A veterinary physician called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon, is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases and injuries in animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a veterinarian or prescribe any treatment. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings; these veterinarians may be involved in a general practice. As with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.
Current debates within the profession include the ethics of certain procedures believed to be purely cosmetic or unnecessary for behavioral issues, such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs. The word "veterinary" comes from the Latin veterinae meaning "working animals". "Veterinarian" was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. Ancient Indian sage and veterinary physician Shalihotra, the son of a Brahmin sage, Hayagosha, is considered the founder of veterinary sciences; the first veterinary college was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain.
A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The professionalization of the veterinary trade was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis and aftercare; the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery. Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely on clinical signs, as animals are unable to vocalize symptoms as a human would. In some cases, owners may be able to provide a medical history and the veterinarian can combine this information along with observations, the results of pertinent diagnostic tests such as radiography, CT scans, MRI, blood tests and others.
Veterinarians must consider the appropriateness of euthanasia if a condition is to leave the animal in pain or with a poor quality of life, or if treatment of a condition is to cause more harm to the patient than good, or if the patient is unlikely to survive any treatment regimen. Additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the client's finances; as with human medicine, much veterinary work is concerned with prophylactic treatment, in order to prevent problems occurring in the future. Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, dental prophylaxis to prevent or inhibit dental disease; this may involve owner education so as to avoid future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have the prevention of zoonoses; the majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals. Small animal veterinarians work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both.
Large animal veterinarians spend more time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them, such as zoos or farms. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of veterinary medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies, pharmaceutical companies. In many countries, the government may be a major employer of veterinarians, such as the United States Department of Agriculture or the Animal and Plant Health Agency in the United Kingdom. State and local governments employ veterinarians. Veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine. Areas of focus include: Exotic animal veterinaria
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater, safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid slurry, called sewage sludge; the sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land. Sewage treatment may be referred to as wastewater treatment. However, the latter is a broader term which can refer to industrial wastewater. For most cities, the sewer system will carry a proportion of industrial effluent to the sewage treatment plant which has received pre-treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load. If the sewer system is a combined sewer it will carry urban runoff to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage water can travel towards treatment plants via piping and in a flow aided by gravity and pumps.
The first part of filtration of sewage includes a bar screen to filter solids and large objects which are collected in dumpsters and disposed of in landfills. Fat and grease is removed before the primary treatment of sewage; the term "sewage treatment plant" is nowadays replaced with the term wastewater treatment plant or wastewater treatment station. Sewage can be treated close to where the sewage is created, which may be called a "decentralized" system or an "on-site" system. Alternatively, sewage can be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant; this is called a "centralized" system. Sewage is generated by residential, institutional and industrial establishments, it includes household waste liquid from toilets, showers and sinks draining into sewers. In many areas, sewage includes liquid waste from industry and commerce; the separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with treated greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.
Sewage may include urban runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined sewer systems; this design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Combined sewers require more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are much smaller than combined sewers, they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or generally have built separate systems for sewage and stormwater, because precipitation causes varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency; as rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, oil and grease.
Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, vortex separators. In regulated developed countries, industrial effluent receives at least pretreatment if not full treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load, before discharge to the sewer; this process is called pretreatment. The same does not apply to many developing countries where industrial effluent is more to enter the sewer if it exists, or the receiving water body, without pretreatment. Industrial wastewater may contain pollutants which cannot be removed by conventional sewage treatment. Variable flow of industrial waste associated with production cycles may upset the population dynamics of biological treatment units, such as the activated sludge process. Sewage collection and treatment in the United States is subject to local and federal regulations and standards.
Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as possible when discharged to the surrounding environment, thereby preventing pollution compared to releasing untreated wastewater into the environment. Sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil and lighter solids float to the surface; the settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Some sewage treatment plants that are connected to a combined sewer system have a bypass arrangement after the primary treatment unit; this means that during heavy rainfall events, the secondary and tertiary treatment systems can be bypassed to protect them from hydraulic overloading, the mixture of sewage and stormwater only receives primary treatment. Secondary treatment removes suspended biological matter.
