The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Srđa Trifković known as Srdja Trifković and Serge Trifkovic, is a Serbian-American writer on international affairs and foreign affairs editor for the paleoconservative magazine Chronicles. He was director of the Center for International Affairs at the Rockford Institute until his resignation on 31 December 2008. Trifković was an unofficial spokesman for the Republika Srpska government in the 1990s and a former adviser to Serbian president Vojislav Koštunica and Republika Srpska president Biljana Plavšić. Trifković is the author of many books, among, Sword of the Prophet, a book on the history and impact of Islam on the world, he comments on Balkan politics and is a regular columnist for several conservative publications in the United States. Trifković earned a BA in International Relations from the University of Sussex in 1977 and another, in Political Science, from the University of Zagreb in 1987. Since 1990 he has held a PhD in modern history from the University of Southampton, in 1991-1992 he pursued post-doctoral research on a Title VIII grant from the U.
S. Department of State as a Visiting Scholar at the Hoover Institution in California. Beginning in 1980, he has been a radio broadcaster for BBC World Service and Voice of America and a correspondent covering southeast Europe for U. S. News & World Report and the Washington Times during which time he was an editor for the Belgrade magazine Duga. In 1994–95 he acted as an "unofficial spokesman" for the Bosnian Serb government, he has published op-eds and commentaries in The Times of London, the San Francisco Chronicle, the American Conservative, the Philadelphia Inquirer, The Alternative Right. He has been a commentator on numerous national and international TV and radio programs, including MSNBC, CNN, CNN International, Sky News, BBC Radio 4, BBC World Service and CBC, he has contributed to the newspaper of the Serbian National Defense Council of America. He has been an adjunct professor at the University of St Thomas in Houston, and, in August 1997, joined the faculty of Rose Hill College in Aiken, South Carolina.
He has worked as a political consultant to Aleksandar Karađorđević, Crown Prince of Serbia, to Former Yugoslav President Vojislav Koštunica, as an adviser to Biljana Plavšić and as unofficial representative of the Republika Srpska in London. In February 2000, he testified to the Canadian House of Commons on the situation in the Balkans. In July 2000 he took part in a Congressional briefing organized by Rep. Dennis Kucinich. In January 2003, Stephen Schwartz published an article in Frontpage magazine that falsely accused Trifković of supporting Slobodan Milošević; the magazine published an apology. In March 2003, he testified as a defense witness for Milomir Stakić at his trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Stakić was convicted of extermination and persecutions and sentenced to 40 years' imprisonment. In June 2006, he was one of two dozen people who presented works at a symposium on the Holocaust in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945, co-organized by two Serbian institutions and held at Yad Vashem Center in Jerusalem.
In September 2008, he testified as a defense witness for Ljubiša Beara in the al. trial. Beara was convicted of genocide, murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. In August 2011, responding to the claim that his work inspired Norwegian murderer Anders Behring Breivik, Trifković rejected the idea that his work was a basis for the actions of this "mentally deranged narcissistic psychopath" any more than the "Beatles have inspired Charles Manson."In 2013 he testified on behalf of Radovan Karadžić. Trifković denied being a former spokesman for Karadžić at a time he was a journalist and analyst reporting on Karadžić's activities, he is professor in Faculty of Political Science of University of Banja Luka in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trifković is the author of Sword of the Prophet: The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam, a book about the history and tenets of Islam which identifies the rise of Islamic fundamentalism as the greatest danger to Western values since the end of the Cold War. According to James Bissett, former Canadian Ambassador to Yugoslavia and a close associate of Trifković, Trifković sees the source of this threat in the absence of separation of church and state under Islam - because Islam is a way of life, Muslims are required to subordinate themselves to the teachings of Allah and live as members of the total Islamic community, calling into question their ability to give their political loyalty to a non-Muslim state.
