Massanutten Mountain is a synclinal ridge in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, located in the U. S. state of Virginia. It is near the West Virginia state line; the mountain bisects the Shenandoah Valley just east of Strasburg in Shenandoah County in the north, to its highest peak east of Harrisonburg in Rockingham County in the south. The mountain is divided into southern sections, divided by the New Market Gap; the northern section consists of 3 parallel ridges, forming 2 valleys. The wider, main valley, is called Fort Valley; the ridges of the northern section converge at New Market Gap. The southern section consists of a series of gathered ridges, separated by precipitous creek gorges. On the eastern side of the mountain range lie the Blue Ridge Mountains. On the western side lie the North-Central Shenandoah Valley and the Great North Mountain of the Alleghany Mountains. Most of the range is part of the Lee Ranger District of the George Washington National Forest and contains the Elizabeth Furnace and Camp Roosevelt recreational areas.
The Potomac Appalachian Trail Club maintains the Massanutten Trail as well as several other hiking trails in the forest. Signal Knob, a former Civil War signal station on the northern peak of the mountain, is a popular destination; the forest service maintains several ATV trails. In 1971, the Massanutten Mountain ski lodge and four-season resort village was established near the southern peak; the private resort has nearly doubled in size since Great Eastern Resorts bought it in 1995. Wildlife on Massanutten includes black bear, wild turkeys, white-tailed deer, timber rattlesnake, luna moths. Significant flora includes mayapple, wild lupine, cardinal flower, pinxter flower; the geology of the Massanutten Mountains is dominated by Silurian Massanutten Sandstone, a lateral equivalent of the Tuscarora Formation in the Appalachian Mountains to the west, overlying the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation. Erosion of the Martinsburg shale in some areas of the mountain caused the sandstone to break and slide to form talus slopes.
The Massanutten Sandstone is folded in a synclinorium, it outcrops at the ridge tops. Massanutten Peak Green Mountain Three Top Mountain Powell Mountain Little Crease Mountain Short Mountain Mertins Rock Bowman Mountain Kerns Mountain Catback Mountain Waterfall Mountain First Mountain Second Mountain Third Mountain Fourth Mountain
Dayton is a town in Rockingham County, United States. The population is 1,530 as of the 2010 census, it is included in Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Dayton is located at 38°24′59″N 78°56′22″W; the town is two miles southwest of Harrisonburg and two miles northeast of Bridgewater. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all of it land. The town of Dayton is one of the oldest settled communities in Rockingham County, is the county's second oldest incorporated town, after Bridgewater; the first settler in Dayton was Daniel Harrison, whose family settled along Cooks Creek, north of downtown. Daniel was the eldest son of Isaiah Harrison and second wife Abigail and was born in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. Daniel's brother Thomas Harrison founded Harrisonburg several miles to the northeast, they and their three brothers had migrated from New York to Delaware and to Orange County Virginia before settling in the Shenandoah Valley. The family homestead, a two-story stone house, has been owned and maintained since 1977 by a private, non-profit organization, Fort Harrison, Inc.
The town was known as Rifeville or Rifetown until 1833. Shenandoah University has its roots in Dayton, when it was known as the Shenandoah College and Conservatory of Music; the college was organized in 1875 under the leadership of Rev. A. P. Funkhouser; this was a major institution in Dayton until 1960. College Street was named after the school and many of the street's buildings served as part of the campus; the Dayton Historic District, Daniel Harrison House, Peter Paul House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2018, a series of strikes and protests were held at the town's Cargill plant. Primary road access to Dayton is provided by Virginia State Route 42, which runs southwest to Bridgewater and northeast to Harrisonburg, where it connects with U. S. Route 33. Virginia State Route 257 serves Dayton. SR 257 runs concurrently with SR 42 from Dayton southwest to Bridgewater, but heads westward from Dayton into the rural areas of southwestern Rockingham County. Virginia State Route 42 Business and Virginia State Route 290 serve as primary roadways within Dayton.
