Quentin Matsys was a painter in the Flemish tradition and a founder of the Antwerp school. He was born at Leuven, where legend states he was trained as an ironsmith before becoming a painter, Matsys was active in Antwerp for over 20 years, creating numerous works with religious roots and satirical tendencies. Most early accounts of Matsys life are composed primarily of legend, according to J. Molanus Historiae Lovaniensium Matsys is known to be a native of Leuven with humble beginnings as an ironsmith. One of four children, Matsys was born to Joost Matsys, documented donations and possessions of Joost Matsys indicate that the family had a respectable income and that financial need was most likely not the reason Matsys turned to painting. During the period in which Matsys was active in Antwerp he took only four apprentices, Arian van Overbeke, Willem Muelenbroec, Eduart Portugalois and it is widely believed that Joachim Patinir studied with Matsys at some point during his career and contributed to several of his landscapes.
Lack of guild records during this time leaves Matsys travels to Italy, for the most part, foreign influences on Matsys are inferred from his paintings and are considered to be a large portion of the artists training during the 16th century. During the greater part of the 15th century, the centres in which the painters of the Low Countries most congregated were Tournai, Ghent, Leuven gained prominence toward the close of this period, employing workmen from all of the crafts including Matsys. Not until the beginning of the 16th century did Antwerp take the lead which it afterward maintained against Bruges, Brussels, as a member of Antwerps Guild of Saint Luke, Matsys is considered to be one of its first notable artists. Although the roots of Matsys training are unknown, his style reflects the qualities of Dirk Bouts. When Matsys settled at Antwerp at the age of twenty-five, his own style contributed importantly to reviving Flemish art along the lines of Van Eyck, Matsys departed from Leuven in 1491 when he became a master in the guild of painters at Antwerp.
He painted altarpieces and triptych panels, the most famous of which was built for the Church of Saint Peter in Leuven. Matsys work is considered to contain strong religious feeling—characteristic of traditional Flemish works—and is accompanied by a realism that often favored the grotesque, Matsys works generally reflect earnestness in expression, minutely detailed renderings, and subdued effects in light and shade. Like most Flemish artists of the time he paid a great deal of attention to jewelry, edging of garments, strenuous effort is devoted to the expression of individual character. A satirical tendency may be seen in the pictures of merchant bankers, revealing their greed and avarice. His other impulse, dwelling on the feelings of tenderness, may be noted in two replicas of the Virgin and Child at Berlin and Amsterdam, where the ecstatic kiss of the mother seems rather awkward. An expression of acute despair may be seen in a Lucretia in the museum at Vienna, the remarkable glow of the colour in these works, makes the Mannerist exaggerations palatable.
Matsys had considerable skill as a portrait painter and his Ægidius which drew from Thomas More a eulogy in Latin verse, is but one of many, to which one may add the portrait of Maximilian of Austria in the gallery in Amsterdam. In this branch of his practice, Matsys was greatly influenced by his fellow countryman Jan Mabuse, Matsys portraiture exhibits highly personal and individual emotional characteristics that reflect his adherence to realism as a technique
Frans Francken the Younger
Frans Francken the Younger was a Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. Francken created altarpieces and painted panels, but his reputation chiefly relies on his small and delicate cabinet pictures with historical, mythological. He was a frequent collaborator of leading Antwerp painters of his time, Frans Francken the Younger was born in Antwerp as the son of Frans Francken the Elder and Elisabeth Mertens. His father was a pupil of Antwerps leading history painter Frans Floris, Frans Francken the Younger trained with his father Frans the Elder. He, together with his brother Hieronymus Francken II, may have received training with his uncle Hieronymus Francken I in Paris. Frans Francken the Younger likely first worked in the workshop before he became an independent master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1605. He was deacon of the Guild in 1616, franckens talent was recognised from an early age. He became a successful artist and operated a large workshop which made many copies of his original compositions.
Already in 1607 he was able to buy a house in the city centre where he established his residence, on 8 November 1607 Francken married Elisabeth Plaquet with the special permission of the bishop. This may have had something to do with the fact that their son was born before the end of 1607. The son was given the name as his father and grandfather. He would be known as Frans III and earned himself as a painter the nickname the Rubense Francken, three further boys and five girls were born to the Francken couple. One of them, would become a painter. Frans Francken the Youngers pupils included Daniel Hagens, the Monogrammist N. F. his brother Hieronymus II, Frans Francken the Younger was a versatile artist who practised in many genres and introduced new subjects into Flemish art. Many of his works are historical and biblical cabinet paintings with the focus on figures. Frans Francken the Younger introduced many other themes that became popular, such as the Triumphal Procession of Amphitrite and Croesus.