Trifković considers this to be a important issue for the countries of Western Europe, with a population of over 50 million Muslims, the United States. In February 2011, Canadian authorities refused to allow Trifković entry into Canada to address a meeting at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver. Trifković reported in the journal Chronicles that he was refused entry to Canada on 24 February 2011 on the "transparently spurious" grounds that he was "inadmissible on grounds of violating human or international rights for being a proscribed senior official in the service of a government that, in the opinion of the minister, engages or has engaged in terrorism, systematic or gross human rights violations, or genocide, a war crime or a crime against humanity within the meaning of subsections 6 to of the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act."He claimed his "inadmissibility" was due to contacts with the Bosnian Serb leaders in the early 1990
Patrick Joseph Buchanan is an American paleoconservative political commentator, syndicated columnist and broadcaster. Buchanan was a senior advisor to U. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, was an original host on CNN's Crossfire, he sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996. He ran on the Reform Party ticket in the 2000 presidential election, he launched a foundation named The American Cause. He has been published in Human Events, National Review, The Nation, Rolling Stone, he was a political commentator on the MSNBC cable network, including the show Morning Joe until February 2012, now appears on Fox News. Buchanan has been a regular on The McLaughlin Group since the 1980s, his political positions can be described as paleoconservative, many of his views his opposition to American imperialism and the managerial state, echo those of the Old Right Republicans of the first half of the 20th century. Buchanan was born in Washington, D. C. a son of William Baldwin Buchanan, a partner in an accounting firm, his wife Catherine Elizabeth Buchanan, a nurse and a homemaker.
Buchanan had two sisters. Bay served as U. S. Treasurer under Ronald Reagan, his father was of Irish and Scottish ancestry, his mother was of German descent. He had a great-grandfather who fought in the American Civil War in the Confederate States Army, why he is a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, he admires the Confederate States of America. Of his southern ancestry, Buchanan has written: I have family roots in the South, in Mississippi; when the Civil War came, Cyrus Baldwin did not survive Vicksburg. William Buchanan of Okolona, who would marry Baldwin's daughter, fought at Atlanta and was captured by General Sherman. William Baldwin Buchanan was the name given by him to my late brother; as a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, I have been to their gatherings. I spoke at the 2001 SCV convention in Lafayette, LA; the Military Order of the Stars and Bars presented me with a battle flag and a wooden canteen like the ones my ancestors carried. Buchanan was born into a Catholic family and attended Catholic schools, including the Jesuit-run Gonzaga College High School.
As a student at Georgetown University, he did not complete the program. He earned his bachelor's degree in English from Georgetown, received his draft notice after he graduated in 1960; the District of Columbia draft board exempted Buchanan from military service because of reactive arthritis, classifying him as 4-F. He received a master's degree in journalism from Columbia University in 1962, writing his thesis on the expanding trade between Canada and Cuba. Buchanan joined the St. Louis Globe-Democrat at age 23. During the first year of the United States embargo against Cuba in 1961, Canada–Cuba trade tripled; the Globe-Democrat published a rewrite of Buchanan's Columbia master's project under the eight-column banner "Canada sells to Red Cuba — And Prospers" eight weeks after Buchanan started at the paper. According to Buchanan's memoir Right from the Beginning, this article was a career milestone. Buchanan said the embargo strengthened the communist regime and he turned against it. Buchanan was promoted to assistant editorial page editor in 1964 and supported Barry Goldwater's presidential campaign.
The Globe-Democrat did not endorse Goldwater and Buchanan speculated there was a clandestine agreement between the paper and President Lyndon B. Johnson. Buchanan recalled: "The conservative movement has always advanced from its defeats... I can't think of a single conservative, sorry about the Goldwater campaign." According to the foreword in the most recent edition of Conscience of a Conservative, Buchanan was a member of the Young Americans for Freedom and wrote press releases for that organization. He served as an executive assistant in the Nixon, Rose, Guthrie and Mitchell law offices in New York City in 1965; the next year, he was the first adviser hired by Nixon's presidential campaign. For his speeches aimed at dedicated supporters, he was soon nicknamed "Mr. Inside."Buchanan traveled with Richard Nixon throughout the campaigns of 1966 and 1968. He made a tour of Western Europe, Africa and, in the immediate aftermath of the Six-Day War, the Middle East; when Nixon took the Oval Office in 1969, Buchanan worked as a White House adviser and speechwriter for Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew.
