The Pittsburgh Steelers are a professional American football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Steelers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's American Football Conference North division. Founded in 1933, the Steelers are the oldest franchise in the AFC. In contrast with their status as perennial also-rans in the pre-merger NFL, where they were the oldest team never to win a league championship, the Steelers of the post-merger era are one of the most successful NFL franchises. Pittsburgh is tied with the New England Patriots for the most Super Bowl titles, has both played in and hosted more conference championship games than any other NFL team; the Steelers have won 8 AFC championships, tied with the Denver Broncos, but behind the Patriots' record 11 AFC championships. The Steelers share the record for second most Super Bowl appearances with the Broncos, Dallas Cowboys; the Steelers lost their most recent championship appearance, Super Bowl XLV, on February 6, 2011.
The Steelers, whose history traces to a regional pro team, established in the early 1920s, joined the NFL as the Pittsburgh Pirates on July 8, 1933, owned by Art Rooney and taking its original name from the baseball team of the same name, as was common practice for NFL teams at the time. To distinguish them from the baseball team, local media took to calling the football team the Rooneymen, an unofficial nickname which persisted for decades after the team adopted its current nickname; the ownership of the Steelers has remained within the Rooney family since its founding. Art's son, Dan Rooney owned the team from 1988 until his death in 2017. Much control of the franchise has been given to Dan's son Art Rooney II; the Steelers enjoy a widespread fanbase nicknamed Steeler Nation. The Steelers play their home games at Heinz Field on Pittsburgh's North Side in the North Shore neighborhood, which hosts the University of Pittsburgh Panthers. Built in 2001, the stadium replaced Three Rivers Stadium.
Prior to Three Rivers, the Steelers had played their games in Forbes Field. The Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL first took to the field as the Pittsburgh Pirates on September 20, 1933, losing 23–2 to the New York Giants. Through the 1930s, the Pirates never finished higher than second place in their division, or with a record better than.500. Pittsburgh did make history in 1938 by signing Byron White, a future Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, to what was at the time the biggest contract in NFL history, but he played only one year with the Pirates before signing with the Detroit Lions. Prior to the 1940 season, the Pirates renamed themselves the Steelers. During World War II, the Steelers experienced player shortages, they twice merged with other NFL franchises to field a team. During the 1943 season, they merged with the Philadelphia Eagles forming the "Phil-Pitt Eagles" and were known as the "Steagles"; this team went 5–4–1. In 1944, they were known as Card-Pitt; this team finished 0–10, marking the only winless team in franchise history.
The Steelers made the playoffs for the first time in 1947, tying for first place in the division at 8–4 with the Philadelphia Eagles. This forced a tie-breaking playoff game at Forbes Field, which the Steelers lost 21–0; that would be Pittsburgh's only playoff game for the next 25 years. In 1970, the year they moved into Three Rivers Stadium and the year of the AFL–NFL merger, the Pittsburgh Steelers were one of three old-guard NFL teams to switch to the newly formed American Football Conference, in order to equalize the number of teams in the two conferences of the newly merged league; the Steelers received a $3 million relocation fee, a windfall for them. The Steelers' history of bad luck changed with the hiring of coach Chuck Noll for the 1969 season. Noll's most remarkable talent was in his draft selections, taking Hall of Famers "Mean" Joe Greene in 1969, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount in 1970, Jack Ham in 1971, Franco Harris in 1972, in 1974, pulling off the incredible feat of selecting four Hall of Famers in one draft year, Lynn Swann, Jack Lambert, John Stallworth, Mike Webster.
The Pittsburgh Steelers' 1974 draft was their best ever. The players drafted in the early 1970s formed the base of an NFL dynasty, making the playoffs in eight seasons and becoming the only team in NFL history to win four Super Bowls in six years, as well as the first to win more than two, they enjoyed a regular season streak of 49 consecutive wins against teams that would finish with a losing record that year. The Steelers suffered a rash of injuries in the 1980 season and missed the playoffs with a 9–7 record; the 1981 season was no better, with an 8–8 showing. The team was hit with the retirements of all their key players from the Super Bowl years. "Mean" Joe Greene retired after the 1981 season, Lynn Swann and Jack Ham after 1982's playoff berth, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount after 1983's divisional championship, Jack Lambert after 1984's AFC Championship Game appearance. After those retirements, the franchise skidded to its first losing seasons since 1971. Though still competitive, the Steelers would not finish above.500 in 1985, 1986, 1988.
