Robert Sheaffer is an American freelance writer and UFO skeptic. He is a paranormal investigator of unidentified flying objects, having researched many sightings and written critiques of the hypothesis that UFOs are alien spacecraft. In addition to UFOs, his writings cover topics such as Christianity, academic feminism, the scientific theory of evolution, creationism, he is the author of six books. Sheaffer wrote for Skeptical Inquirer, 1977– 2017. Fate Magazine, Spaceflight, he was a founding member of the UFO Subcommittee of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, is a fellow of that organization. He is a member of Mensa. Sheaffer has been quoted in the news media regarding UFOs and psychic predictions. On July 7, 2010 a flight crew preparing to land in Hangzhou's Xiaoshan Airport in China reported an UFO; as a precaution 18 flights were "delayed or redirected". Sheaffer's article in Skeptical Inquirer magazine's November/December 2010 issue is a discussion of how photographs and videos are used. "Reporters want an exciting story, UFOlogists want to win converts.
They will grab onto any photo or video, supposed to represent the object and report as fact any claim, made regardless of its source or veracity." In the case of the Xiaoshan Airport, most of the footage shown was taken a year previous to the July 2010 incident. Ufologist Kevin D. Randle was interviewed by Sheaffer for Skeptical Inquirer magazine's January/February 2011 issue: looking to "explore their points of agreement and disagreement, finding that Randle gives more weight to'eyewitness testimony' than skeptics do." Interviewed by the Toronto Sun newspaper December 20, 2010, Sheaffer is asked by columnist Thane Burnett to debate UFO enthusiast Chris Rutkowski to "debate the known realities". When asked "Is it reasonable to conclude a UFO – something, beyond our comprehension and understanding – has crashed on Earth?" Sheaffer replies "No, because no one has produced any proof of any extraterrestrial technology being retrieved, despite many claims. Talk is cheap, show us the evidence."On the August 4, 2012 episode of the Skeptic Zone podcast, Sheaffer was interviewed by Richard Saunders.
When asked about the UFO phenomenon, Sheaffer said, "The Fortean researcher Hilary Evans has said that the UFO mythos looked at in its fullness is the richest set of contemporary myth when you consider all that has come from it.... The Men in Black, saucer crashes, aliens, alien abductions, alien hybrids, it just goes on and on from there. It's not just something narrow like Bigfoot.... UFOs have evolved into this enormous richness as a social phenomenon." He discussed the fallacy of the trained observer. "Pilots make poor observers, when they're hit with some surprise, unusual stimulus. Their thought is not,'Gee let me analyze what that thing is.' Their thought is,'I'm going to collide with that thing, I'd better go into a bank,' etc." On January 10, 2014, a series called. The episode recounted a UFO incident that happened at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana on March 24, 1967; as Sheaffer summarizes it on his blog, "A bright, glowing orange UFO is seen over the base by security men, the Oscar Flight missiles were said to start going off-line, one by one."
Sheaffer's investigation concluded that what the base security men saw was the planet Mars. "Whenever witnesses report a bright object in the sky, red or orange, the first thing to check is whether Mars might have been the culprit.... Mars was only about 3 weeks away from its opposition of April 15, 1967, when it would be directly opposite the sun, at its maximum brightness." As for the base's missiles going off-line, Sheaffer could find no evidence or paper trail to support that, only the claim of Air Force Lieutenant Robert Salas. Noted UFO researcher Robert Hastings responded to Sheaffer's investigation by dismissing the possibility that the glowing object was Mars. Former SAC missile crew commander Tim Hebert goes further than Sheaffer, stating on his blog "At this point in time there is no supporting documentation or statements from security personnel corroborating the claims for what, if anything, was observed out in the field."Called the "world's top expert on the subject of unidentified flying objects and claims of extraterrestrials" by paranormal investigator Ben Radford in a review of Sheaffer's book Bad UFOs: Critical Thinking About UFO Claims.
