click links in text for more info


Rocksteady is a music genre that originated in Jamaica around 1966. A successor of ska and a precursor to reggae, rocksteady was the dominant style of music in Jamaica for nearly two years, performed by many of the artists who helped establish reggae. For example harmony groups such as The Techniques, The Paragons, The Heptones and The Gaylads; the term rocksteady comes from a popular dance style mentioned in the Alton Ellis song'Rocksteady' that matched the new sound. Some rocksteady songs became hits outside Jamaica, as with ska, helping to secure the international base reggae music has today; the Jamaican musicians and producers who created the rocksteady sound out of ska were well-versed in jazz and influenced by other genres, most notably rhythm and blues, but Cuban and other Caribbean sounds plus African drumming. When considering the differences between ska and rocksteady it is worth remembering that the musicians and producers were the same. Rocksteady’s most recognizable element, that which could be considered reggae music's gift to the world, as in ska, is an offbeat rhythm: staccato chords played by a guitar and piano on the offbeats of the measure.

The perceived tempo became slower with the development of rocksteady. The guitar and piano players began to experiment with occasional accents around the basic offbeat pattern; this can be heard throughout Jamaican recordings in subsequent years. Rocksteady more so the early reggae that followed, was built around the "one drop" drum beat, characterized by a heavy accent on the third beat of every bar; this differs markedly from the drumming styles in R&B and rock and roll, which put the emphasis on the second and fourth beats. The slowing that occurred with rocksteady allowed bass players to explore more broken, syncopated figures, playing a counterpoint to the repetitive rhythm of the guitar and keyboards and this new style largely replaced the walking patterns, so characteristic of many ska recordings; the slower tempo and smaller band sizes in turn led to a much larger focus on the bass line in general, which became one of the most recognizable characteristics of Jamaican music. In rocksteady, the lead guitar doubles the bass line, in the muted picking style created by Lynn Taitt.

Smaller band sizes and slower tempos led to a number of changes in the way horn parts were written and arranged. Whereas, in ska, the horn section had spent much of the song playing the offbeats with the guitar and piano, in rocksteady they favored repeated rhythmic patterns or sitting out all together until the lead line. Due in part to the heavy borrowing from US soul songs, many rocksteady songs are love songs. There are rocksteady songs about religion and the Rastafari movement, though not to the same extent as in reggae. Rocksteady coincided with the rise of rude boys and some rocksteady songs reflect this such as "Rude Boy Gone A Jail" by The Clarendonians and, most famously, “Judge Dread” by Prince Buster. Crying was a theme in some rocksteady songs, such as Alton and the Flames' "Cry Tough", which urged Jamaicans in the ghettos to stay tough through the hard times; as a popular musical style, rocksteady was short-lived. In the middle to part of the decade, as ska began to fade in popularity and the optimism that accompanied Independence in 1962 dwindled, young people from the Jamaican countryside were flooding into the urban ghettos of Kingston—in neighborhoods such as Riverton City, Greenwich Town and Trenchtown.

Many of them became delinquents. These unruly youths became known as rude boys. Alton Ellis is sometimes said to be the father of rocksteady for his hit "Rocksteady", but other candidates for the first rocksteady single include "Take It Easy" by Hopeton Lewis, "Tougher Than Tough" by Derrick Morgan and "Hold Them" by Roy Shirley. In a Jamaican radio interview, pianist Gladstone Anderson said that bandleader Lynn Taitt made a suggestion to slow the music down whilst recording "Take It Easy". Taitt backed this up in a 2002 interview, stating: "I told'Gladdy to slow the tempo and that's how Take It Easy and rocksteady came about. Rocksteady is slow ska."The record producer Duke Reid released Alton Ellis' "Girl I've Got a Date" on his Treasure Isle label, as well as recordings by The Techniques, The Silvertones, The Jamaicans and The Paragons. Reid's work with these groups helped establish the vocal sound of rocksteady; some would consider the Rocksteady years to be Treasure Isle’s best. Rocksteady's dominance meant.

