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Plagioclase

Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series; this was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel in 1826. The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers, where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is identified by its polysynthetic crystal twinning or'record-groove' effect. Plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earth's crust, is an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is a major constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earth's moon. Analysis of thermal emission spectra from the surface of Mars suggests that plagioclase is the most abundant mineral in the crust of Mars.

The composition of a plagioclase feldspar is denoted by its overall fraction of anorthite or albite, determined by measuring the plagioclase crystal's refractive index in crushed grain mounts, or its extinction angle in thin section under a polarizing microscope. The extinction angle varies with the albite fraction. There are several named plagioclase feldspars that fall between anorthite in the series; the following table shows their compositions in terms of constituent anorthite and albite percentages. Anorthite was named by Gustav Rose in 1823 from the Ancient Greek meaning oblique, referring to its triclinic crystallization. Anorthite is a comparatively rare mineral but occurs in the basic plutonic rocks of some orogenic calc-alkaline suites. Albite is named from the Latin albus, in reference to its unusually pure white color, it is a common and important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types and in pegmatite dikes as the variety Cleavelandite with rarer minerals like tourmaline and beryl.

The intermediate members of the plagioclase group are similar to each other and cannot be distinguished except by their optical properties. The specific gravity in each member increases 0.02 per 10% increase in anorthite. Bytownite, named after the former name for Ottawa, Canada, is a rare mineral found in more basic rocks. Labradorite is the characteristic feldspar of the more basic rock types such as diorite, andesite, or basalt and is associated with one of the pyroxenes or amphiboles. Labradorite shows an iridescent display of colors due to light refracting within the lamellae of the crystal, it is named after Labrador, where it is a constituent of the intrusive igneous rock anorthosite, composed entirely of plagioclase. A variety of labradorite known as spectrolite is found in Finland. Andesine is a characteristic mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica and related volcanics such as andesite. Oligoclase is common in granite, syenite and gneiss, it is a frequent associate of orthoclase.

The name oligoclase is derived from the Greek for little and fracture, in reference to the fact that its cleavage angle differs from 90°. Sunstone is oligoclase with flakes of hematite. Hypersolvus List of minerals Subsolvus

Nine sorceresses

The nine sorceresses or nine sisters are a recurring element in Arthurian legend in variants of the popular nine maidens theme from world mythologies. Their most important appearances are in Geoffrey of Monmouth's introduction of Avalon and the character that would become Morgan le Fay, as the central motif of Peredur's story in the Peredur son of Efrawg part of the Mabinogion. In Preiddeu Annwfn, the nine virgin priestesses of the otherworldy island of Annwfn guard a magic cauldron, their magic abilities seem to include fire-breathing. A raid by Arthur and his warband either steals or destroys the cauldron, but what happens to the maidens of Annwfn is not mentioned; the motif of nine supernatural women appears in some other tales of the Celtic Otherworld derived from sisterhoods of priestesses of the old Celtic Religion. The nine witches of Ystawingun are mentioned in a single line of the poem Pa Gur yv y Porthaur, where the feat of slaying them in this highland is listed among the greatest achievements of Cai.

Ystawingun is unidentified but might be associated with Stanton Moor and its stone circle known as "Nine Ladies" or with Porthsgiwed. According to John and Caitlin Matthews, the women whose killing Cai is credited with in Pa Gur are in fact the same as the pagan priestesses from Preiddeu Annwfn. Scholars like Norris J. Lacy and John T. Koch make an additional connection to the nine witch sisters and their mother in the 7th-century Breton lai Vita Prima Samsonis, her description resembles that of the Irish goddess Mórrígan. In this work, Saint Samson of Dol encounters just one of the sisters, a wild-looking wicked witch calling herself Theomacha, as she was flying through a forest on the island of Loire and attacking one of his young deacons. Samson calls for her to repent and convert, but she refuses and tells him she wishes to do nothing but evil as she did her whole life. After that Theomacha attempts to flee, but Samson commands her to stay in place, rendering her utterly immobile in the air, offers her last final chance but she proves to be beyond salvation.

Samson proceeds to pray for such utterly irredeemable woman's destruction. Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12-century Vita Merlini introduces the magical island of Avalon, the paradisal "Isle of Apples", as ruled by the nine benevolent enchantress-sisters, known as great healers and capable of shape-shifting and other magic: Morgen, Mazoe, Glitonea, Gliton and either Thiten and Thiton or two sisters both named Thitis of whom one of them distinguished as "best known for her cither"; the sisters receive the dying Arthur from Taliesin, delivered to them in a hope. Their beautiful and powerful queen, would evolve into Morgan le Fay, Arthur's own sister in Arthurian tradition, who herself takes the dying Arthur to Avalon; the other eight sisters appear only in this text and never return in any known works by other medieval authors. It is possible that the author was inspired, besides the stories such as Preiddeu Annwfn, by an ancient Roman description of the island Sein off the coast of Brittany, depicted by the 1st century geographer Pomponius Mela as being ruled by nine virgin priestesses wielding incredible magic powers.