Radford states that Sheaffer has "encyclopedic knowledge" on "diverse topics" and uses it in the book. The book is ten chapters long and 300 pages, he covers'"classic"' as well as "high profiles reports and sightings decades old". Radford writes that when a UFO claim has been debunked and they update their writings or "admit their mistakes... Sheaffer performs a huge... public service... keeping his audience current on old and new claims". In an interview by Karen Stollznow on Point of Inquiry for May 16, 2011, Sheaffer was asked, "Have any conspiracy theories turned out to be correct, or is a'true conspiracy theory' something else?" He replied, "Conspiracies occur all the time. Organized crime is a conspiracy... There was a conspiracy to kill President Lincoln.... Real conspiracies do exist but not grand conspiracies The Masons are planning this, or there's always some shadowy group that you can't point to or say who's involved." Sheaffer is skeptical of global climate change, writing in 2008 that, "when a prominent theory is opposed by scientists of the caliber of
Cave of Swallows
The Cave of Swallows called the Cave of the Swallows, is an open air pit cave in the Municipality of Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The elliptical mouth, on a slope of karst, is 49 by 62 m wide and is undercut around all of its perimeter, widening to a room 303 by 135 meters wide; the floor of the cave is a 333-meter freefall drop from the lowest side of the opening, with a 370-meter drop from the highest side, making it the largest known cave shaft in the world, the second deepest pit in Mexico and the 11th deepest in the world. The cave has been known to the local Huastec people since ancient times; the first documented descent was on 27 December 1966 by T. R. Evans, Charles Borland and Randy Sterns; the cave is formed in limestones of Middle Cretaceous age. The cave's speleogenesis is still not known but is a result of solutional enlargement along a vertical fracture, with subsequent vadose enlargement; the cave's Spanish name Sótano de las Golondrinas means Basement of the Swallows, owing to the many birds which live in holes on the cave walls.
These are white-collared swifts and green parakeets, but actual swallows are in fact found here. Each morning, flocks of birds exit the cave by flying in concentric circles, gaining height until they reach the entrance. In the evenings a large flock of swifts circles the mouth of the cave and about once each minute, a group of fifty breaks off and heads straight down towards the opening; when they cross the edge, the birds pull in their wings and free-fall, extending their wings and pulling out of the dive when they reach the heights of their nests. Watching this has become popular with tourists. Temperatures in the cave are low. Vegetation grows thickly at the mouth, The cave floor is covered with a thick layer of debris and guano. From the floor at the bottom of the shaft there is a series of narrow pits known as The Crevice, totaling about 140 m, which brings the total depth of the cave to 515 m; the cave is a popular vertical caving destination. Cavers anchor their ropes on the low side, where bolts have been installed in the rock and the area is clear of obstructions.
Rappelling to the floor can take up to an hour. Climbing back out may take from forty minutes to more than two hours. A person without a parachute would take ten seconds to freefall from the mouth to the floor, hence the pit is popular with extreme sports enthusiasts for BASE jumping. An average-sized hot air balloon has been navigated through the 160-foot wide opening and landed on the floor below. BASE jumpers can get out in about 10 minutes using a winch.. Cenote, the term for similar caves found in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico List of caves List of sinkholes of Mexico
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, urban legends and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes. Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles, published during the late Ming dynasty, is said to be China's first collection of stories about fraud, swindles and other forms of deception. Although practical jokes have existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in Western history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661; the communication of hoaxes can be accomplished in any manner that a fictional story can be communicated: in person, via word of mouth, via words printed on paper, so on. As the technology of communication has advanced, the speed at which hoaxes spread has advanced: a rumor about a ghostly drummer, spread by word of mouth, will impact a small area at first grow gradually. However, hoaxes could be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped.
The invention of the printing press in the 15th century brought down the cost of a mass-produced books and pamphlets, the rotary printing press of the 19th century reduced the price further. During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites; the English philologist Robert Nares says that the word hoax was coined in the late 18th century as a contraction of the verb hocus, which means "to cheat," "to impose upon" or "to befuddle with drugged liquor." Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus, whose origin is disputed. Robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning "to cheat," dating from Thomas Ady's 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft; the term hoax is used in reference to urban legends and rumors, but the folklorist Jan Harold Brunvand argues that most of them lack evidence of deliberate creations of falsehood and are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes, so the term should be used for only those with a probable conscious attempt to deceive.
As for the related terms practical joke and prank, Brunvand states that although there are instances where they overlap, hoax tends to indicate "relatively complex and large-scale fabrications" and includes deceptions that go beyond the playful and "cause material loss or harm to the victim."According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not clear. Alex Boese, the creator of the Museum of Hoaxes, states that the only distinction between them is the reaction of the public, because a fraud can be classified as a hoax when its method of acquiring financial gain creates a broad public impact or captures the imagination of the masses. One of the earliest recorded media hoaxes is a fake almanac published by Jonathan Swift under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff in 1708.