In 1987, the year
2001 NCAA Division I-A football season
The 2001 NCAA Division I-A football season ended with the University of Miami winning the national title for the fifth time. The Hurricanes were led by Larry Coker, in his first year as head coach after five years as Miami's offensive coordinator under Butch Davis and became the first head coach since 1989's Dennis Erickson from the University of Miami to win a national title in his first season. Coker had the benefit of inheriting a star-studded program that Davis had rebuilt in the aftermath of NCAA sanctions in the mid-to-late'90s. Miami completed a perfect 12–0 season, which culminated in a 37–14 win over Nebraska in the Rose Bowl BCS National Championship Game. In yet another controversial season for the BCS, #4 Nebraska was chosen as the national title opponent despite not having played in the Big 12 championship game; the Huskers went into their last scheduled game at Colorado undefeated, but left Boulder having lost the game by a score of 62–36. The Buffaloes went on to win the Big 12 championship game.
The BCS computers, among other things, didn't weigh games any more than earlier games, one-loss Nebraska came out ahead of two-loss #3 Colorado and one-loss, #2 Oregon. Some fans chanted "number 4" at the title game held at the Rose Bowl. Florida State did not win the ACC championship for the first time since joining the conference in 1991, losing out to Maryland. Steve Spurrier left the Florida Gators at the end of the season to coach the Washington Redskins, accepting what was the largest salary for an NFL head coach; the season had one of the more competitive Heisman Trophy races with Eric Crouch of Nebraska winning by only a small margin over Rex Grossman of Florida. All of the five finalists played the quarterback position. Two of the finalists were coached at some point by Oregon offensive coordinator Jeff Tedford. Indiana quarterback Antwaan Randle El earned first-team All-America honors from the FWAA after becoming the first NCAA Division I-A quarterback to throw for 40 touchdowns and rush for 40 touchdowns in a career.
He became the first player in NCAA I-A history to record 2,500 total yards from scrimmage in four consecutive seasons. The newly formed Boise State/Fresno State rivalry would be a major factor in the race to be the "BCS buster" for several seasons; the Aloha Bowl and Oahu Bowl lost funding after Chrysler Corporation, which owned the former bowl's sponsor of Jeep, was acquired by Daimler-Benz and became DaimlerChrysler. The Aloha Bowl became the Seattle Bowl; the New Orleans Bowl began play. The final 3 weeks of the regular season saw an incredible amount of drama as several teams were in prime position to earn their way to the Rose Bowl to play Miami. On November 23, the day after Thanksgiving, Nebraska was the number one team in the BCS heading to Boulder to play the Colorado Buffaloes. After a devastating 62–36 loss, they were unable to win their division and their season seemed to fall by the wayside, allowing the Florida Gators the inside track to meet Miami if they were able to win out; this gave the Oklahoma Sooners the opportunity to earn their way to the National Championship if Florida was to stumble against either Tennessee or in the SEC Championship game.
Those hopes would soon dissolve the day after Nebraska's loss as the Sooners were upset at home by Oklahoma State 16–13, ending their title hopes and knocking them out of the Big 12 Championship game as well. Florida had an inside track to the National Championship game until the following week in their matchup with Tennessee, losing that game 34–32 in Gainesville; the loss not only ended their dreams of a trip to the Rose Bowl, but ended their shot at going to Atlanta for the SEC title game. Tennessee stepped into the number 2 spot the following week going into the SEC Championship against LSU, but was upset by the Tigers 31–20, their hopes of National Championship appearance were gone as as they had come; that evening, Texas entered the Big 12 Championship game against Colorado in prime time television knowing that a win would seal their spot in the Rose Bowl as the number 2 team in the BCS. They, were upset by the Buffaloes, feeling the same sting that Florida, Tennessee and Nebraska had felt the previous few weeks.