Other possible connections involve the Greek mythology figures of Circe and the nine muses. Geoffrey's Avalon is connected to Annwn; the nine make their final written appearance in the Peredur son of Efrawg part of the Mabinogion, wherein Peredur faces many opponents throughout the course of the story. However, his real enemies are revealed as the Gwiddonod Caerloyw - the malignant Nine Witches of Caer Lloyw known as the Nine Sorceresses of Gloucester. Here they are fearsome mistresses of warfare and magic who terrorize Britain and whose evil deeds are responsible for ravaging his uncle's kingdom, it is a variant of an Arthurian Grail tale in which, instead of questing for the Grail, the hero takes part in ridding the land of the plague of evil witches that must be destroyed. The witches, a group of black-clad "maiden-hags" enter the story as Peredur's opponents-turned-benefactors giving him the same powers as they have when he spends time in their home, but the central theme is his eventual unenthusiastic revenge on them for having harmed his relatives.

Peredur himself vanquishes only the chief witch, only forced to do so after giving them three chances to yield, but this act breaks the magic of their spells and Arthur and his men slaughter the rest without mercy and with such swiftness that not a single one escapes alive. Early on during his adventures, Peredur comes upon a mountain castle, the lady of which tells him how the surrounding lands have been conquered and laid to waste by the terrifying nine sorceresses, with powers too great for anyone to stop them, that one is coming to take the castle the next morning, but Peredur offers to help, at dawn he fiercely attacks and subdues the arriving enchantress with a blow that shatters her helmet. He stops when she begs forgiveness.

Nuytsland Nature Reserve

Nuytsland Nature Reserve is a protected area of Western Australia in the far south-eastern part of the state, on the south coast. Nominally located at 32° 18' S 125° 52' E, it has an area of 6,253.44 km², takes in over 500 kilometres of coastline from Cape Pasley to Red Rocks Point. It was gazetted in 1969. Significant features include the Eyre Bird Observatory, it lies within the Nuyts cadastral division of the state. The reserve has been surveyed for the western ground parrot. Terrestrial Protected Areas of WA Nuytsland Nature Reserve at the Gazetteer of Australia online

The Road to Mecca (play)

The Road to Mecca is a play by South African playwright Athol Fugard. It was inspired by the story of Helen Martins, who lived in Nieu-Bethesda, Eastern Cape, South Africa and created The Owl House, now a National heritage site. Miss Helen, a senior South African widow, has been working on an overgrown sculpture garden, a dream trip to "Mecca". Pastor Marius urges Helen to move to a senior home. However, Elsa, a Cape Town schoolteacher, arrives to encourage Helen in her art; the Road to Mecca was presented at the Yale Repertory Theatre, New Haven, Connecticut, in May 1984. Directed by Fugard, the cast starred Carmen Mathews, Marianne Owen, Tom Aldredge; the play was performed at the National Theatre Littleton Theatre in London in February to July 1985. It was presented at the Spoleto Festival USA in May 1987, starring Athol Fugard as the Rev. Marius Byleveld, Charlotte Cornwell as Elsa Barlow, Yvonne Bryceland as Miss Helen. Cornwell and Bryceland were in the National Theatre production. Fugard had written the part of Helen for Yvonne Bryceland.

When he and the Lincoln Center Theater Company were in talks in 1985 to have the play produced there, Bryceland was not permitted to perform the role in the United States by Actors Equity. The issue began in early 1984, when Fugard and Lloyd Richards, the artistic director of the Yale Repertory Theater, asked for permission for her to perform in the Yale Rep production, she was subsequently allowed to perform at the Spoletto Festival. The union permitted Bryceland to perform in the United States; the play premiered Off-Broadway at the Promenade Theatre on 12 April 1988 and closed on 11 September 1988 after 172 performances. Directed by Fugard, he starred as Marius Byleveld. John Lee Beatty was the Set Designer, Susan Hilferty, Costume Designer and Dennis Parichy, Lighting Designer; the play won the 1988 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Foreign Play and the 1987-1988 Obie Awards for Outstanding Performances, Yvonne Bryceland. The Road to Mecca premiered on Broadway at Roundabout Theatre Company's American Airlines Theatre on 16 December 2011 and closed on 4 March 2012.