Swift predicted the death of John Partridge, one of the leading astrologers in England at that time, in the almanac and issued an elegy on the day Partridge was supposed to have died. Partridge's reputation was damaged as a result and his astrological almanac was not published for the next six years, it is possible to perpetrate a hoax by making only true statements using unfamiliar wording or context, such as in the Dihydrogen monoxide hoax. Political hoaxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to ridicule or besmirch opposing politicians or political institutions before elections. A hoax differs from a magic trick or from fiction in that the audience is unaware of being deceived, whereas in watching a magician perform an illusion the audience expects to be tricked. A hoax is intended as a practical joke or to cause embarrassment, or to provoke social or political change by raising people's awareness of something, it can emerge from a marketing or advertising purpose. For example, to market a romantic comedy movie, a director staged a phony "incident" during a supposed wedding, which showed a bride and preacher getting knocked into a pool by a clumsy fall from a best man.
A resulting video clip of Chloe and Keith's Wedding was uploaded to YouTube and was viewed by over 30 million people and the couple was interviewed by numerous talk shows. Viewers were deluded into thinking that it was an authentic clip of a real accident at a real wedding. Governments sometimes spread false information to facilitate their objectives, such as going to war; these come under the heading of black propaganda. There is a mixture of outright hoax and suppression and management of information to give the desired impression. In wartime and times of international tension rumors abound, some of which may be deliberate hoaxes. Examples of politics-related hoaxes: Belgium is a country with a Flemish-speaking region and a French-speaking region. In 2006 French-speaking television channel RTBF interrupted programming with a spoof report claiming that the country had split in two and the royal family had fled. On Saturday 13 March 2010 the Imedi television station in Georgia broadcast a f
Stone Ocean is the sixth story arc of the Japanese manga series JoJo's Bizarre Adventure and illustrated by Hirohiko Araki. It was published in Weekly Shōnen Jump from January 1, 2000 to April 21, 2003 and was collected into 17 tankōbon volumes. In its original publication, it was known as JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Part 6 Jolyne Cujoh: Stone Ocean, it was followed by Steel Ball Run. Set near Port St. Lucie, the story follows Jotaro Kujo's daughter, Jolyne Cujoh, framed for a murder and ends up in Green Dolphin Street Jail. However, an amulet from her father allows her to unlock her Stand. Jotaro soon comes to visit her and informs her that a disciple of DIO's framed her so that he could kill her in prison, urges her to escape; this plan goes awry when a Stand named Whitesnake uses its power to remove Jotaro's Stand and memories, in the form of discs. Jotaro sinks into a deathlike state, Jolyne must somehow find a way to recover the discs from Whitesnake's user, the mysterious prison chaplain Enrico Pucci.
Along the way, she picks up allies such as Emporio Alniño, a boy whose late mother gave birth to him in prison, Hermes Costello, an inmate searching for her sister's killer, the convicted murderer, Narciso Anasui, who soon falls into unrequited love for Jolyne. Most notable of her allies is Weather Report, an amnesiac like Jotaro since Pucci stole his memories, though he retains his weather-controlling Stand. Pucci idolized DIO sometime before the events of Part 3 occurred. While in DIO's company, DIO spoke of "Heaven" and how to create a "perfect world" when certain conditions were met. Pucci, keeping DIO to his word, proceeds with his plan to realize this "perfect world", which involves absorbing the remnants of DIO's bones and arriving at a predestined place on the night of the new moon. Jolyne and Emporio escape from prison on their hunt for Pucci while Anasui and Weather Report escape in pursuit of Jolyne, she succeeds in sending both of Jotaro's discs to the Speedwagon Foundation and the "resurrection" of Jotaro goes underway.
During a battle with an enemy Stand user, Weather's memory disc is returned to him, after which he remembers that Pucci is in fact his long-lost brother. With his memories returned, Weather unleashes his Stand's true powers on the world and faces Pucci in combat. Weather Report is killed, Pucci continues on to Cape Canaveral in time for the new moon. Jolyne and company catch up to Pucci but all seems lost when they are faced by the next evolution of his Stand, C-Moon, their lives are saved when a revived Jotaro arrives, but Pucci is able to achieve his goal as C-Moon evolves once more into its final form: Made in Heaven. Using Made in Heaven, Pucci speeds up time itself, proceeds to kill Jolyne, Jotaro and Hermes in front of Emporio; the final effects of Made in Heaven are completed when time accelerates to the end of the universe, leading to a new cycle of time and a parallel universe in its place, where all surviving humans have precognitive understanding of fated actions in their lives. Pucci, who believed that such knowledge of one's fate would bring all people happiness, proceeds to hunt down Emporio to ensure that the future does not change.
