Bentwood objects are those made by wetting wood bending it and letting it harden into curved shapes and patterns. In furniture making this method is used in the production of rocking chairs, cafe chairs, other light furniture; the iconic No. 14 chair by Thonet is a well-known design based on the technique. The process is in widespread use for making casual and informal furniture of all types seating and table forms, it is a popular technique in the worldwide production of furniture with frames made of heavy cane, imported into European and Western shops. Bentwood boxes are a traditional item made by the First Nations people of the North American west coast including the Haida, Tlingit, Sugpiaq, Yup'ik, Inupiaq and Coast Salish; these boxes are made out of one piece of wood, steamed and bent to form a box. Traditional uses of the boxes was varied and included storage of food goods and for burial, they were without decoration while others were decorated elaborately. Today many are made for collectors and can be purchased from museums, gift shops and online sites as well as directly commissioned from the artists.
The Aleut or Unangan People of Alaska made hunting visors, called chagudax, out of driftwood using the bentwood method. The visors were used by hunters, they are said to help keep the sea spray off the face as well as improve hearing. They were decorated with paints, sea lion whiskers and ivory figurines. Andrew Gronholdt is credited with reviving the art of chagudax carving in the 1980s. Present day Unangan artists create chagudax for ceremonial purposes and offer them for sale to the public as well. Ercol Lucian Ercolani Twig work First Nations Art Shaker-style pantry box Steam bending AllWoodwork.com – Methods of Bending Wood FineWoodWorking.com – Skills and Techniques Taylor's Classics – The History and Popularity of Bentwood Furniture Thillmann Collection: The world's largest private collection of Thonet and bentwood furniture Woodweb.com – Rx For Bending Wood: Dr. Gene Wengert offers advice on bending solid lumber in production applications
Air Force One
Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the term describes those U. S. Air Force aircraft designed and used to transport the president; the presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol of its power. The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor to the U. S. Air Force, became concerned over the reliance on commercial airlines to transport the president. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as the first dedicated VIP and presidential transport aircraft and named Guess Where II, but the Secret Service rejected it because of its safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was converted for presidential use; the "Air Force One" call sign was created after a 1953 incident during which a Lockheed Constellation named Columbine II, carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower, entered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same flight number.
A number of aircraft types have been used as Air Force One since the creation of the presidential fleet, starting with two Lockheed Constellations in the late 1950s: Columbine II and Columbine III. It operated two Boeing 707s, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s; the U. S. Air Force plans to procure the Boeing 747-8 for the next version of Air Force One. On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U. S. president to fly in an aircraft, an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field near St. Louis, Missouri, he was no longer in office at the time. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a county fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel. Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare; the lack of wireless telecommunication and available modes of transportation made long-distance travel impractical, as it took too much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D. C. Railroads were a more reliable option if the president needed to travel to distant states.
By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U. S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel for longer trips. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office; the first aircraft obtained for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933, designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the Naval base at Anacostia D. C; the Dolphin was modified with luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. There are no reports, however, on whether the president flew in the aircraft.
During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles in three legs. The threat from the German submarines throughout the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation. Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the Commander-in-Chief; the first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87A VIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service. However, after a review of the C-87's controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage.
As the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, it presented strong offensive impressions to enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign destinations visited, an issue not present with airplanes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries; the C-87 was scrapped in 1945. The Secret Service subsequently reconfigured a Douglas C-54 Skymaster for presidential transport duty; the VC-54C aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow, included a sleeping area, radio telephone, retractable elevator to lift Roosevelt in his wheelchair. As modified, the VC-54C was used by President Roosevelt only once before his death, on his trip to the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Sacred Cow is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. After Roosevelt's death in April 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman became president.
The legislation that created the U. S. Air Force, the Nati
A swing is a hanging seat found at playgrounds for children, at a circus for acrobats, or on a porch for relaxing, although they may be items of indoor furniture, such as Latin American hammock or the Indian oonjal. The seat of a swing may be suspended from ropes. Once a swing is in motion, it continues to oscillate like a pendulum until external interference or drag brings it to a halt. Swing sets are popular with children. On playgrounds, several swings are suspended from the same metal or wooden frame, known as a swing set, allowing more than one child to play at a time; such swings come in a variety of shapes. For infants and toddlers, swings with leg holes support the child in an upright position while a parent or sibling pushes the child to get a swinging motion; some swing sets include play items other such as a rope ladder or sliding pole. For older children, swings are sometimes made of a flexible canvas seat, of a rubberized ventilated tire tread, of plastic, or of wood. A common backyard sight is a wooden plank suspended on both sides by ropes from a tree branch.