Miami was left at the top of all the polls, the debate began about who deserved to play in the Rose Bowl. Many felt Colorado was the hottest team in the country after dismantling Nebraska and beating the Longhorns in the Big 12 title game, but their 2 losses at the beginning of the year were tough to ignore. Others felt Oregon deserved the honor, being ranked in some polls as the number 2 team in the country. After all of the upsets, Nebraska ended up as the number 2 team in the BCS, despite being the team to start all of the drama 3 weeks earlier; the NCAA Rules Committee adopted the following rules changes for the 2001 season: Charged team time-outs are reduced to 30 seconds if the team taking the time-out requests it. Otherwise, team time-outs are 90 seconds in length. Eliminated TV/Radio time-outs during overtime periods. All penalties committed by the offense behind the neutral zone are enforced from the previous spot repealing the 1991 rule that enforced offensive holding and illegal use of hands occurring behind the line from the spot of the foul.
Stopping the clock once a runner's helmet comes off. Runners are exempt from being called for hurdling. Roughing the passer penalties committed during a two-point conversion will be assessed on the ensuing kickoff or, if committed during overtime, on the succeeding spot. Guidelines for officials on lightning-related game issues are included in the rulebook. One team upgraded from Div
Perry Traditional Academy
Perry Traditional Academy known as Pittsburgh Perry High School, is a high school in the Perry North neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Perry is one of ten high schools in the Pittsburgh Public Schools. During desegregation in 1974, it was a center for racial tensions; the City of Pittsburgh neighborhoods which are served by Perry Traditional Academy High School are as follows: Allegheny Center, Allegheny West, Brighton Heights, California-Kirkbride, Central Northside, East Allegheny, Manchester, Marshall-Shadeland, North Shore, Northview Heights, Perry South, Spring Hill-City View, Spring Garden, Summer Hill and Troy Hill. As of October 1, 2017: The school's mascot is the Commodore and is named after Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry A mural depicting The Commodore faces the school on the old Rich Bedding Building, it was commissioned by business owner Bill Schmidt, painted by The MLK Project and designed by Perry Alumni Bill Gandy & Kimberley Robinson-Gandy. Perry consists of grades 9-12.
The school has 3 academic sections: CAS, PSP, mainstream. The Centers for Advanced Studies Program: A CAS program for gifted students is provided at each of the Pittsburgh Public high schools; the CAS programs provide individualization, full-time curricula, research-based instruction, critical thinking, independent study, teacher mentors. In addition, field trips are organized by a CAS facilitator in each school and a planned Gifted Individualised Education Program is implemented for each student. Students are scheduled into specific CAS classes based on their present levels of educational performance and the need for designed instruction; the school district authorises a CAS seal on student diplomas for all students who have completed a minimum of eight CAS classes and three Long Term Projects while enrolled in grades 9 through 12. PSP stands for Pittsburgh Scholars Program; the students must be recommended by middle schools. In order to stay in the PSP classes, students must maintain a C average in PSP classes.