As he is about to kill Emporio, he inadvertently helps Emporio insert Weather Report's Stand Disc, which he had been carrying since Weather's death. Using Weather Report's Stand, Emporio suffocates Pucci to death. Within the new parallel universe, Emporio meets a young woman who looks identical to Hermes, a couple in a car who look similar to Jolyne and Anasui introduce themselves as Irene and Anakis, they offer the new Hermes a ride as they head to see Irene's father. Irene pushes Anakis to pick up another hitchhiker who bears a striking resemblance to Weather Report as they drive off in the rain. Jolyne Cujoh is an inmate at Green Dolphin Street Jail, is the daughter of the Stardust Crusaders character Jotaro Kujo, her Stand is Stone Free. Hermes Costello is an inmate who got her sentence on purpose, intending to get revenge on her sister's killer, Sports Maxx, she uses the Stand Kiss, which allows her to place stickers on objects that duplicate the objects until the sticker is removed, at which point the duplicate and the original will violently fuse together, leaving the object damaged.
Foo Fighters, shortened to F. F. is a sapient being consisting of plankton, is its own Stand. Emporio Alniño is a boy born to an unknown inmate in Green Dolphin Street Jail, his Stand, Burning Down the House, manifests in the form of a ghost room that he secretly lives in, together with Weather Report and Narciso Anasui. Weather Report is an amnesic inmate, his Stand named Weather Report, allows him to manipulate the weather and the atmosphere. Narciso Anasui is an inmate, in love with Jolyne, wishes to marry her, he uses the Stand Diver Down, which allows him to phase himself or his Stand into objects, or into others' bodies to absorb damage dealt to them. Enrico Pucci is a priest at Green Dolphin Street Jail who uses the Stand Whitesnake, which allows him to extract people's memories and Stands in the form of compact disks. Whitesnake evolves into C-Moon, giving Pucci the ability to reverse the gravity of the area around him, as well as the gravity of anything the Stand touches. After evolving once more, C-Moon changes into Made in Heaven, gaining the power to speed up time until reaching a new parallel universe.
Pucci seeks to continue his plans by rewriting reality into Dio's image. K
Unidentified flying object
An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term "UFO" was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects". During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use.
UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons. Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe; the acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO for short." Other phrases that were used and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", "unidentifiable object". The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947.
On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. "Anomalous aerial vehicle" or "unidentified aerial system" are sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes. Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the mid-20th century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies. The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. branded as Wiley in recent years, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, educational materials for undergraduate and continuing education students. Founded in 1807, Wiley is known for publishing the For Dummies book series. In 2017, the company had a revenue of $1.7 billion. Wiley was established in 1807; the company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal and other non-fiction titles. Wiley worked in partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, George Long, George Palmer Putnam, Robert Halsted; the firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley shifted its focus to scientific and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests. Charles Wiley's son John took over the business when his father died in 1826.
The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co. Wiley & Putnam, John Wiley; the company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business. Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, higher education. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize in 1901, Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel Laureates, in every category in which the prize is awarded. One of the world's oldest independent publishing companies, Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007 with a year-long celebration, hosting festivities that spanned four continents and ten countries and included such highlights as ringing the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange on May 1. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's pivotal role in the evolution of publishing against a social and economic backdrop.
Wiley has created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes. In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai; the company has had an office in Beijing, since 2001, China is now its sixth-largest market for STEM content. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006, has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia and Egypt. On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, effective May 1, 2012. Wiley's scientific and medical business was expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007; the combined business, named Scientific, Technical and Scholarly, publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, major reference works and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences and allied health, the humanities, the social sciences.
Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies. Other major journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, International Finance and Liver Transplantation. Launched commercially in 1999, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, major reference works, books, including backfile content. Journals from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. On February 17, 2012, Wiley announced the acquisition of Inscape Holdings Inc. which provides DISC assessments and training for interpersonal business skills. Wiley described the acquisition as complementary to the workplace learning products published under its Pfeiffer imprint, one that would help Wiley advance its digital delivery strategy and extend its global reach through Inscape's international distributor network.