Tire swings are a form of swing made from a whole tire. These are simply a new or used tire hanging from a tree on a rope. On commercially-developed playground swing sets, oversized new tires are reinforced with a circular metal bar to improve safety and are hung on chains from metal or wooden beams, they may hang flat, suspended from three or more points on one side. The flat version can hold three or more children. Pumping is achieved by using one or two of the three chains attached to the swing, two children can pump in turn. Tire swings can be used in spinners, where the occupants use their feet to propel the tire. Natural swings may be created by lianas in a subtropical wild forest like Aokigahara forest near Mount Fuji. Rope swings are swings created by tying one end of a length of rope to a tree branch, bridge, or other elevated structure. A knot or loop is put on the other end to prevent fraying and help the swinger stay on. Rope swings are situated so that those swinging on them can let go and land in water deep enough to cushion the fall and to be swum around in.
The incorporation of a shortboard such as a skateboard in which the rider stands is called swing boarding. It is made safer by the use of a harness for the rider. Baby swings are swings with a bucket shape with holes for the child's legs, or a half-bucket shape and a safety belt, intended to reduce the likelihood of a young child from falling out. Porch swings are swinging, conventionally painted wood, bench-like seats intended for adults; the swing's suspension chains are permanently mounted to the porch ceiling. Porch swings are an alternative to using rocking gliders outdoors. Canopy swings are similar to porch swings, but they are hung on a separate frame and are portable; the name is derived from a canopy installed as a sunshade. Kiiking is a sport played in Estonia wherein players attempt to rotate 360 degrees around a spindle, on a long swing consisting of a seat hung with steel bars - instead of with ropes or chains. Hammock swings are portable bed-swings made of a lightweight material such as canvas, netting suspended between two trees or attached to a hammock stand.
Tandem swings are swings designed for use by two people at the same time, facing each other or back-to-back, are always part of a swing set due to the frame required to support the weights of the riders. The bench is perpendicular to its frame’s center crossbar. Face-to-face tandem benches include a subframe with integrated foot pegs. Back-to-back tandems are in the baby bucket design, but with two pairs of leg holes, one on each side of the bench. Tandem swings are suspended from their frame by steel bars, although ropes and chains may be used for those used only by smaller children. Face-to-face tandem swings were featured in the playground of the Columbia Gardens. Swings cause some injuries; the most common injury is due to a fall, either by unintentionally letting go of the ropes or chains or by deliberately jumping out of the swing. Less the person using the swing will bump into or kick another person, walking or be playing too near the swing or with improperly located home equipment, will bump into a fence, wall, or another fixed object.
Swings are associated with strangulation or hanging injuries because the child was wearing a piece of clothing or other item became entangled in the swing. Swings are the most common cause of injury-related to playground equipment at private homes, but a much less common cause of injury in public or school playgrounds, where injuries from climbing equipment dominate. Injuries from swings affect school-age children, but preschool-age children have a significant risk on swingsets at home; the United States Patent and Trademark Office was disparaged in 2002 for issuing a patent to a five-year-old boy who claimed to have invented swinging sideways as a new form of entertainment. His father, a patent lawyer who wanted to show his son how the patent system worked, had told the boy that he could file a patent application on anything that he invented; the patent was rescinded upon re-examination. Traditionally, Korean women enjoy swinging on the day of Dano. Hammock Outdoor playset The Swing Russian swing Sex swing, How to pump a swing
One of the basic pieces of furniture, a chair is a type of seat. Its primary features are two pieces of a durable material, attached as back and seat to one another at a 90° or greater angle, with the four corners of the horizontal seat attached in turn to four legs—or other parts of the seat's underside attached to three legs or to a shaft about which a four-arm turnstile on rollers can turn—strong enough to support the weight of a person who sits on the seat and leans against the vertical back; the legs are high enough for the seated person's thighs and knees to form a 90° or lesser angle. Used in a number of rooms in homes, in schools and offices, in various other workplaces, chairs may be made of wood, metal, or synthetic materials, either the seat alone or the entire chair may be padded or upholstered in various colors and fabrics. Chairs vary in design. An armchair has armrests fixed to the seat. Chair comes from the early 13th-century English word chaere, from Old French chaiere, from Latin cathedra.