Perry participates in many mandatory standardized tests, the most important of, the PSSA, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. It is given annually to juniors. In 2007, Perry had 45% proficient or advanced in reading, 74% in writing, 44% in math. Results by subdivisions:Percentages are percent of group who scored above the proficient level Reading Female:51% Male:39% Black:38% White:54% All Students:45% Writing Female:79% Male:68% Black: 75% White:74% All Students:74% Math Female:45% Male:44% Black: 35% White:54% All Students:44% In 2009, Perry had 39% proficient or advanced in reading, 9% in science, 66% in writing, 34% in math. Results by subdivisions:Percentages are percent of group who scored above the proficient level Reading Female:39% Male:39% Black:25% White:63% All Students:39% Science Female:8% Male:12% Black:2% White:22% All Students:9% Writing Female:68% Male:64% Black: 64% White:74% All Students:66% Math Female:37% Male:32% Black: 27% White:47% All Students:34% Our Perry High Dear Alma Mater Thou Keep Watchful Eye Atop The Summit's Brow Thou Shalt To Us A Firm Foundation Be Guide, Counsel'r, Friend Throughout Eternity And As The Years Go Swiftly Gliding By Still Thou Shalt to Be Our Own Dear Perry High Chorus: All Hail To Perry, We'll Honor And Praise Thee' To Alma Mater We'll Ever Be True All Hail To Perry, We'll Honor And Praise Thee' We'll Love Forever The White And Blue Men's Athletic Director: Mr. Mark Ward Women's Athletic Director: Ms. Dana Knapp Men: Cross Country, Football Women: Cross Country, Tennis, Volleyball Men: Basketball, Wrestling Women: Basketball, Swimming Men: Track and Field, Baseball, Tennis Women: Track and Field, Softball Robert Zadrowski All State, Pole Vaulting, Class of 1969Premier Student of all time to make All City and All StateTwo concurinng Years 1968-1969 to date 2013 The marching band is one of Perry's finest groups.
The change began in the 1984/85 with Co-Major Mark Briggs. With the blessing of director Mr. Charles Sperry, they converted the band from Traditional to Black College style. In August, the band attends Band Camp at California University of Pennsylvania for one week, they perform a half-time show. In 2007, the band participated in the Inner-City Battle of the Bands, they placed a 12 points behind Carrick High School. The band is directed by Mr. Richard Lane; the dance and drill teams are under the direction of Mrs. Thornhill. Perry has many clubs, both social. Think-a-Thon: The Think-a-Thon takes place once a year in March at John A. Brashear High School; the nine city schools, as well as many middle and high schools come together to compete in three categories: a prepared art project, a prepared play, multiple team activities. Math League: The Math League is a team that meets every other month and completes a math worksheet, their top average scores are evaluated against other high schools in Allegheny County.
In 2006, Perry placed first in Allgheny County. National Honor Society: The National Honor Society and National Junior Honor Society are the nation's premier organizations established to recognize outstanding high school and middle level students. More than just an honor roll, NHS and NJHS serve to honor those students who have demonstrated excellence in the areas of Scholarship, Leadership and Character; these characteristics have been associated with membership in the organization since their beginnings in 1921 and 1929. Today, it is estimated that more than one million students partic
Oregon State Beavers
The Oregon State Beavers are the athletic teams that represent Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. The Beavers compete at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level as a member of the Pac-12 Conference. Oregon State's mascot is Benny the Beaver. Both the men's and women's teams share the name, competing in 7 NCAA Division I men's sports and 10 NCAA Division I women's sports respectively; the primary rivals of the Beavers are the Oregon Ducks of the University of Oregon, located 45 miles south of the Oregon State campus in Eugene, Oregon. The football rivalry between the Beavers and Ducks, known as the Civil War, is one of the longest-running in the country, having been contested 121 times as of the end of the 2017 season. Other regional rivals include the Washington Huskies and Washington State Cougars; as of June 2018, the Beavers have won one pre-NCAA team national championship and four NCAA team national championships. The 1926 wrestling team won the Amateur Athletic Association national championship, the 1961 men's Cross-country team won the NCAA title, most the baseball team won the 2006, 2007 College World Series and 2018 College World Series.
Other notable performances include a second-place finish in the 1973 and 1995 NCAA wrestling finals, two Final Four appearances by the men's basketball team, one Final Four appearance by the women's basketball team, the football team defeating Notre Dame by a 32-point margin in the 2001 Fiesta Bowl, seven appearances in the College World Series by the baseball program, several individual NCAA championship titles in gymnastics and track & field. Oregon State has four NCAA championships: three in baseball, one in men's cross country; the school dropped its cross country and track programs in 1988 due to budget cuts, though women's track and cross country were reinstated in 2005. Periodically, some men continue to compete individually in an unattached status; the Oregon State University baseball program was established in 1907. It has since seen dozens of players go on to play in the minor leagues and more than 20 go on to play in the majors. Most notable of these major league players are New York Yankees outfielder Jacoby Ellsbury and Los Angeles Dodgers second baseman Darwin Barney The baseball team has won its conference championship 26 times and has reached the College World Series seven times, first in 1952 and as as 2018.