Francken made a series of paintings depicting witches and witchcraft, Frans Francken the Younger signed his works with de jonge Frans Francken before the death of his father in 1616. From the late 1620s he used the signature de oude Fr, Francken, to distinguish himself from his son Frans III
Jan Sanders van Hemessen
Jan Sanders van Hemessen was a leading Flemish Renaissance painter, belonging to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Hemessen played an important role in the development of painting, through his large scenes with religious or worldly subjects, set in towns with contemporary dress. These focused on human failings such as greed and vanity, one of his best known works, the Parable of the Prodigal Son now in Brussels, was a key forerunner of the merry company tradition, and he painted a pure genre painting set in tavern. He painted a number of portraits, some of exceptional quality. He was based in Antwerp between 1519 and 1550, joining the artists Guild of Saint Luke there in 1524, after 1550 he may have moved to Haarlem. He painted several subjects, and many others may have been destroyed in the Beeldenstorm that swept through Antwerp in the year of his death. Jan Sanders van Hemessen was born in Hemiksem, called Hemessen or Heymissen and he was an apprentice of Hendrick van Cleve I in Antwerp.
He traveled to Italy early in his career, around 1520, here he studied both models from classical antiquity, such as the Laocoön as well as the contemporary works of Michelangelo and Raphael. He returned to Antwerp where he entered the local Guild of Saint Luke as a master in 1524, van Hemessen is believed to have worked early in his career at the royal court in Mechelen. Here he may have first encountered Jan Gossaert, a court painter, although the early biographer Karel van Mander wrote that van Hemessen spent time in Haarlem, there is no evidence for this statement. Van Hemessen was married to Barbara de Fevre with whom he had two daughters, after his wifes death, he had an illegitimate son called Peeter with his maid Betteken. After the death of Jan Sanders van Hemessen and Betteken, Peeter was legitimised in 1579, Jan Sanders van Hemessen trained his daughter Catharina van Hemessen who became a successful portrait painter. It is not known where van Hemessen died, van Hemessen was one of the earliest Netherlandish artists to exploit the genre character of biblical subjects often for a moralizing purpose.
Van Hemessen specialized in scenes of human character flaws such as vanity and his pictures often have a religious subject. His style helped found the Flemish traditions of genre painting, van Hemessen was a portrait painter. His Mannerist style is characterised by muscular and palpably three-dimensional figures, a densely packed foreground of abruptly cropped forms, Jan Sanders van Hemessen is associated with the development of the tavern scene or merry company in Flemish genre painting. He commenced his compositions on this theme with a 1536 painting on a religious subject, the foreground of the composition shows the prodigal son during his days of high living in the company of prostitutes, music and gambling. Van Hemessen produced more tavern scenes that stress the theme of unbridled living where drinking causes more sinfulness such as the Loose Company, the subject matter provided van Hemessen with another occasion to use a religious subject to convey a moral message
Jan Fijt or Johannes Fijt was a Flemish Baroque painter and etcher. One of the leading animaliers of the 17th century, he was known for his depictions of animals. Jan Fyt was born in Antwerp as the son of a wealthy merchant and he was baptized on 15 March 1611. Fyt likely completed his training with the leading Antwerp animal painter Frans Snyders from 1629 to 1631 and he became a master of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1630. After setting out on a trip to Southern Europe in 1633 and he traveled on to Italy the following year. He worked in Venice for the prominent Sagredo and Contarini families, during his stay in Italy, he most likely visited Naples and Genoa. He resided in Rome in 1635, here he joined the Bentvueghels, an association of mainly Dutch and Flemish artists working in Rome. It was customary for the Bentvueghels to adopt an appealing nickname, Fyt was reportedly given the bent name Goudvink. The Italian art historian Pellegrino Antonio Orlandi stated in his Abecedario pittorico of 1704 that Fyt spent time in Spain and London.
By 1641 Fyt is recorded back in Antwerp where he remained active for the remainder of his life aside from a trip to the Dutch Republic which he is believed to have made that same year. Fyt ran a studio in Antwerp which produced many copies of his creations. He became a man and maintained a network of contacts with patrons. He was frequently mentioned in documents in Antwerp in relation to disputes. Fyt joined the Guild of Romanists in 1650, the Guild of Romanists was a society of notables and artists which was active in Antwerp from the 16th to 18th century. It was a condition of membership that the member had visited Rome, in the year 1652 the Guild chose Fyt as its dean. Fyt married Françoise van de Sande on 22 March 1654 and the couple had four children and he died in Antwerp on 11 September 1661. Fyts pupils included Pieter Boel and Jaques van de Kerckhove, Pieter Boels style remained very close to Fyts. Fyt was a versatile still-life specialist, although better known for his hunting and animal pieces he painted beautiful still life compositions with flowers and fruit
Hans III Jordaens
Hans III Jordaens, was a Flemish Baroque painter. According to the RKD his birth year and place is uncertain and he could have been born in Delft as a son of Hans Jordaens, or he may have been born in Antwerp as a relative of Jacob Jordaens. He painted historical allegories, interiors and art galleries and he painted staffage for Abraham Govaerts. His works are confused with works of other painters by the same name. According to Houbraken, the widow of the lawyer Nicolaas Muys van Holy owned a painting by him of the Pharaohs army crossing the red sea and drowning with horses, Houbraken confused him with the painter Hans IV Jordaens of Delft
A legally defined class of the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city. This bourgeoisie destroyed aristocratic privilege and established civic equality after the French monarchy collapsed, the aristocracy crumbled because it refused to reform institutions and financial systems. An affluent and often opulent stratum of the class who stand opposite the proletariat class. In English, bourgeoisie identified a social class oriented to economic materialism and hedonism, since the 19th century, the term bourgeoisie usually is politically and sociologically synonymous with the ruling upper class of a capitalist society. The 18th century saw a partial rehabilitation of bourgeois values in such as the drame bourgeois and bourgeois tragedy. The bourgeoisie emerged as a historical and political phenomenon in the 11th century when the bourgs of Central and this urban expansion was possible thanks to economic concentration due to the appearance of protective self-organisation into guilds.
Guilds arose when individual businessmen conflicted with their feudal landlords who demanded greater rents than previously agreed. In English, the bourgeoisie is often used to denote the middle classes. In fact, the French term encompasses both the upper and middle classes, a misunderstanding which has occurred in other languages as well. The bourgeoisie in France and many French-speaking countries consists of four evolving social layers, petite bourgeoisie, moyenne bourgeoisie, grande bourgeoisie, the petite bourgeoisie consists of people who have experienced a brief ascension in social mobility for one or two generations. It usually starts with a trade or craft, and by the second and third generation, the petite bourgeois would belong to the British lower middle class and would be American middle income. They are distinguished mainly by their mentality, and would differentiate themselves from the proletariat or working class and this class would include artisans, small traders and small farm owners.
They are not employed, but may not be able to afford employees themselves, the moyenne bourgeoisie or middle bourgeoisie contains people who have solid incomes and assets, but not the aura of those who have become established at a higher level. They tend to belong to a family that has been bourgeois for three or more generations, some members of this class may have relatives from similar backgrounds, or may even have aristocratic connections. The moyenne bourgeoisie is the equivalent of the British and American upper-middle classes, the grande bourgeoisie are families that have been bourgeois since the 19th century, or for at least four or five generations. Members of these tend to marry with the aristocracy or make other advantageous marriages. This bourgeoisie family has acquired an established historical and cultural heritage over the decades, the names of these families are generally known in the city where they reside, and their ancestors have often contributed to the regions history.
These families are respected and revered and they belong to the upper class, and in the British class system are considered part of the gentry
Lucas Faydherbe was a Flemish sculptor and architect who played a major role in the development of the High Baroque in the Southern Netherlands. Lucas Faydherbe was the first son of Hendrik Faydherbe and his second wife Cornelia Franchoys and his mother came from an artist family, her father was the successful painter Lucas Franchoys the Elder and her brothers Lucas and Peter were accomplished painters. His father’s sister Maria Faydherbe was recognised as a talented sculptor, Faydherbe’s father ran a workshop for decorative sculpture and alabaster carving. Here Lucas learned the basics of sculpture and his father died when Lucas was twelve years old. His mother remarried with the sculptor Maximilian Labbé a year later, Lucas continued his training under Labbé. When he was nineteen years old he was accepted as an apprentice in the workshop of Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp, after three years, he unexpectedly left Rubens’ workshop to marry Maria Snyers who was expecting his child. He was forced to abandon his plans to travel to Italy, Faydherbe returned to his hometown Mechelen where, thanks to the intercession of Rubens, he was quickly accepted as a master in the local Guild of St.