Buchanan coined the phrase "Silent Majority," and helped shape the strategy that drew millions of Democrats to Nixon. In a 1972 memo, he suggested the White House "should move to re-capture the anti-Establishment tradition or theme in American politics." His daily assignments included developing political strategy, publishing the President's Daily News Summary, preparing briefing books for news conferences. He accompanied Nixon on his trip to China in 1972 and the summit in Moscow and Minsk in 1974, he suggested that Nixon label Democratic opponent George McGovern an extremist and burn the White House tapes. Buchanan remained as a special assistant to Nixon through the final days of the Watergate scandal, he was not accused of wrongdoing. In 2005 when the actual identity of the press leak was
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, polished style of writing. Vidal was born to a political family, he was a Democratic Party politician. S. Senate; as a political commentator and essayist, Vidal's principal subject was the history of the United States and its society how the militaristic foreign policy reduced the country to a decadent empire. His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, the New Statesman, the New York Review of Books, Esquire magazines; as a public intellectual, Gore Vidal's topical debates on sex and religion with other intellectuals and writers turned into quarrels with the likes of William F. Buckley Jr. and Norman Mailer. Vidal thought all men and women are bisexual; as a novelist Vidal explored the nature of corruption in private life. His polished and erudite style of narration evoked the time and place of his stories, perceptively delineated the psychology of his characters.
His third novel, The City and the Pillar, offended the literary and moral sensibilities of conservative book reviewers, with a dispassionately presented male homosexual relationship. In the historical novel genre, Vidal re-created in Julian the imperial world of Julian the Apostate, the Roman emperor who used general religious toleration to re-establish pagan polytheism to counter the political subversion of Christian monotheism. In the genre of social satire, Myra Breckinridge explores the mutability of gender role and sexual orientation as being social constructs established by social mores. In Burr and Lincoln, the protagonist is presented as "A Man of the People" and as "A Man" in a narrative exploration of how the public and private facets of personality affect the national politics of the United States. Eugene Louis Vidal was born in the cadet hospital of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, the only child of Eugene Luther Vidal and Nina S. Gore. Vidal was born there because his first lieutenant father was the first aeronautics instructor of the military academy.
The middle name, was a mistake on the part of his father, "who could not remember, for certain, whether his own name was Eugene Louis or Eugene Luther". In the memoir Palimpsest, Vidal said, "My birth certificate says'Eugene Louis Vidal': this was changed to Eugene Luther Vidal Jr.. The baptismal ceremony was effected so he "could be confirmed " at the Washington Cathedral, in February 1939, as "Eugene Luther Gore Vidal", he said that, although the surname "Gore" was added to his names at the time of the baptism, "I wasn't named for him, although he had a great influence on my life." In 1941, Vidal dropped his two first names, because he "wanted a sharp, distinctive name, appropriate for an aspiring author, or a national political leader... I wasn't going to write as'Gene' since there was one. I didn't want to use the'Jr.'" Eugene Luther Vidal Sr. was director of the Commerce Department's Bureau of Air Commerce during the Roosevelt Administration, was the great love of the aviator Amelia Earhart.
At the U. S. Military Academy, the exceptionally athletic Vidal Sr. had been a quarterback and captain of the football team. Subsequently, he competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics. In the 1920s and the 1930s, Vidal Sr. co-founded a railroad line. Gore's great-grandfather Eugen Fidel Vidal was born in Feldkirch, Austria, of Romansh background, had come to the U. S. with Gore's Swiss great-grandmother, Emma Hartmann. Vidal's mother, Nina Gore, was a socialite who made her Broadway theatre debut as an extra actress in Sign of the Leopard, in 1928. In 1922, Nina married Eugene Luther Vidal, Sr. and thirteen years in 1935, divorced him. Nina Gore Vidal was married two more times, she had "a long off-and-on affair" with the actor Clark Gable. As Nina Gore Auchincloss, Vidal's mother was an alternate delegate to the 1940 Democratic National Convention; the subsequent marriages of his mother and father yielded four half-siblings for Gore Vidal – Vance Vidal, Valerie Vidal, Thomas Gore Auchincloss, Nina Gore Auchincloss – and four step-brothers from his mother's third marriage to Robert Olds, a major general in the United States Army Air Forces, who died in 1943, 10 months after marrying Nina.