They won the NCAA championship in 2006, 2007, 2018. The team is led by head coach Pat Casey and they play at Goss Stadium at Coleman Field; the men's basketball team at Oregon State experienced periods of significant success from the early 1920s to the early 1990s—with 12 conference championships, 16 NCAA Tournament appearances, only 14 losing seasons from 1922 to 1991—but fell on hard times, suffering 19 losing seasons and made no NCAA Tournament appearances from 1992 to 2015 before returning in 2016. The program has reached the Final Four of the NCAA Tournament twice, the Elite Eight on six occasions, 17 total tournament appearances. A number of former OSU players have gone on to have successful careers in the NBA, including 9-time NBA All-Star Gary Payton and "Iron Man" A. C. Green. OSU alumni have won a total of 10 NBA championship rings and four Olympic gold medals; the team has defeated rival Oregon more times than any other team has beaten an opponent in a collegiate sport, with 186 victories over the Ducks as of the end of the 2016–17 season.
The basketball program has been eclipsed in recent times by the relative success of the OSU football and baseball programs, the latter of which has won two national championships. Wayne Tinkle was hired as head coach prior to the 2014–15 season, his first team produced the program's second winning record in the last nine seasons and he led the school to their first NCAA Tournament appearance since 1990 in 2016. Jonathan Smith is the current head coach, replacing Gary Andersen, who left the school after six games in 2017; the football program has been a part of Oregon State University since 1893, working as a platform for over a hundred players to enter the NFL, such as Heisman Trophy winner Terry Baker and current Atlanta Falcons running backs Steven Jackson and Jacquizz Rodgers, current Los Angeles Rams punter Johnny Hekker, Cincinnati Bengals wide receivers Chad Ochocinco and T. J. Houshmandzadeh, New Orleans Saints wide receiver Brandin Cooks, Buffalo Bills linebacker Nick Barnett, Carolina Panthers quarterback Derek Anderson, Kansas City Chiefs safety Sabby Piscitelli, Tampa Bay Buccaneers wide receiver Sammie Stroughter, Miami Dolphins quarterback Matt Moore, New England Patriots cornerback Brandon Browner.
They have won their conference championship five times. Oregon State men's soccer team's coach is Steve Simmons the head coach at Northern Illinois University; the golf teams practice and compete at Oregon State's own Trysting Tree Golf Club, a nationally recognized course that has held numerous tournaments. Oregon State has long been a powerhouse for men's rowing, providing 13 different athletes to the highest levels of rowing in the U. S, and over the past five years, a pair of former Beavers have represented America and the Oregon State rowing program well. Most these athletes include Josh Inman, Joey Hansen and Chris Callaghan. Throughout its history, rowing at Oregon State has been led by visionary coaching. Ed Stevens, a former Harvard coach, took over the reins from Mechanical Engineering Professor J. P. Othis. Stevens guided the program from 1931 to 1949 and during this time the program gained recognition and respect as a competitive crew. Karl Drlica
Pittsburgh Panthers football
The Pittsburgh Panthers football program is the intercollegiate football team of the University of Pittsburgh referred to as "Pitt", located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Traditionally the most popular sport at the university, Pitt football has played at the highest level of American college football competition, now termed the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, since the beginning of the school's sponsorship of the sport in 1890; as of the 2013 season, Pitt competes as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Pitt has claimed nine national championships and is among the top 20 college football programs in terms of all-time wins, its teams have featured many coaches and players notable throughout the history of college football, among all schools, the fifth most College Football Hall of Fame inductees, the twelfth most consensus All-Americans, the third most Pro Football Hall of Fame inductees. The Panthers are coached by Pat Narduzzi. Pitt plays home games at Heinz Field which they share with the National Football League Pittsburgh Steelers and utilize the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sports Performance Complex as their practice facility.