As of the census of 2000, 1,344 people, 542 households, 383 families resided in the town. The population density was 1,657.2 people per square mile. There were 565 housing units at an average density of 696.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.20% White, 0.67% African American, 0.37% Asian, 2.90% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.62% of the population. Of 542 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were not families. About 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.97. In the town, the population was distributed as 24.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,958, the median income for a family was $44,732. Males had a median income of $30,109 versus $23,906 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,600. About 3.5% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. There are two different groups of Old Order Mennonites who live around Dayton: members of the Virginia Old Order Mennonite Conference and of the John Dan Wenger Mennonites; the latter are the more conservative ones. The two groups separated from each other in 1952/3; the total population of these two groups in the area is around 1,000 people. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Dayton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
The city is a setting in the music video for "Cheer Up" by the Korean pop group Twice. The video depicts a member of the group performing outside of Dayton while dressed as a cowgirl
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Elkton is an incorporated town in Rockingham County, United States. It is included in the Harrisonburg Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 2,762 at the 2010 census. Elkton was named for the Elk Run stream, it is located along the south fork of the Shenandoah River at the intersections of east-west U. S. Route 33 and north-south U. S. Route 340; the town celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2008. One of the first European-Americans to settle permanently in the area was Adam Miller, a native of Germany. In 1741, Miller purchased 820 acres, including a large lithia spring, near Elkton and lived on this property for the remainder of his life, he sold 280 acres of this property to his son-in-law, Jacob Baer, the spring on Miller’s land is still known as Bear Lithia Spring. Conrads Store was a general store built by George Conrad about 1812. George Conrad was a son of Captain Stephen Conrad. In 1816, Conrads Store became a United States post office with George Conrad as its first postmaster.
During the American Civil War, Conrads Store operated as a Confederate post office. In September 1866, postal service was discontinued at Conrads Store, intermittently resumed and discontinued over the next decade until 1881 when the name, was adopted as the name of new passenger station of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. In January 1881, Virginia was established as a post office; the Town of Elkton was incorporated on March 14, 1908. An important building in the town's history is the Jennings House. Built in 1840 by Dr. Samuel B. Jennings, the house was transformed into a hospital during the Civil War; the historic Jennings House was converted to house the local government. In the Summer of 2016, local government offices & the Elkton Police Department were moved out of the Jennings building in favor of the Elkton Area Community Center; the decision was made by the Mayor. The Jennings House is vacant; the town Christmas tree can be found across the street from the house. Located on Rockingham Street, the Miller-Kite House was the headquarters of General Stonewall Jackson at the start of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign during the Civil War.
Now the house is a town landmark and museum, housing many items from the war and some of Jackson's personal belongings. In one of the second-story windows a cardboard cutout of the General watches the street. Many visitors report unusual behavior while in the house. In addition to the Miller-Kite House, Bon Air and the Kite Mansion are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Elkton is located at 38°24′30″N 78°37′13″W, it is located on the northeast portion of Virginia. Elkton is bordered by Page County to the north, the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east, the Massanutten Mountain range to the west, the Merck manufacturing plant and MillerCoors brewery and distribution center to the south. Norfolk Southern's Virginia Division's rail line, Route 33, the South Fork of the Shenandoah River all cut through the town; the general area is agricultural, filled with rural scenes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.4 square miles, of which, 1.4 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water.
The main roads providing access to Elkton are U. S. Route 33 and U. S. Route 340. US 33 was realigned, the old alignment through downtown Elkton is now US 33 Business; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,762 people, 862 households, 555 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,485.4 people per square mile. There were 919 housing units at an average density of 668.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.49% White, 2.74% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.81% of the population. Major ancestry groups reported by Elkton residents include: United States or American - 23.9%, German - 15.3%, English - 8.4%, Irish - 6.9%, Scotch-Irish - 4.6%, Dutch - 2.3%, Scottish - 2.2%, Norwegian - 1.2%, French - 1.6%, Welsh - 1.1%, Italian - 0.8%, Polish - 0.9%, French Canadian - 0.3%, Hungarian - 0.2%, Russian - 0.2%, Slovak - 0.2%, West Indian - 0.2%, Other ancestries - 12.1%.
There were 862 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.86. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,556, the median income for a family was $41,500. Males had a median income of $30,032 versus $21,996 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,192. About 4.7% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.
Although under Virginia law, incorporated towns may operate their own schools, Elkton area schools are operated by Rockingham County Public Schools, a Virginia public school division. Elkton houses two public schools: Elkton Elementary School, Elkton M
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County locally, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445, its county seat is Lancaster. Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market; the County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. The "Dutch" of Pennsylvania Dutch is the English form of Düütsch, the Low German cognate of Standard German Deutsch and Pennsylvania Dutch Deitsch; the ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were significant numbers of English and Ulster Scots.
The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter. John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that any Europeans settled in Lancaster County before 1710. Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it was organized as colony's fourth county, it was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, an early settler. As settlement increased, six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York. Many other counties were in turn formed from these six. Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Gawanese and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures.
Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name was derived from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village, Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga, anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra, where present-day Chickisalunga developed, Gasch'guch'sa, now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County. Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade, they were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county, they helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Virginia. By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, naming children after their favorite neighbors.
