Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II, born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099. Urban II was a native of France, he was a descendant of a noble family in Châtillon-sur-Marne. Reims was the nearby cathedral school that Urban, at that time Eudes, began his studies at 1050. Before his papacy he was the abbot of Bishop of Ostia under the name Eudes; as the Pope he would have to deal with many issues including the antipope Clement III, infighting of various christian nations, the Muslim incursions into Europe. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church, he promised forgiveness and pardon for all of the past sins of those who would fight to reclaim the holy land, free the eastern churches. This pardon would apply to those that would fight the Moors in Spain. Urban, baptized Eudes, was born to a family of Châtillon-sur-Marne, he was prior of the abbey of Cluny Pope Gregory VII named him cardinal-bishop of Ostia c. 1080.
He was one of the most prominent and active supporters of the Gregorian reforms as legate in the Holy Roman Empire in 1084. He was among the three. Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino, was chosen to follow Gregory in 1085 but, after his short reign as Victor III, Odo was elected by acclamation at a small meeting of cardinals and other prelates held in Terracina in March 1088. From the outset, Urban had to reckon with the presence of Guibert, the former bishop of Ravenna who held Rome as the antipope "Clement III". Gregory had clashed with the emperor Henry IV over papal authority. Despite the Walk to Canossa, Gregory had backed the rebel Duke of Swabia and again excommunicated the emperor. Henry took Rome in 1084 and installed Clement III in his place. Urban took up the policies of Pope Gregory VII and, while pursuing them with determination, showed greater flexibility and diplomatic finesse. Kept away from Rome, Urban toured northern Italy and France. A series of well-attended synods held in Rome, Amalfi and Troia supported him in renewed declarations against simony, lay investitures, clerical marriages, the emperor and his antipope.
He facilitated the marriage of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, with duke of Bavaria. He supported the rebellion of Prince Conrad against his father and bestowed the office of groom on Conrad at Cremona in 1095. While there, he helped arrange the marriage between Conrad and Maximilla, the daughter of Count Roger of Sicily, which occurred that year at Pisa; the Empress Adelaide was encouraged in her charges of sexual coercion against her husband, Henry IV. He supported the theological and ecclesiastical work of Anselm, negotiating a solution to the cleric's impasse with King William II of England and receiving England's support against the Imperial pope in Rome. Urban maintained vigorous support for his predecessors' reforms and did not shy from supporting Anselm when the new archbishop of Canterbury fled England. Despite the importance of French support for his cause, he upheld his legate Hugh of Die's excommunication of King Philip over his doubly bigamous marriage with Bertrade de Montfort, wife of the Count of Anjou.
The Pope's movement took its first public shape at the Council of Piacenza, where, in March 1095, Urban II received an ambassador from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos asking for help against the Muslim Seljuk Turks who had taken over most of Byzantine Anatolia. A great council met, attended by numerous Italian and French bishops in such vast numbers it had to be held in the open air outside the city of Clermont. Though the Council of Clermont held in November of the same year was focused on reforms within the church hierarchy, Urban II gave a speech on 27 November 1095 to a broader audience. Urban II's sermon proved effective, as he summoned the attending nobility and the people to wrest the Holy Land, the eastern churches from the control of the Seljuk Turks. There exists no exact transcription of the speech; the five extant versions of the speech were written down some time and they differ from one another. All versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres were influenced by the chronicle account of the First Crusade called the Gesta Francorum, which includes a version of it.
Fulcher of Chartres was present at the Council, though he did not start writing his history of the crusade, including a version of the speech until c. 1101. Robert the Monk may have been present, but his version dates from about 1106; the five versions of Urban's speech reflect much more what authors thought Urban II should have said to launch the First Crusade than what Urban II did say. As a better means of evaluating Urban's true motives in calling for a crusade to the Holy Lands, there are four extant letters written by Pope Urban himself: one to the Flemish. However, whereas the three former letters were concerned with rallying popular support for the Crusades
East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
East Northamptonshire is a local government district in Northamptonshire, England. Its council is based in Rushden. Other towns include Oundle, Raunds and Higham Ferrers; the town of Rushden is the largest settlement in the district and the smallest settlement is the hamlet of Shotley. The population of the District Council at the 2011 Census was 86,765; the district borders onto the Borough of Corby, the Borough of Kettering, the Borough of Wellingborough, the Borough of Bedford, the City of Peterborough, the District of Huntingdonshire, South Kesteven District and the unitary authority county of Rutland. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal borough of Higham Ferrers, with the urban districts of Irthlingborough, Oundle and Rushden, along with Oundle and Thrapston Rural District, Newton Bromswold from Wellingborough Rural District. Much of the district is home to Rockingham Forest, once a Royal hunting forest which takes its name from the village of Rockingham where William I built a castle.
The district is home to several of Northamptonshire's airfields including Spanhoe, King's Cliffe, Polebrook and Lyveden. In March 2018, an independent report commissioned by the Secretary of State for Housing and Local Government, proposed structural changes to local government in Northamptonshire; these changes would see the existing county council and district councils abolished and two new unitary authorities created in their place. One authority would consist of the existing districts of Daventry and South Northamptonshire and the other authority would consist of Corby, East Northamptonshire and Wellingborough districts. There are six towns in the district. Rushden is by far the largest with a population of 29,272, it is situated in the south of the district and forms a single urban area with the neighbouring town of Higham Ferrers which has a population of 7,145. The second largest town in the district is Raunds, population 8,641 followed by Irthlingborough, population 8,535; the smallest town in the district is Thrapston where the HQ of the East Northamptonshire council is located.