The chair has been used since antiquity, although for many centuries it was a symbolic article of state and dignity rather than an article for ordinary use. "The chair" is still used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom and Canada, in many other settings. In keeping with this historical connotation of the "chair" as the symbol of authority, boards of directors, academic departments all have a'chairman' or'chair'. Endowed professorships are referred to as chairs, it was not until the 16th century. Until people sat on chests and stools, which were the ordinary seats of everyday life; the number of chairs which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited. Chairs were in existence since at least the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, they were covered with cloth or leather, were made of carved wood, were much lower than today’s chairs – chair seats were sometimes only 25 cm high. In ancient Egypt chairs appear to have been of great splendor. Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials, magnificent patterns and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives.
Speaking, the higher ranked an individual was, the taller and more sumptuous was the chair he sat on and the greater the honor. On state occasions the pharaoh sat on a throne with a little footstool in front of it; the average Egyptian family had chairs, if they did, it was only the master of the household who sat on a chair. Among the better off, the chairs might be painted to look like the ornate inlaid and carved chairs of the rich, but the craftsmanship was poor; the earliest images of chairs in China are from sixth-century Buddhist murals and stele, but the practice of sitting in chairs at that time was rare. It wasn't until the twelfth century. Scholars disagree on the reasons for the adoption of the chair; the most common theories are that the chair was an outgrowth of indigenous Chinese furniture, that it evolved from a camp stool imported from Central Asia, that it was introduced to China by Christian missionaries in the seventh century, that the chair came to China from India as a form of Buddhist monastic furniture.
In modern China, unlike Korea or Japan, it is no longer common to sit at floor level. In Europe, it was owing in great measure to the Renaissance that the chair ceased to be a privilege of state and became a standard item of furniture for anyone who could afford to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the chair speedily came into general use. At once the chair began to change every few years to reflect the fashions of the day. In the 1880s, chairs became more common in American households and there was a chair provided for every family member to sit down to dinner. By the 1830s, factory-manufactured “fancy chairs” like those by Sears. Roebuck, Co. allowed families to purchase machined sets. With the Industrial Revolution, chairs became much more available; the 20th century saw an increasing use of technology in chair construction with such things as all-metal folding chairs, metal-legged chairs, the Slumber Chair, moulded plastic chairs and ergonomic chairs. The recliner became a popular form, at least in part due to television.
The modern movement of the 1960s produced new forms of chairs: the butterfly chair, bean bags, the egg-shaped pod chair that turns. It introduced the first mass-produced plastic chairs such as the Bofinger chair in 1966. Technological advances led to molded plywood and wood laminate chairs, as well as chairs made of leather or polymers. Mechanical technology incorporated into the chair enabled adjustable chairs for office use. Motors embedded in the chair resulted in massage chairs. Chairs can be made like stone or acrylic. In some cases, multiple materials are used to construct a chair. Chairs may have hard surfaces of wood, plas
Michael Thonet was a German-Austrian cabinet maker, known for the invention of bentwood furniture. Thonet was the son of master tanner Franz Anton Thonet of Boppard. Following a carpenter's apprenticeship, Thonet set himself up as an independent cabinetmaker in 1819. A year he married Anna Grahs, with whom he had seven sons and six daughters. Only five of the sons, survived early childhood. In the 1830s, Thonet began trying to make furniture out of bent wooden slats, his first success was the Bopparder Schichtholzstuhl in 1836. Thonet gained substantial independence by acquiring the Michelsmühle, the glue factory that made the glue for this process, in 1837. However, his attempts to patent the technology failed in Germany as well as in Great Britain and Russia. Thonet's essential breakthrough was his success in having light, strong wood bent into curved, graceful shapes by forming the wood in hot steam; this enabled him to design novel, lightweight and comfortable furniture, which appealed to fashion - a complete departure from the heavy, carved designs of the past - and whose aesthetic and functional appeal remains to this day.
At the Koblenz trade fair of 1841, Thonet met Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, enthusiastic about Thonet's furniture and invited him to the Vienna court. In the next year, Thonet was able to present his furniture, his chairs in particular, to the Imperial Family; as the Boppard establishment got into financial difficulties, Thonet sold it and emigrated to Vienna with his family. There, he worked with his sons on the interior decoration of the Stadtpalais Liechtenstein for the Carl Leistler establishment. In 1849, he again opened his own shop together with his four sons. A few years in 1853, he transferred the company to his sons under the name Gebrüder Thonet. In 1850 he produced his Nr 1 chair; the Great Exhibition in London 1851 saw. This was his international breakthrough. At the next World's Fair, Exposition Universelle in Paris 1855, he was awarded the silver medal as he continued to improve his production methods. In 1856 he was able to open up a new factory in Moravia, its extensive beech woods were of great significance to his enterprise.