The nephews of Gore Vidal include Burr Steers, a writer and film director, Hugh Auchincloss Steers, a figurative painter. Raised in Washington, D. C. Vidal attended the St. Albans School. Given the blindness of his maternal grandfather, Senator Thomas Pryor Gore, of Oklahoma, Vidal read aloud to him, was his Senate page, his seeing-eye
Sarasota is a city in Sarasota County on the southwestern coast of the U. S. state of Florida. The area is renowned for its cultural and environmental amenities, beaches and the Sarasota School of Architecture; the city is at the southern end of the Tampa Bay Area, north of Punta Gorda. Its official limits include Sarasota Bay and several barrier islands between the bay and the Gulf of Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, in 2013 Sarasota had a population of 53,326. In 1986 it became designated as a certified local government. Sarasota is a principal city of the Sarasota metropolitan area, is the seat of Sarasota County; the islands separating Sarasota Bay from the gulf near the city, known as keys, include Lido Key and Siesta Key, which are famous worldwide for the quality of their sandy beaches. The keys that are included in the boundary of Sarasota are Lido Key, St. Armands Key, Otter Key, Casey Key, Coon Key, Bird Key, portions of Siesta Key. Siesta Key was named Sarasota Key. At one time, it and all of Longboat Key were considered part of Sarasota and confusing contemporaneous references may be found discussing them.
Longboat Key is the largest key separating the bay from the gulf, but it was evenly divided by the new county line of 1921. The portion of the key that parallels the Sarasota city boundary that extends to that new county line along the bay front of the mainland was removed from the city boundaries at the request of John Ringling in the mid-1920s, who sought to avoid city taxation of his planned developments at the southern tip of the key. Although they never were completed in the faltering economy, those development concessions granted by the city never were reversed and the county has retained regulation of those lands; the city limits had expanded with the real estate rush of the early twentieth century, reaching 70 square miles. The wild speculation boom began to crash in 1926 and following that, the city limits began to contract, shrinking to less than a quarter of that area; the area known today as Sarasota, Florida first appeared on a sheepskin Spanish map from 1763 with the word "Zarazote" over present day Sarasota and Bradenton.
The municipal government of Sarasota was established when it was incorporated as a town in 1902. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.9 square miles, of which 14.9 sq mi is land and 11.0 sq mi is water. Sarasota has a humid subtropical climate bordering a tropical savanna climate, with hot, humid summers, warm, dry winters. There are distinct rainy and dry seasons, with the rainy season lasting from June to September, the dry season from October to May; the most recent recorded freezes in Sarasota took place on January 18, 2018, when the temperature dropped to 30 °F at the Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport. However, Sarasota averages less than one frost annually; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 51,917 people residing in the city; the population density was 3,541.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29,151 housing units at an average density of 1,988.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.41% White, 15.11% African American, 0.43% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.22% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.63% of the population. There were 23,427 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female head of household with no husband present, 48.5% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, 18.4% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.2% ranged from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 22.0% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The per capita income for residents of the city was $23,197. Females had a median income of $23,510 versus $26,604 for males; the median income for a household in the city was $34,077 and the median income for a family was $40,398.
About 12.4% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. Tourism contributes to the economy of Sarasota. Companies based in Sarasota include the Boar's Head Provision Company. Major employers include Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Doctors Hospital of Sarasota, APAC Customer Services, L-3 Aviation Recorders, The Zenith and Capgemini. Sarasota municipal government was last incorporated in 1913, changing from a town type to adopting the city type of local government found in the United States and the title of its government changed to "City of Sarasota". Sarasota was designated as the county seat when Sarasota County was carved out of Manatee County in 1921 during the creation of several new counties. In 1945 the commission-manager government form was adopted for the city and it is governed by a five-person commission elected by popular vote, two members of which serve in the ceremonial positions of "mayor" and "vice-mayor", as chosen by the commission every April.
Two at-large commissioners are elected by all voters and the city is divided into three districts for which the residents of each elect one district representative to the five member commission. Many aspects of the city are overseen by the county government ranging from the schools, the libraries, the bay, major waterways, county designated roads, the airport, fir
Leopold Tyrmand was a Polish-Jewish novelist and editor. Tyrmand emigrated from Poland to the United States in 1966, five years married an American, Mary Ellen Fox, he served as editor of an anti-communist monthly Chronicles of Culture with John A. Howard. Tyrmand died of a heart attack at the age of 64 in Florida. Leopold Tyrmand was born in a Polish Jewish family in Warsaw, his paternal grandfather, Zelman Tyrmand, was a member of the Management Board of Warsaw's Nożyk Synagogue. His father, Mieczyslaw Tyrmand, had a wholesale leather business. Tyrmand's mother was Maria Oliwenstein, his parents during the war were sent to the Majdanek Concentration Camp, where his father was murdered. His mother emigrated to Israel. In 1938 he graduated from the Warsaw Gymnasium, he went to Paris, where he studied for a year at the faculty of architecture at the Académie des Beaux-Arts, the Academy of Fine Arts. There he met for American jazz. Both of these fascinations left a lasting mark on his work. During the war Tyrmand was a resistance fighter in Poland.
In spring 1941 he was arrested by the NKVD secret police in Wilno and sentenced to 8 years in prison. He got out from a bombed-out transport after the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in Operation Barbarossa. To escape the Holocaust, he traveled on false papers to Germany, he worked as a waiter while in Germany. He tried to escape to neutral Sweden and was caught and imprisoned in a German concentration camp Grini in Norway. Before he returned to a devastated Poland, he worked with the Norwegian Red Cross. In 1954, he wrote a diary, which he edited and released in 1980 as "Dziennik 1954"; the book, which gives a unique description of the daily life in Stalinist Poland, is now considered to be one of his greatest achievements. In 1950, during the years of Stalinism in Poland, Tyrmand was removed from the editorial board of popular Przekrój magazine for his report about a boxing tournament, in which he criticized the Russian judges for their pro-Soviet bias. With the help of an old friend, Stefan Kisielewski, he found work in the Catholic Tygodnik Powszechny magazine.
However, in March 1953 Tygodnik Powszechny closed after refusing to print the official obituary of Stalin. Tyrmand suffered from an unofficial ban on publications. Due to the frustration associated with forced inactivity Tyrmand transferred his writing to the "Dziennik 1954" which recounts the first three months of 1954. While Tyrmand was perceived as an opponent of communism and the socialist system the diary makes little mention of politics, rather sarcastically condemns civilization, the cultural and economic backwardness of the Polish People's Republic; the log contains harsh judgments about the many forms of contemporary cultural scene. Tyrmand spares no descriptions of his own love affairs, he discontinued writing the diary in April 1954 when he was commissioned to write Zły, a novel about the post-war Warsaw crime world released in December 1955. It became a bestseller, was regarded as one of the forerunners of the thaw in Polish literature. In April 1955 he married an art student Margaret Ruble-Żurowska but their marriage did not last long.
Tyrmand second wife was Barbara Hoff. The writer, known for his uncompromising and unconventional lifestyle, became the leader of the emerging jazz movement in Poland, he organized festivals and concerts, released a monograph on jazz. He published the first part of mini novella "Wędrówki i myśli porucznika Stukułki" and a collection of short stories "Gorzki smak czekolady Lucullus". With the tightening of internal policies by the governments of Władysław Gomułka Tyrmand suffered repression. Censorship denied the publication of further novels, such as "Siedem dalekich rejsów" and renewals of published work; the last novel that he managed to publish while in Poland was "Filip". The last permission for a trip abroad was granted in 1959, after that he was denied a passport; the authorities were critical of his "bourgeois" lifestyle. Another Tyrmand novel, never released in Poland was "Życie towarzyskie i uczuciowe", completed in 1964. In the book the author criticized the attitudes and the moral environment of the "creative intelligentsia" of socialist Poland - the writers and filmmakers - those who willingly assumed a subordinate role to the government.
The fictional characters in the book could be recognized as real life persons from the contemporary Polish cultural world. Excerpts from the book were created a scandal in literary circles. Tyrmand emigrated to the United States in 1966. In 1971, he married a doctoral candidate at Yale University. Mary Ellen Tyrmand co-authored a book, published in Poland in 2012: "Tyrmandowie Romans Amerykanski." The book traces their relationship via the letters to each other beginning with their meeting in 1970 until his death. In the United States, Tyrmand lived in New York City and New Canaan, until 1976, published essays in American periodicals such as The New Yorker, The New York Times and The American Scholar, he became the co-founder and vice-president of the Rockford Institute, a conservative foundation critical of Am