Luke. Based in Mechelen, he worked in Brussels, Antwerp. His family expanded to twelve children and his son Jan-Lucas became a sculptor like his father and assisted him on various commissions. Problems with the local Guild of St. Luke turned him into one of the most ardent advocates of the establishment of an art academy in Mechelen, following the example of Brussels and his attempts were, not successful. Faydherbe often collaborated with other sculptors in the execution of religious projects. Faydherbe’s wife died in 1693, and he himself three years after that and his pupils included Jan van Delen, Frans Langhemans, Jan-Frans Boeckstuyns and Nicolas van der Veken. Faydherbe started his career at a moment in the history of Flemish sculpture. In the first place, there was the religious context, the Contrareformation stressed certain points of religious doctrine, as a result of which certain church furniture, such as the confessional gained an increased importance. These developments caused an increase in the demand for religious sculpture.
Thanks to his training under Rubens, Faydherbe had learned to assimilate and translate Rubens’ style into sculpture, Faydherbe’s early work following his return to Mechelen in 1640 showed a strong influence from Rubens. During this early period he created some sculptures for churches in Mechelen. A typical example is the statue of St. Andrew in Brussels Cathedral, Faydherbe quickly became an artist in demand and he worked on many commissions
Joachim Patinir, called Patenier, was a Flemish Renaissance painter of history and landscape subjects. He was Flemish, from the area of modern Wallonia, but worked in Antwerp, Patinir was a pioneer of landscape as an independent genre and he was the first Flemish painter to regard himself primarily as a landscape painter. He effectively invented the world landscape, a style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes which is Patinirs important contribution to Western art. There are only five paintings signed by Patinir, but many works have been attributed to him or his workshop with varying degrees of probability. The ones that are signed read, Joachim D. Patinier, the 2007 exhibition at the Museo del Prado in Madrid contained 21 pictures listed as by Patinir or his workshop, and catalogued a further 8 which were not in the exhibition. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, the Temptation of St Anthony was done in collaboration with Metsys, who added the figures to Patinirs landscape.
His career was contemporary with that of the other major pioneer of paintings dominated by landscape, Albrecht Altdorfer. He was probably the uncle of Herri met de Bles, who was his follower in establishing the world landscape and he may have studied with Gerard David at Bruges, who had been registered as a guild member in the same year as Patinir. In 1511, Patinir is believed to have travelled to Genoa with David, in 1521, Patinirs friend Albrecht Dürer attended his second wedding and painted his portrait. Dürer called Patinir der gute Landschaftsmaler, thus creating a neologism translated into the French, Patinir often let his landscapes dwarf his figures, which are of very variable quality. The larger ones were at least sometimes painted by other artists, such specialisation had become common in the Low Countries at the time. Many of his works are large for Netherlandish panel paintings of the time, as are those of Hieronymus Bosch, another painter of large landscapes. Patinirs immense vistas combine observation of detail with lyrical fantasy.
His landscapes use a high viewpoint with a horizon. He uses a consistent and effective colour scheme in his landscapes, examples of his work include The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, The Baptism of Christ, St. John at Patmos, Landscape with the Shepherds, and the Rest on the Flight to Egypt. There is a triptych attributed to him called The Penitence of St. Jerome, Patinir died in Antwerp in 1524, and Quentin Metsys became the guardian of his children. Early Renaissance painting Renaissance in the Netherlands Grove, Hans Devisscher, subscription required Koch, Robert A. Joachim Patinir. Symbols & Allegories in Art, The Hereafter, los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum,2005
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
Gillis Claesz. de Hondecoeter or dHondecoeter was a Dutch painter, working in a Flemish style, painting landscapes, trees and birds. Later on dHondecoeter painted in a more Dutch, realistic style, Gillis was the father of Gijsbert dHondecoeter and grandfather of the more successful Melchior dHondecoeter and Jan Weenix. His daughter Josijntje married Jan Baptist Weenix, Gillis dHondecoeter was born in Antwerp, the son of Nicolaes Jansz dHondecoeter, a painter who fled from Antwerp to Delft, after the Spanish occupied the city in 1585. Gillis married in 1602 Maaijke Gijbrechts in Delft, while working in Utrecht, the couple had six children, before they moved to Amsterdam in 1615, where another three children were baptized. His brother was a surgeon in that city, six years he married the young and beautiful Anna Spierinx, who first had refused his son Gijsbert, according to Arnold Houbraken. The couple lived on Singel and had one child together, Gillis painted Flemish, fantasy landscapes, most of the time in connection with a biblical scene.
It is said he was influenced by Roelant Savery, a Flemish painter who moved in Amsterdam. The figures on one of his paintings he left to his colleague, media related to Gillis dHondecoeter at Wikimedia Commons http, //www. steigrad. com/images/artlge/hond01. jpg