The 1859 chair Nr. 14 - better known as Konsumstuhl Nr. 14, coffee shop chair no. 14 - is still called the "chair of chairs" with some 50 million produced and still in production today. The innovative bending technique allowed for the industrial production of a chair for the first time ever. What was revolutionary about the former no.14, today’s no. 214, was the fact that it could be disassembled into a few components and thus produced in work-sharing processes. The chair could be exported to all nations of the world in simple, space saving packages: 36 disassembled chairs could fit into a one cubic meter box, it yielded a gold medal for Thonet's enterprise at the 1867 Paris World's Fair. At the time, the chair no.. Numerous pieces of bentwood furniture followed; some models became icons of design history: the rocking chair no. 1 from 1860 on in the 19th century the successful models no. 18 and no. 56, around 1900 the elegant no. 209 with its curved armrests, which Le Corbusier adored, in 1904 the art nouveau armchair 247 by Otto Wagner, the so-called postal savings bank chair, to name but a few.
Thonet production peaked in 1912: two million different products were manufactured and sold worldwide. In 1857, Michael Thonet’s sons as Gebrüder Thonet commissioned the first Thonet furniture factory to be built in the Moravian town of Koryčany using their father’s plans. In the coming years, five more production sites were established in Eastern Europe, in 1889 the seventh and last production site was added in the Hessian town of Frankenberg, Germany. After World War I and World War II, this one was the only one to remain, it is Thonet’s head office until today. As Michael Thonet died 1871 in the Fa. Gebrüder Thonet had sales locations across Europe as well as New York. Today, a museum in the factory in Frankenberg showcases the Thonet design. In 1976 Thonet was divided into an Austrian company; the two companies are independent of each other. In 2006 Gebrüder Thonet became Thonet GmbH; the success of the company Thonet GmbH in Frankenberg, began with the work of master joiner Michael Thonet. Since he founded his first woodworking shop in 1819 in Boppard, the name Thonet has stood for high-quality and elegant furniture.
Today, Thorsten Muck runs the company with its head offices and production facilities in Frankenberg. Michael Thonet’s direct descendants in the fifth and sixth generation remain involved in the company’s business as associates and sales partners; the collection comprises famous bentwood furniture, tubular steel classics from the Bauhaus era, current designs by famous contemporary architects and designers. Mispronounced "Tho-nay" the name is pronounced "toe-net" with a hard beginning and ending t; the Museum of Applied Arts, MAK Vienna hosts the largest collection of original Thonet chairs in Austria. Üner, Stefan: Gebrüder Thonet, in: Wagner, Loos und das Möbeldesign der Wiener Moderne. Künstler, Produzenten, ed. by Eva B. Ottillinger, Exhib. Cat. Hofmobiliendepot, March 20 – October 7, 2018, p. 149–152, ISBN 978-3-205-20786-3. Albrecht Bangert: Thonet Möbel. Bugholz-Klassiker von 1830-1930. Heyne, München 1997, ISBN 3-453-13047-2 Hans H. Buchwald: Form from Process; the Thonet chair. Carpenter Center for the Visual arts, Cambridge Mass.
Green wood is wood, cut and therefore has not had an opportunity to season by evaporation of the internal moisture. Green wood contains more moisture than seasoned wood, dried through passage of time or by forced drying in kilns. Green wood is considered to have 100% moisture content relative to air-dried or seasoned wood, considered to be 20%. Energy density charts for wood fuels tend to use air-dried wood as their reference, thus oven-dried or 0% moisture content can reflect 103.4% energy content. When green wood is used as fuel in appliances, it releases less heat per unit of measure because of the heat consumed to evaporate the moisture; the lower temperatures that result can lead to more creosote being created, deposited in exhaust flues. These deposits can be ignited when sufficient heat and oxygen are present to cause a chimney fire which can be destructive and dangerous. Green lumber presents its own characteristics as well; some species of wood are better assembled green. Other species shrink excessively.
Wood to be used for fine products such as furniture is kiln-dried to stabilize it and minimize the shrinkage of the finished product
Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.
Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a soaper and candlemaker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin, Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in 1635, her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.
Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling e