction engines, gimballed thrust, momentum wheels, deflection of the exhaust stream, propellant flow, spin, or gravity. Rockets for military and recreational uses date back to at least 13th-century China. Significant scientific and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology for the Space Age, including setting foot on the Earth's moon.
Rockets are now used for fireworks, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight, space exploration. Chemical rockets are the most common type of high power rocket creating a high speed exhaust by the combustion of fuel with an oxidizer; the stored propellant can be a simple pressurized gas or a single liquid fuel that disassociates in the presence of a catalyst, two liquids that spontaneously react on contact, two liquids that must be ignited to react, a solid combination of fuel with oxidizer, or solid fuel with liquid oxidizer. Chemical rockets store a large amount of energy in an released form, can be dangerous. However, careful design, testing and use minimizes risks; the first gunpowder-powered rockets evolved in medieval China under the Song dynasty by the 13th century. The Mongols adopted Chinese rocket technology and the invention spread via the Mongol invasions to the Middle East and to Europe in the mid-13th century. Rockets are recorded in use by the Song navy in a military exercise dated to 1245.
Internal-combustion rocket propulsion is mentioned in a reference to 1264, recording that the "ground-rat", a type of firework, had frightened the Empress-Mother Gongsheng at a feast held in her honor by her son the Emperor Lizong. Subsequently, rockets are included in the military treatise Huolongjing known as the Fire Drake Manual, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid-14th century; this text mentions the first known multistage rocket, the'fire-dragon issuing from the water', thought to have been used by the Chinese navy. Medieval and early modern rockets were used militarily as incendiary weapons in sieges. Between 1270 and 1280, Hasan al-Rammah wrote al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya, which included 107 gunpowder recipes, 22 of them for rockets. In Europe, Konrad Kyeser described rockets in his military treatise Bellifortis around 1405; the name "rocket" comes from the Italian rocchetta, meaning "bobbin" or "little spindle", given due to the similarity in shape to the bobbin or spool used to hold the thread to be fed to a spinning wheel.
Leonhard Fronsperger and Conrad Haas adopted the Italian term into German in the mid-16th century. Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima, an important early modern work on rocket artillery, by Kazimierz Siemienowicz, was first printed in Amsterdam in 1650; the Mysorean rockets were the first successful iron-cased rockets, developed in the late 18th century in the Kingdom of Mysore by Tipu Sultan. The Congreve rocket was a British weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804; this rocket was based directly on the Mysorean rockets, used compressed powder and was fielded in the Napoleonic Wars. It was Congreve rockets that Francis Scott Key was referring to when he wrote of the "rockets' red glare" while held captive on a British ship, laying siege to Fort McHenry in 1814. Together, the Mysorean and British innovations increased the effective range of military rockets from 100 to 2,000 yards; the first mathematical treatment of the dynamics of rocket propulsion is due to William Moore.
In 1815 Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko constructed rocket-launching platforms, which allowed rockets to be fired in salvos, gun-laying devices. William Hale in 1844 increased the accuracy of rocket artillery. Edward Mounier Boxer further improved the Congreve rocket in 1865. William Leitch first proposed the concept of using rockets to enable human spaceflight in 1861. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky also conceived this idea, extensively developed a body of theory that has provided the foundation for subsequent spaceflight development. Robert Goddard in 1920 published proposed improvements to rocket technology in A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. In 1923, Hermann Oberth published Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen Modern rockets originated in 1926 when Goddard attached a supersonic nozzle to the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket; these nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%.
Use of liquid propellants instead of gunpowder improved the effectiveness of rocket artillery in World War II, opened up the p
In modern language, a missile known as a guided missile, is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket. Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance, flight system and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles, air-to-air missiles, anti-satellite weapons. All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine, jet engine, or other type of engine. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are referred to as shells and have a shorter range than missiles. In ordinary British-English usage predating guided weapons, a missile is such as objects thrown at players by rowdy spectators at a sporting event; the first missiles to be used operationally were a series of missiles developed by Nazi Germany in World War II. Most famous of these are the V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket, both of which used a simple mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route.
Less well known were a series of anti-shipping and anti-aircraft missiles based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator. However, these early systems in World War II were only built in small numbers. Guided missiles have a number of different system components: Guidance system Targeting system Flight system Engine Warhead The most common method of guidance is to use some form of radiation, such as infrared, lasers or radio waves, to guide the missile onto its target; this radiation may emanate from the target, it may be provided by the missile itself, or it may be provided by a friendly third party. The first two are known as fire-and-forget as they need no further support or control from the launch vehicle/platform in order to function. Another method is to use a TV guidance, with a visible light or infrared picture produced in order to see the target; the picture may be used either by a human operator who steering the missile onto its target or by a computer doing much the same job.
One of the more bizarre guidance methods instead used a pigeon to steer a missile to its target. Some missiles have a home-on-jam capability to guide itself to a radar-emitting source. Many missiles use a combination of two or more of the methods to improve accuracy and the chances of a successful engagement. Another method is to target the missile by knowing the location of the target and using a guidance system such as INS, TERCOM or satellite guidance; this guidance system guides the missile by knowing the missile's current position and the position of the target, calculating a course between them. This job can be performed somewhat crudely by a human operator who can see the target and the missile and guide it using either cable- or radio-based remote control, or by an automatic system that can track the target and the missile. Furthermore, some missiles use initial targeting, sending them to a target area, where they will switch to primary targeting, using either radar or IR targeting to acquire the target.
Whether a guided missile uses a targeting system, a guidance system or both, it needs a flight system. The flight system uses the data from the targeting or guidance system to maneuver the missile in flight, allowing it to counter inaccuracies in the missile or to follow a moving target. There are two main systems: aerodynamic maneuvering. Missiles are powered by an engine either a type of rocket engine or jet engine. Rockets are of the solid propellant type for ease of maintenance and fast deployment, although some larger ballistic missiles use liquid-propellant rockets. Jet engines are used in cruise missiles, most of the turbojet type, due to its relative simplicity and low frontal area. Turbofans and ramjets are the only other common forms of jet engine propulsion, although any type of engine could theoretically be used. Long-range missiles may have multiple engine stages in those launched from the surface; these stages may all be of similar types or may include a mix of engine types − for example, surface-launched cruise missiles have a rocket booster for launching and a jet engine for sustained flight.
Some missiles may have additional propulsion from another source at launch. Missiles have one or more explosive warheads, although other weapon types may be used; the warheads of a missile provide its primary destructive power. Warheads are most of the high explosive type employing shaped charges to exploit the accuracy of a guided weapon to destroy hardened targets. Other warhead types include submunitions, nuclear weapons, biological or radiological weapons or kinetic energy penetrators. Warheadless missiles are used for testing and training purposes. Missiles are categorized by their launch platform and intended target. In broadest terms, these will either be surface or air, t