The cast starred Jim Dale and Carla Gugino, directed by Gordon Edelstein. The 1991 film adaptation of The Road to Mecca, written by Peter Goldsmid, who co-directed it with Fugard, starred Fugard as the Rev. Marius Byleveld, Kathy Bates as Elsa Barlow, Yvonne Bryceland as Miss Helen. "The Best of the Decade". Time. 1 Jan. 1990. Accessed 2 Oct. 2008. Fugard, Athol; the Road to Mecca: A Play in Two Acts. London: Faber and Faber, 1985. ISBN 0-571-13691-5; the Road to Mecca on IMDb

Nick Leyva

Nicholas Tomas Leyva is an American former professional baseball player and manager. After his retirement as a Minor League Baseball player, most of Leyva’s baseball career was spent as a coach, his Major League Baseball coaching stops included the St. Louis Cardinals, Toronto Blue Jays, Milwaukee Brewers, Pittsburgh Pirates. Leyva was the manager of the Philadelphia Phillies from 1989 though early 1991. Born in Ontario, Leyva, of Mexican-American descent, attended the University of LaVerne, was selected by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 24th round of the 1975 Major League Baseball Draft, he was an infielder who threw and batted right-handed, stood 5 feet 11 inches tall and weighed 165 pounds. In three seasons in the Cardinals' farm system, he appeared in 253 games played and batted.267 with 208 hits, eight home runs and 109 runs batted in. As a major league manager & coach, Leyva has worn #16 with every team he's been with, except for his 1st year in Toronto in 1993 where he wore #45 before switching back to his familiar #16 in 1994.

Leyva began his managing career at age 24 with the Rookie-level Johnson City Cardinals of the Appalachian League in 1978. By 1983, he was manager of the parent Cardinals' Double-A farm team, the Arkansas Travelers of the Texas League. Leyva served on the big-league coaching staff of Whitey Herzog's Cardinals for five seasons, 1984–1988, he was the first base coach for the National League champion 1985 Cardinals and third base coach for the NL champion 1987 Cardinals. In 1989, Leyva was hired as manager of the Phillies by his former farm director in St. Louis, Lee Thomas. Leyva's inaugural Philadelphia team won only 67 of 162 games, finished last in the National League East Division. In 1990, his team won ten more games and finished fourth, but still played eight games below the.500 mark. When the 1991 Phils dropped nine of their first 13 games, Leyva was ousted on April 23, his career totals as a Major League manager were 189 defeats. After managing the Toronto Blue Jays' Triple-A farm team, the Syracuse Chiefs, Leyva spent 4½ seasons as the third-base coach of the Blue Jays—his first term in the job.

He worked at multiple levels of the Chicago White Sox farm system before spending one season as third-base coach of the Milwaukee Brewers in 2007. Leyva was listed as the 2008 manager of the Kingsport Mets of the Appalachian League, a rookie-level affiliate of the New York Mets, before the Blue Jays rehired him as their third base coach on June 20, 2008, when Cito Gaston replaced John Gibbons as the club's manager. On October 30, 2009, Leyva was reassigned as the Blue Jays' bench coach, with Brian Butterfield taking over as third base coach for the team. On November 8, 2010, former Seattle Mariners manager Don Wakamatsu was named Toronto's bench coach, ending Leyva's tenure at that post. On November 24, 2011, Leyva was named the Pittsburgh Pirates' third base coach, under new manager Clint Hurdle. On November 5, 2014, the Pirates announced that Leyva would be moved to first base coach and Rick Sofield would move from first base to third base. On October 22, 2016, the Pirates announced that Leyva was reassigned within the organization to an advisory position and would no longer coach.

Nick Leyva he had experience as manager in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League with the Cardenales de Lara team, in the 1995-1996 season, who took the final of that season against the Navegantes del Magallanes, losing that final 4 games for 3, for the 2000-2001 season, he redirected the Larenses, leading them to obtain his fourth championship in the professional ball of Venezuela, defeating the team that defeated him 4 years before in 6 games and taking revenge for that defeat. Seven years he returned to Venezuela to direct the Navegantes del Magallanes in the 2008-2009 season, but was dismissed because of the negative record he had for that moment Leyva's younger brother, Al, is an assistant coach with the Willmar Stingers of the Northwoods League. List of St. Louis Cardinals coaches Bucek, Jeanine, ed. dir. The Baseball Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan Books, 1996. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Nick Leyva managerial career statistics at Baseball-Reference.com Nick Leyva at Baseball Gauge