Notable solo artists include Ken Boothe and Phyllis Dillon. Other musicians who were crucial in creating rocksteady included keyboard player Jackie Mittoo, drummer Winston Grennan, bassist Jackie Jackson and saxophonist Tommy McCook; when ska band The Skatalites disbanded Tommy McCook went to work at the Treasure Isle label and Jackie Mittoo went to the Studio One label - these two artists/arrangers became instrumental in the way these two labels became dominant and helped to form the sound of Rocks

2001 Bangladesh post-election violence

2001 Bangladesh post-election violence were a series of violent incidents following the 2001 Bangladeshi general election. The religious minority, the Hindus, were victims of targeted violence by supporters of Bangladesh Nationalist Party. In the 2001 Bangladeshi general election the ruling Bangladesh Awami League led by Sheikh Hasina was defeated by the opposition party, Bangladesh Nationalist Party led by Khaleda Zia. Violence broke out between Bangladesh Awami League supporters and supporters of Bangladesh Nationalist Party with the support of Bangladesh Police; the violence occurred in South West Bangladesh which had large Hindu communities. The attacks started after the election victory of Bangladesh National Party; the attacks were systematic with a motive to destroy the economic resources of the Hindu community, terrorize them into fleeing to India, grabbing their properties. Hindus were targeted in Bagerhat District, Barisal District, Bhola District, Bogra District, Brahmanbaria District, Chittagong District, Feni District, Gazipur District, Jhenaidah District, Jessore District, Khulna District, Kushtia District, Munshiganj District, Natore District, Narayanganj District, Narsingdi District, Pirojpur District, Sirajganj District, Satkhira District, Tangail District.

In October 2001 in Lalmohan Upazila, Bhola District, Bangladesh Nationalist Party supporters attacked Hindus and Bangladesh Awami League supporters. They looted Hindu houses of Muslims who provided shelter to Hindus. Women and children were raped by the attackers; the attackers cut down trees on the victims properties. Mohammad Badrul Ahsan wrote in 16 November 2001 about 200 Hindu women were gang raped by members of Bangladesh Nationalist Party in Char Fasson Upazila, Bhola District; the youngest was 8 year old and the oldest was 70 year old. In Tuniaghara, Manirampur Upazila, Jessore District six Hindu families were forced to leave the area and two women were raped. Newspaper analysis blamed the violence on inadequate law enforcement activities, they blamed the unpreparedness of the local government and administration to tackle violence. In 2009, Bangladesh High Court ordered the a judicial investigation into the post election violence. In 2011 the judicial commission submitted the findings of its investigation.

The report found evidence of targeted violence against the Hindu community by 25 thousand people which included 25 Ministers and Member of Parliaments of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party-Jamaat-e-Islami led alliance government. The reported was rejected by Bangladesh Nationalist Party and accused the investigation of being partisan; the commission reported. The report notes incidents of violence, arson and torture against the minority Hindu community of Bangladesh. In 2011, a court in Sirajganj District sentenced 11 individuals to life time imprisonment for rape of school girl in the 2001 post election violence

Rowdy Inspector

Rowdy Inspector is a 1992 Telugu action film produced by T. Trivikrama Rao under the Vijayalakshmi Art Pictures banner, directed by B. Gopal, it stars Vijayashanti in the lead roles and music composed by Bappi Lahiri. The film was recorded as a Blockbuster at the box office; the film is set on a police backdrop. The film was dubbed in Tamil as Auto Rani. Inspector Ramaraju is a sincere police officer, that people call a Rowdy Inspector, his titular role. Auto Rani is an auto driver who helps him out with his missions, he arrests every goon. Bobarlanka Ramabrahmam is an underworld don. Home Minister Karanam Kaasiah and the S. P. are his supporters. Ramabrahmam tries to show Ramaraju. Ramabrahmam sends his goons who stab Ramaraju's grandmother as Ramaraju beats them up and luckily saves her with the help his younger brother Gandhi's college lecturer. After some time, Ramaraju arrests Ramabrahmam's brother Narasimham and Rakhi a local crook for killing a female constable Kanaka. Ramabrahmam sends his goons who free Rakhi.