The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, burning all the houses. Officials sheltered the tribe's fourteen survivors in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, massacred the remaining natives; the lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice. Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River.
Lord Baltimore believed. This was the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania; this line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland. New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730, the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting as an agent of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania. Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands, he believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, that his demesne and grant
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Shenandoah River is a tributary of the Potomac River, 55.6 miles long with two forks 100 miles long each, in the U. S. states of West Virginia. The principal tributary of the Potomac, the river and its tributaries drain the central and lower Shenandoah Valley and the Page Valley in the Appalachians on the west side of the Blue Ridge Mountains, in northwestern Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia; the Shenandoah River is formed northeast of Front Royal near Riverton, by the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork. It flows northeast across Warren County. Beyond the I-66 bridge the river flows through a set of bends before turning to the northeast again, crossing into Clarke County 11 miles below I-66. Five miles downriver from the Clarke County border, the Shenandoah passes under U. S. Route 50 and passes through a triple bend. 14.5 miles below the Route 50 bridge, the river passes underneath State Route 7 and continues northeast another 8 miles where it crosses into Jefferson County in West Virginia.
Once in West Virginia the river completes six large bends before joining with the Potomac from the southwest near Harpers Ferry. The confluence is on the West Virginia-Maryland border and 0.4 miles from the Virginia-West Virginia border. The Shenandoah valley is underlain by limestone; the fertile soil made it a favored place for early settlement. It continues to be a major agricultural area of West Virginia; some karst topography is evident, the limestone is honeycombed with caves. Several have been developed as commercial tourist attractions, including Luray Caverns, Shenandoah Caverns, Skyline Caverns. On the riverbank a few miles above Harper's Ferry is said to be a cave with an opening just large enough for a mounted rider to squeeze through, it widened in the interior to a spacious room where hundreds of Col. John Mosby's raiding troops are said to have hidden from pursuing Union cavalry. Since 2005, the Shenandoah River has experienced several springtime fish kills that have affected several of its native fish species.
In 2005, redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass along a 100-mile stretch of the South Fork Shenandoah River began dying of lesions caused by bacteria and fungi. Although the fish kill wiped out 80% of the adult redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass, juvenile populations appeared to be unaffected; the following year more-localized fish kills in Clarke County spread to two of the Shenandoah's three species of sucker: the shorthead redhorse and the northern hogsucker – the former suffering from similar lesions witnessed in the previous year's fish kill. Virginia's Department of Environmental Quality received reports of fish kills near Elkton and between Bentonville and Front Royal in late April 2007 and observed fish exhibiting lesions and strange behavior. Various accounts tell the origin of the name. According to one, General George Washington named the valley in honor of Skenandoa, an Oneida "pine tree chief" based in New York, who led hundreds of Oneida and Tuscarora warriors in support of the American rebels on the frontier during the Revolutionary War.
He sent much needed corn to Washington and his troops during their hard winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania in 1777-1778. However, the name was in use when Washington was a child, as evidenced in land grants and correspondence, it is said to be named after the Senedo people, a little-documented tribe said to have lived on the north fork of the river and destroyed by the Catawba, some time between 1650 and 1700. The Shenandoah River is a popular river for canoeing, river tubing, white-water recreation such as rafting and kayaking, several commercial outfitters offer a variety of guided trips and rentals; the South Fork is formed at Port Republic in southern Rockingham County, by the confluence of the North River and South River. It flows 98.5 miles northeast in a tight meandering course, past Elkton and Shenandoah, through Page Valley, with the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Massanutten Mountain range to the west. North River Middle River South River Back Creek Overall Run Gooney Creek The North Fork is 105 miles long and rises in northern Rockingham County, along the eastern flank of Shenandoah Mountain in the George Washington National Forest.
At its formation, the principal feeder on the North Fork is the German River. The North Fork flows southeast, down from the mountains northeast through a valley across Shenandoah County, along the western side of Massanutten Mountain, it flows past Strasburg. On the north end of the ridge it turns southeast to join the South Fork from the northwest to form the Shenandoah. Stikeys Run Double Run The American folk song "Oh Shenandoah" has been recorded in the 20th century by a number of notable artists; the song is about one estranged from the Shenandoah River. West Virginia's state song and the signature song of John Denver, "Take Me Home, Country Roads", prominently mentions the Shenandoah River. List of Virginia rivers List of West Virginia rivers Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries - South Fork Friends of the North Fork Shenandoah River Shenandoah Riverkeeper