Oundle is a historical market town with many ancient buildings, including St Peter's parish church with the tallest spire in the county and a large Public School. Higham Ferrers, part of Rushden's urban area, was the birthplace for Henry Chichele and chichele college. Irthlingborough was home to Diamonds Football Club before it went into liquidation. There are no railway stations in East Northamptonshire. There is one College in East Northamptonshire. 2015 Conservative - 37 seats Labour - 1 seats Independent - 2 seats 2011 Conservative - 35 seats Labour - 2 seats Independent - 3 seats 2007 Conservative - 39 seats Labour - 0 seats Independent - 1 seat 2004 Conservative - 33 seats Labour - 3 seats Achurch, Apethorpe, Ashton Barnwell, Blatherwycke, Bulwick Chelveston cum Caldecott, Collyweston, Cotterstock Deene, Denford, Duddington-with-Fineshade Easton-on-the-Hill Fotheringhay Glapthorn, Great Addington Hargrave, Hemington, Higham Ferrers Irthlingborough, Islip King`s Cliffe Laxton, Lilford-cum-Wigsthorpe Little Addington, Luddington, Lutton Nassington, Newton Bromswold Oundle Pilton, Polebrook Raunds, Rushden Shotley, Stanwick, Stoke Doyle, Sudborough Tansor, Thurning, Thorpe Waterville, Thorpe Achurch, Twywell Wadenhoe, Warmington, Woodnewton Yarwell Grade I listed buildings in East Northamptonshire Grade II* listed buildings in East Northamptonshire Nene Valley News Community Newspaper Extra Local Newspaper East Northamptonshire Council Local Authority
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to 1108, the fourth from the House of Capet. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time; the monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin and Bourges. Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusually for the time in Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, being bestowed upon him by his mother. Although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent. Following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwin's wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, defeated by Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071. Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the necessary heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort, the wife of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou.
He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092. In 1094, he was excommunicated for the first time. Several times the ban was lifted as Philip promised to part with Bertrade, but he always returned to her, but in 1104 Philip made a public penance and must have kept his involvement with Bertrade discreet. In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of a famous jurist. Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his father's, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals. In 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in reprisal against Robert Curthose's attack on William's heir, William Rufus. In 1100, he took control of Bourges, it was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont. Philip at first did not support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philip's brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant. Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per his request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers.
He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, not uncontested. According to Abbot Suger: … King Philip daily grew feebler. For after he had abducted the Countess of Anjou, he could achieve nothing worthy of the royal dignity. So he lost interest in the affairs of state and, relaxing too much, took no care for his body, well-made and handsome though it was; the only thing that maintained the strength of the state was the fear and love felt for his son and successor. When he was sixty, he ceased to be king, breathing his last breath at the castle of Melun-sur-Seine, in the presence of the Louis... They carried the body in a great procession to the noble monastery of St-Benoît-sur-Loire, where King Philip wished to be buried. Philip‘s children with Bertha were: Constance, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106. Louis VI of France. Henry. Philip‘s children with Bertrade were: Philip, Count of Mantes, married Elizabeth, daughter of Guy III of Montlhéry Fleury, Seigneur of Nangis Cecile, married Tancred, Prince of Galilee and after his death, to Pons of Tripoli.
D'Avray, David, ed.. "Philip I of France and Bertrade". Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860–1600. Cambridge University Press. Bradbury, Jim; the Capetians: The History of a Dynasty. Bloomsbury Publishing. Brown, Elizabeth A. R.. "Authority, the Family, the Dead in Late Medieval France". French Historical Studies. 16. Hallam, Elizabeth. Capetian France: 987-1328. Longman Group Ltd. Hodgson, Natasha R.. Women and the Holy Land in Historical Narrative; the Boydell Press. Huscroft, Richard. Tales from the Long Twelfth Century: The Rise and Fall of the Angevin Empire. Yale University Press. McDougall, Sara. Royal Bastards: The Birth of Illegitimacy, 800-1230. Oxford University Press. Paul, Nicholas L.. To Follow in Their Footsteps: The Crusades and Family Memory in the High Middle Ages. Cornell University Press. Petit-Dutaillis, C.. The Feudal Monarchy in France and England:From the 10th to the 13th Century. Translated by Hunt, E. D. Routledge. Power, Daniel; the Norman Frontier in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries.
Cambridge University Press. Rolker, Christof. Canon Law and the Letters of Ivo of Chartres. Cambridge University Press. Shepherd, Jonathan. "The'muddy-road' of Odo Arpin from Bourges to La Charitie-sur-Loire". In Edbury, Peter; the Experience of Crusading. Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. Somerville, Robert. Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza. Oxford University Press. Strickland, Matthew. Henry the Young King, 1155-1183. Yale University Press
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV became King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, he was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Germany, he died soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France. In 1056 at Aachen, Henry IV was enthroned as the King of the Germans by Pope Victor II, while his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent. In 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne. Henry, at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat on the Rhine. Agnes retired to a convent, the government was placed in the hands of Anno, his first action was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had recognized but subsequently left without support.
Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years; the malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. During an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only an ecclesiastical role. Henry's entire reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, he worked to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. In 1066, he expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055.
In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had attacked the Normans. Therefore, the expedition was halted. In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha, his peroration at a council in Mainz was rejected, however, by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, or Peter Damian, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court. Henry believed that the Papal opposition was less about his marriage than about overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the empire's boundaries, he led the margrave of a district east of Saxony.
Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king, it was decided that a trial by combat should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, he declined to appear. He was declared deposed in Bavaria, his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them. More formidable still was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king—he was the son of one enemy, Henry III, the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen; the momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated.
Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost. Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII. While Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda; the high tensions between the Empire and the Church culminated in the ecclesiastical councils of 1074-75, many of the measures passed attempted to undo substantial portions of Henry III's policies. Among other measures, the councils denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in any ecclesiastical office.