Secondary treatment is performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Seconda
A Heligoland trap is a large, building-sized, funnel-shaped, rigid structure of wire mesh or netting used to trap birds, so that they can be banded or otherwise studied by ornithologists. The name is taken from the site of the first such trap, the Heligoland Bird Observatory on the island of Heligoland, where it was developed by Hugo Weigold who established the observatory and initiated the banding program there; the trap has a series of linked funnels that guides birds or other animals in but makes it hard for them to leave. Funnel traps of smaller size can be used to trap squirrels and insects; the Rybachy trap is a variation or expansion of the Heligoland trap in that it is a large, passive trap consisting of linked funnels terminating in a small chamber from which the birds are extracted for banding and measuring before release. It differs in being larger – it may have an entrance some 30 m wide by 15 m high – and by having a non-rigid body made of netting rather than wire mesh, it was developed in 1957 by Janis Jakšisat under the leadership of Lev Belopolsky at the Rybachy Biological Station at Rybachy, Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, on the Curonian Spit.
Duck decoy Diagram of a Heligoland trap
Bird ringing or bird banding is the attachment of a small, individually numbered metal or plastic tag to the leg or wing of a wild bird to enable individual identification. This helps in keeping track of the movements of its life history, it is common to take measurements and examine conditions of feather molt, subcutaneous fat, age indications and sex during capture for ringing. The subsequent recapture or recovery of the bird can provide information on migration, mortality, territoriality, feeding behavior, other aspects that are studied by ornithologists. Other methods of marking birds may be used to allow for field based identification that does not require capture; the earliest recorded attempts to mark birds were made by Roman soldiers. For instance during the Punic Wars in 218 BC a crow was released by a besieged garrison. Quintus Fabius Pictor used a thread on the bird's leg to send a message back. Or in another case in history a knight interested in chariot races during the time of Pliny took crows to Volterra, 135 miles away and released the crows with information on the race winners.
Falconers in the Middle Ages would fit plates on their falcons with seals of their owners. From around 1560 or so, swans were marked with a nick on the bill. Storks injured by arrows traceable to African tribes were found in Germany in 1822 and constituted some of the earliest evidence of long distance migration in European birds. In North America John James Audubon and Ernest Thompson Seton were pioneers although their method of marking birds was different from modern ringing. In order to determine if the same bird would return to his farm, Audubon tied silver threads onto the legs of young eastern phoebes in 1805, while Seton marked snow buntings in Manitoba with ink in 1882. Ringing of birds for more extensive scientific purposes was started in 1899 by Hans Christian Cornelius Mortensen, a Danish schoolteacher, using aluminum rings on European starlings; the first banding scheme was established in Germany by Johannes Thienemann in 1903 at the Rossitten Bird Observatory on the Baltic Coast of East Prussia.
This was followed by Hungary in 1908, Great Britain in 1909, Yugoslavia in 1910 and the Scandinavian countries between 1911 and 1914. Paul Bartsch of the Smithsonian Institution is credited with the first modern banding in the U. S.: he banded 23 black-crowned night herons in 1902. Leon J. Cole of the University of Wisconsin founded the American Bird Banding Association in 1909. S. and Canada pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty of 1918. Bird ringing is the term used in some other parts of Europe. Organised ringing efforts are called ringing or banding schemes, the organisations that run them are ringing or banding authorities; those who ring or band birds are known as ringers or banders, they are active at ringing or banding stations. Birds may be captured by being taken as young birds at the nest, or as adults, captured in fine mist nets, baited traps, Heligoland traps, drag nets, cannon nets, or by other methods. Raptors may be caught including bal-chatri traps; when a bird is caught, a ring of suitable size is attached to the bird's leg, has a unique number, a contact address.
The bird is weighed and measured, examined for data relevant to the ringer's project, released. The rings are light, are designed to have no adverse effect on the birds – indeed, the whole basis of using ringing to gain data about the birds is that ringed birds should behave in all respects in the same way as the unringed population; the birds so tagged can be identified when they are re-trapped, or found dead, later. When a ringed bird is found, the ring number read and reported back to the ringer or ringing authority, this is termed a ringing recovery or control; the finder can contact the address on the ring, give the unique number, be told the known history of the bird's movements. Some national ringing/banding authorities accept reports by phone or on official web sites; the organising body, by collating many such reports, can determine patterns of bird movements for large populations. Non-ringing/banding scientists can obtain data for use in bird-related research. At times in North America, the bands have just a unique number, recorded along with other identifying information on the bird.
If the bird is recaptured the number on the band is recorded as a retrap. All band numbers and information on the individual birds are entered into a database and the information shared throughout North American banding operations; this way information on retrapped birds is more available and easy to access. When deciding on bird banding equipment one must decide what species of bird they'd like to focus on. Many of the supplies used during an operation are determined by; the essential equipment includes a bird identification guide, mist nets, banding pliers, leg gauge, wing ruler, a digital scale. However, before starting a bird banding operation a permit is necessary to purchase all of the equipment; this will be taken into consideration that all the equipment pu
Moth traps are devices used by entomologists to capture moths. Most use a light source. Pheromone traps are used. All moth traps follow the same basic design - consisting of a mercury vapour or actinic light to attract the moths and a box in which the moths can accumulate and be examined later; the moths fly towards the light and spiral down towards the source of the light and are deflected into the box. Besides moths, several other insects will come to light, such as scarab beetles, Ichneumonid wasps, stink bugs, stick insects, diving beetles, water boatmen. Diurnal species such as dragonflies, yellowjacket wasps, hover flies will visit; the reason insects and particular families of insect, are attracted to light is uncertain. The most accepted theory is that moth migrate using the moon and stars as navigational aids and that the placement of a closer than the moon light causes subtended angles of light at the insects eye to alter so that it has to fly in a spiral to reduce the angular change -- this resulting in the insect flying into the light.
Yet the reason some diurnal insects visit is unknown. Some moths, notably Sesiidae are collected using pheromone traps. Bug zapper Mosquito net Paul Waring, 2001 A Guide to Moth Traps and Their Use Amateur Entomologists' Society.de:Lichtfalle Moth-trapping Part I: Basic equipment Moth-trapping Part II: Methods and techniques Moth Recorders Handbook Moth Traps and Treatment
Animal trapping, or trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, pest control, wildlife management. Neolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine, used traps to capture their prey. An early mention in written form is a passage from the self-titled book by Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi describes Chinese methods used for trapping animals during the 4th century BC; the Zhuangzi reads, "The sleek-furred fox and the elegantly spotted leopard...can't seem to escape the disaster of nets and traps.” "Modern" steel jaw-traps were first described in western sources as early as the late 16th century. The first mention comes from Leonard Mascall's book on animal trapping, it reads, "a griping trappe made all of yrne, the lowest barre, the ring or hoope with two clickets." The mousetrap, with a strong spring device spring mounted on a wooden base, was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, Illinois, in 1894.
Native Americans trapped fur bearing animals with pits, dead falls, snares. Trapping was widespread in the early days of North American settlements, companies such as the Canadian fur brigade were established. In the 18th century blacksmiths manually built leghold traps, by the mid-19th century trap companies manufacturing traps and fur stretchers, became established; the monarchs and trading companies of Europe invested in voyages of exploration. The race was on to establish trading posts with the natives of North America, as trading posts could function as forts and legitimize territorial claims; the Hudson's Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, knives, frying pans and blankets for furs from trappers and Native Americans. Trappers and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur, they traded with Native Americans from whom they learned trapping skills. Beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats.
Beaver hats became popular in the early 19th century but the fashion changed. Towards the end of the century beaver became locally extinct in others; the decline in key species of fur-bearers, due to over-harvesting, the emergence of the first regulatory laws marked the end of the heyday of unregulated trapping. Many trappers turned to buffalo hunting, serving as scouts for the army or leading wagon trains to the American west; the trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were used by settlers heading west. Trapping is carried out for a variety of reasons, it was for food and other animal products. Trapping has since been expanded to encompass "pest control", wildlife management, the pet trade, zoological specimens. In the early days of the colonization settlement of North America, the trading of furs was common between the Dutch and Native Americans, the French and Native Americans or English and the local Native Americans. Many locations where trading took place were referred to as trading posts.
Much trading occurred along the Hudson River area in the early 1600s. In some locations in the US and in many parts of southern and western Europe, trapping generates much controversy as it is seen as a contributing factor to declining populations in some species. One such example is the Canadian Lynx. In the 1970s and 1980s, the threat to lynx from trapping reached a new height when the price for hides rose to as much as $600 each. By the early 1990s, the Canada lynx was a clear candidate for Endangered Species Act protection. In response to the lynx’s plight, more than a dozen environmental groups petitioned FWS in 1991 to list lynx in the lower 48 states. Fish and Wildlife Services (FW regional offices and field biologists supported the petition, but FWS officials in the Washington, D. C. headquarters turned it down. In March 2000, the FWS listed the lynx as threatened in the lower 48. In recent years, the prices of fur pelts have declined so low, that some trappers are considering not to trap as the cost of trapping exceeds the return on the furs sold at the end of the season.
Beaver castors are used in many perfumes as a sticky substance. Trappers are paid by the government of Ontario to harvest the castor sacs of beavers and are paid from 10–40 dollars per dry pound when sold to the Northern Ontario Fur Trappers Association. In the early 1900s, muskrat glands were used in making perfume or women just crush the glands and rub them on their body. Trapping is used for pest control of beaver, raccoon, bobcat, Virginia opossum, squirrel, rat and mole in order to limit damage to households, food supplies, farming and property. Traps are used as a method of pest control as an alternative to pesticides. Spring traps which holds the animal are used — mousetraps for mice, or the larger rat traps for larger rodents like rats and squirrel. Specific traps are designed for inverterbrates such as spiders; some mousetraps can double as an insect or universal trap, like the glue traps which catch any small animal that walks upon them. Though it is common to state that trapping is an effective means of pest control, a counter-example is found in the work of Dr. Jon Way, a biologist in Massachusetts.
Dr Way reported that the death or disappearance of a territorial male coyote can lead to double litters, postulates a possible resultant increase in coyote density. Coexistence programs that take this scientific research into account are being pursued by groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animal
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts and other dissolved minerals higher than most lakes. In some cases, salt lakes have a higher concentration of salt than sea water. An alkalic salt lake that has a high content of carbonate is sometimes termed a soda lake. Saline lake classification: subsaline 0.5–3 ‰ hyposaline 3–20 ‰ mesosaline 20–50 ‰ hypersaline greater than 50 ‰ Salt lakes form when the water flowing into the lake, containing salt or minerals, cannot leave because the lake is endorheic. The water evaporates, leaving behind any dissolved salts and thus increasing its salinity, making a salt lake an excellent place for salt production. High salinity will lead to a unique halophilic flora and fauna in the lake in question. If the amount of water flowing into a lake is less than the amount evaporated, the lake will disappear and leave a dry lake. Brine lakes consist of water that has reached salt saturation or near saturation, may be saturated with other materials.
Most brine lakes develop as a result of high evaporation rates in an arid climate with a lack of an outlet to the ocean. The high salt content in these bodies of water may come from minerals deposited from the surrounding land. Another source for the salt may be that the body of water was connected to the ocean. While the water evaporates from the lake, the salt remains; the body of water will become brine. Because of the density of brine, swimmers are more buoyant in brine than in fresh or ordinary salt water. Examples of such brine lakes are the Great Salt Lake. Bodies of brine may form on the ocean floor at cold seeps; these are sometimes called brine lakes, but are more referred to as brine pools. It is possible to observe waves on the surface of these bodies. Man-made bodies of brine are created for edible salt production; these can be referred to as brine ponds. Aral Sea Bakhtegan Lake Caspian Sea Dead Sea Don Juan Pond Great Salt Lake Laguna Verde Lake Assal Lake Bumbunga Lake Elton Lake Eyre Lake Gairdner Lake Hillier Lake Mackay Lake Natron Lake Paliastomi Lake Texoma Lake Torrens Lake Urmia Lake Van Lake Vanda Little Manitou Lake Lough Hyne Maharloo Lake Mono Lake Namtso Salton Sea Sambhar Salt Lake Sawa Lake Sutton Salt Lake List of bodies of water by salinity Media related to Salt lakes at Wikimedia Commons