On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel, general interest, nautical and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research and professional practices, on lifelong learning through digital technology". On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc. On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks and study guides. In 2013, Wiley sold its pets and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books. H
Tonghua is an industrial city in the south of Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It borders North Korea's Chagang Province to the south and southeast, Baishan to the east, Jilin City to the north, Liaoyuan to the northwest, Liaoning province to the west and southwest. Administratively, it is a prefecture-level city with a total population of 2,325,242 living in an area of 15,195 square kilometres. Urban population is 506,877, it is known as one of the five medicine production centres in China. Human settlement in the Tonghua area dates from about 6000 years ago. In the Western Han Dynasty, Tonghua belonged to the Liaodong Fourth Commandery. Tonghua was the birthplace of Goguryeo shaman culture. Goguryeo culture originated form Jian in 425 A. D, and the Goguryeo noble tombs were the only independent declarations in the Northeast of Tonghua. Under the Japanese occupation of Manchuria after 1932, a railway was constructed linking Tonghua with the main Manchurian rail network and with northern Korea.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Yang Jingyu led the First Army of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army to battle the Imperial Japanese Army, was killed in battle. In August 1945 Tonghua served as the temporary capital of Manchukuo, where Puyi claimed to abdicate at the behest of the Kwantung Army. In 1985, Tonghua became a prefecture-level city under the approval of the State Council; the city has a recent record of extreme violence including the Shosankoku incident in 1945, the Tonghua Incident in 1946 and the Tonghua Iron and Steel Group riot in 2009. Tonghua has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate, with long cold, but dry winters and hot, humid summers; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −14.2 °C in January to 22.3 °C in July. During the warmer months, rainfall is enhanced by the mountainous topography, allowing for a generous annual precipitation total of 870 millimetres. However, the monsoon still means that more than 60% of the annual precipitation falls from June to August alone.
Traditionally, Tonghua occupied a railhub position in a region of China noted for trade in only three agricultural commodities. These were marten furs and deer antler products. In the 1980s Tonghua had some success with a wine distillery producing sweet, sticky red wines that proved popular with local consumers. From 1987 onwards a bienniel wine festival was inaugurated, but this and the industry it promoted failed commercially owing to competition with joint-venture wine companies such as Dragon, who were able to produce a product, marketable overseas. Following this failure, Tonghua industry was thrown back on its traditional agricultural products - and a few small but viable factories, including one specialising in artificial furs. A fledgling tourist trade sought to highlight Tonghua attractions such as some impressive ski slopes, the tomb of the local hero General Yang and the beautiful Changbai Shan Nature Reserve for which Tonghua serves as a connecting railway station from the major population centres to the north and west.
Tonghua's population hovers around 300,000, but census information is difficult to assess as it includes demographic information from other towns nearby. The inclusion of these suburbs and surrounding towns swells Tonghua's official population beyond the 300,000-mark. Poor, backward and, at local level, conservatively led, Tonghua was late in benefiting from the economic reforms of national leaders such as Zhao Ziyang. Although the railway provided useful direct links to major cities such as Shenyang and Changchun, few signs of progress could be seen on Tonghua's dirty streets until the mid-1990s, when plans were approved for a plethora of building projects which transformed the city; these have helped fuel a resurgence in Tonghua's commercial strength. Now, significant improvements can be seen and the city is dotted with shops and shopping centers all around. Erdaojiang District has a number of steelworks, tens of thousands of steelworkers are employed locally. In July 2009, workers at Tonghua Iron and Steel Group rioted at news of a takeover deal by owned Jianlong Steel, the general manager of the firm was beaten to death.
The unrest involved 30,000 workers, with up to 100 injured in clashes with police. The takeover was promptly scrapped; the city of Tonghua has become a hub for a range of Chinese pharmaceutical firms, including domestic insulin producer Tonghua Dongbao Pharmaceuticals Ltd. These companies are spread among the various "Industrial parks" found throughout the city, with 46 projects located in these parks in 2012 alone. Investment in Tonghua's pharmaceutical industry is on the increase, with 27 of these projects worth over 100 million Yuan. Other pharmaceutical producers in the area include Jingma and Wantong Pharmaceuticals. Railways from Shenyang to Jilin and Meihekou to Ji'an meets in Tonghua. Trains from Tonghua Railway Station connect the city with Beijing, Shenyang and several other major cities in China. Tonghua is served by G11 Hegang-Dalian Expressway; the Yang Jingyu Martyrs Cemetery is located on the hills adjoining the Tongjiang River in Tonghua and was built to commemorate Second Sino-Japanese War war hero, Yang Jingyu.
It was built in July 1954 and completed in September 1957. The cemetery covers an area of 20,000 m2. There are five buildings in the park, which are classical glazed tile buildin