When Ramaraju tries to shoot Rakhi, Rakhi makes him accidentally shoot a college lecturer who saved his grandmother as Rakhi manages to escape from him. The lecturer's family thinks of Ramaraju as a criminal. Ramaraju tries to think of him as their son, but the lecturer's mother Parvathamma kicks him out of their house. One day Ramabrahmam sends his goons to attack the lecturer's family and convince Gandhi to make Ramaraju get suspended from the police department. Ramaraju saves the family as the goons surrender and tells Gandhi that this was all a scheme to get Ramaraju suspended, not for the sadness of their lecturer's death. Parvathamma considers him as her son, he gets D. I. G. Jagannath Rao's son married to Parvathamma's daughter Girija. Meanwhile, Rakhi reveals where he is, but Ramabrahmam wants, worried that he could be danger. They kill an innocent man, not Rakhi. One day Ramaraju gets informed by L. K. Balu that Rakhi has been found and he just gave him a lift in his auto to his apartment. Ramaraju finds him.

When he's about to arrest him, S. P. shoots Rakhi to death. Ramaraju, fights with the S. P.. On, Ramabrahamam kills D. I. G. to tell in court. Home Minister and S. P. are witnesses and though they witnessed D. I. G.'s murder, they declare. Home Minister promotes S. P. as the new D. I. G, but no one follows his orders. Rani and Gandhi have all the evidence in proving that Ramabrahmam is guilty until Gandhi is kidnapped by Koti, a thug who works for Ramabrahmam. Rani saves Gandhi. Meanwhile in court, the Home Minister is forced by the other officers to admit that Ramabrahmam killed D. I. G. as he kills the Home Minister. Ramaraju and everyone else in court fights with Ramabrahmam and his men; the film ends with Ramaraju proving that Ramabrahmam is guilty and arrests him and his brother. Art: Bhaskara Raju Choreography: Siva-Subrahmanyam, Prabhu Fights: Raju Dialogues: Paruchuri Brothers Lyrics: Bhuvanachandra Playback: SP Balu, Chitra Music: Bappi Lahiri Story - Screenplay: A. Anjineeya Pushpanand Editing: Kotagiri Venkateswara Rao Cinematography: V. S. R. Swamy Producer: T. Trivikrama Rao Director: B.

Gopal Banner: Vijayalakshmi Art Pictures Release Date: 7th May 1992 Music composed by Bappi Lahiri. Lyrics written by Bhuvanachandra. All songs are blockbusters. Music released on Lahari Music Company

American Airlines Shuttle

American Airlines Shuttle is the brand name for American Airlines' hourly air shuttle service operating in the Northeastern United States. It serves Logan International Airport in Boston, LaGuardia Airport in New York City, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Washington, D. C. and O’Hare International Airport in Chicago. The brand was transferred to American Airlines after its final integration with US Airways was completed on October 17, 2015, it is the descendant of the original Eastern Air Lines Shuttle, which began operating in 1961, in subsequent iterations operated as Trump Shuttle, USAir Shuttle, US Airways Shuttle. American Airlines Shuttle offers hourly weekday flights between the four cities. There are slight schedule changes for weekend flights, with Saturday flights departing in the morning/afternoon and Sunday flights hourly or every other hour. Shuttle flights have dedicated check-in facilities and baggage carousels, workstations at gates in Boston, complimentary snacks and alcoholic beverages in all cabins, other services.

The American Airlines Shuttle utilizes its Airbus A319, Embraer 175, Embraer 190, Boeing 737 aircraft

Classless society

Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class. Such distinctions of wealth, education, culture, or social network might arise and would only be determined by individual experience and achievement in such a society. Helen Codere defines social class as a segment of the community, the members of which show a common social position in a hierarchical ranking. Codere suggest that a true class-organized society is one in which the hierarchy of prestige and status is divisible into groups each with its own social, economic and cultural characteristics and each having differential degrees of power in community decision. Since determination of life outcome by birth class has proved difficult to avoid, advocates of a classless society such as anarchists and libertarian socialists propose various means to achieve and maintain it and attach varying degrees of importance to it as an end in their overall programs/philosophy; the term classlessness has been used to describe different social phenomena.

In societies where classes have been abolished, it is the result of a voluntary decision by the membership to form such a society to abolish a pre-existing class structure in an existing society or to form a new one without any. This would include communes of the modern period such as various American utopian communities or the kibbutzim as well as revolutionary and political acts at the nation-state level such as the Paris Commune or the Russian Revolution; the abolition of social classes and the establishment of a classless society is the primary goal of anarchism and libertarian socialism. Classlessness refers to the state of mind required in order to operate as a social anthropologist. Anthropological training includes making assessments of and therefore becoming aware of one's own class assumptions so that these can be set aside from conclusions reached about other societies; this may be compared to the "neutral axiology" required by Max Weber. Otherwise conclusions reached about studied societies will be coloured by the anthropologist's own class values.

Classlessness can refer to a society that has acquired pervasive and substantial social justice where the economic upper class wields no special political power and poverty as experienced is nonexistent as it cannot be achieved. According to Ulrich Beck, classlessness is achieved with class struggle: "It is the collective success with class struggle which institutionalizes individualization and dissolves the culture of classes under conditions of radicalizing inequalities". Classlessness will exist when the inequalities and injustice out ranks societies idea of the need for social ranking and hierarchy; the state of social classes in society today is disputed. If the actual development is taken by the discussion Western society has moved past classes to a classless society; this is reinforced by the statement from Becker and Andreas Hadjar: "The weakening of class identities is postulated by Savage, who assumes that although individuals may still refer to social class, class position no longer generates a deep sense of identity and belonging".

Some say that society today has not abolished classes, but that distinctions can be only attributed to experience and success. Others maintain that the class system remains in place, e.g. by showing that children's success in education correlates with their parent's wealth, wealth being inherited. In Marxist theory, tribal hunter-gatherer society, primitive communism, was classless. Everyone was equal in a basic sense as a member of the tribe and the different functional assignments of the primitive mode of production, howsoever rigid and stratified they might be, did not and could not because of the numbers produce a class society as such. With the transition to agriculture, the possibility to make a surplus product, i.e. to produce more than what is necessary to satisfy one's immediate needs, developed in the course of development of the productive forces. According to Marxism, this made it possible for a class society to develop because the surplus product could be used to nourish a ruling class which did not participate in production.

Libertarian socialism called left-libertarianism, social anarchism, social libertarianism and socialist libertarianism, is a group of anti-authoritarian socialist political philosophies that rejects socialism as the centralised state ownership and control of the economy, which they regard as state capitalism. Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the government, justice, politics and the enforcement of a legal code by an authoritative body. According to Charles Larmore, the second approach sees political philosophy as the freedom to discipline one-self from the basic features of the human condition that make up the reality of political life. Libertarianism is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems.

Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Past and present political philosophies and movements described as libertarian socialist include anarchism as well as autonomism, commu

International Union of Game Biologists

The International Union of Game Biologists is a non-profit organisation with international membership. It has its legal domicile in Switzerland. Bylaws were signed in Moscow in 2009; the organization aims to promote the improvement of knowledge about game biology and related fields of study such as animal population management and habitat conservation. To reach this aim, a conference has taken place every two years since 1954; the first meeting took place at the International Exhibition of Hunting and Game Fishing in Düsseldorf under the supervision of Fritz Nüsslein on October 16 and 17, 1954, at the suggestion of Harry Frank. A free association called. A second 1955 meeting was held in Graz congresses every second year. At the suggestion of H. M. Thamdrup it was supervised by a committee by the presidents of the old and planned congress; the proceedings of the first and the second meeting were published in the Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft and led to the creation of that journal, which became the European Journal of Wildlife Research.

Since Aarhus, 1957, the congress proceedings have been edited by the organiser of the meeting