Football at the University of Pittsburgh began in the fall of 1889 when the school was still known as the Western University of Pennsylvania referred to as WUP, was located in what was known as Allegheny City and is today the city of Pittsburgh's North Side. A 130-pound WUP student, Bert Smyers, along with senior student John Scott, assembled a football team that year composed of only three players who had witnessed the sport; the team played in one informal game, a loss against Shady Side Academy, in which Smyers made himself quarterback and Scott played center. In preparation for the following year, the first season of football recognized by the university and his teammates took up a collection and purchased a football for practices and games. In Smyers' case, his uniform was pieced together by his sister; the first official game for the university was played on October 11, 1890, when the Allegheny Athletic Association's opponent, Shadyside Academy, failed to appear for its game at Exposition Park.
Allegheny A. A. called Smyers. In an inglorious start to Pitt football history, WUP was defeated 38–0. Smyers' team next faced Washington and Jefferson College, losing 32–0, but closed out its inaugural three game season with the university's first win, a 10–4 victory over Geneva College; the following season saw. Smyers suffered a broken nose in a 40–6 loss to Washington and Jefferson, a school that would become one of WUP's fiercest early rivals; the WUP team did record the school's first shutout with a 6–0 win over Geneva, as well as the school's first blowout in a 54–0 win over Western Pennsylvania Medical College who became affiliated with WUP in 1892 and became the university's medical school when they merged in 1908. The most important development for the second season of football was Smyers recruitment of Joseph Trees from Normal University of Pennsylvania; the 210 pound Trees became WUP's first subsidized athlete and in life, made millions in the oil industry and became an important benefactor for the university and athletic department.
Today, Trees Hall, an athletic facility on the University of Pittsburgh's main campus in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh, bears his name. The first winning record for the university came in the third season of competition in 1892, when the team posted a 4–2 record; the following season in 1893, the team had its first official coach, Anson F. Harrold, who led the team to an unremarkable 1–4 record. However, during that season the first contest was played in what would become a 96-game series versus Penn State, thus originating one of the longest and fiercest rivalries for both schools. In 1895, the school suffered a 1–6 season under coach J. P. Linn; the 1895 season was notable for the first Backyard Brawl on October 26, 1895, with WUP losing to West Virginia 8–0 in Wheeling, West Virginia. The university did not see another winning season until Fred Robinson led WUP to a 5–2–1 record in 1898. In 1899, Robinson continued his success with a 3–1–1 record, giving the school its first back-to-back winning seasons.
This was followed by two more consecutive winning seasons, including a record seven-win season in 1901 under coach Wilbur Hockensmith. That season, Hockensmith led the school to its first victory over West Virginia, a 12–0 shutout in Morgantown on October 5, 1901. In the early years of the 20th century, interest in college football grew both in Pittsburgh and throughout the nation. In 1903, Arthur St. Leger "Texas" Mosse was hired away from the University of Kansas, brought several of his players with him. Other players were recruited from surrounding Western Pennsylvania colleges, including star half back Joseph H. Thompson; the 1903 season, the first under Mosse, was the university's first winless season at 0–9–1. In one of the greatest turnarounds in college football history, Mosse led WUP to an undefeated 10–0 season, the school's first, in 1904; the 1904 team surrendered only one touchdown on the way to collectively outscoring opponents 406–5. That season saw the school's first victory over Penn State, a 22–5 rout, as well as a 53–0 shutout of West Virginia.
The success of this period can be attributed to actions taken by the university's administration, led by newly installed chancellor Samuel McCormick who took special interest in athletics at the university. Encouraged by university trustee George Hubberd Clapp, the administration more engaged in supporting the athletic program dur
A freshman, first year, or frosh, is a person in the first year at an educational institution a secondary or post-secondary school. In much of the Arab world, a first-year is called a "Mubtadi", Arabic for "begin". In Brazil, students that pass the vestibulares and begin studying in a college or university are called "calouros" or more informally "bixos", an alternate spelling of "bicho", which means "animal". Calouros are subject to hazing, known as "trote" there; the first known hazing episode in Brazil happened 1831 at the Law School of Olinda and resulted in the death of a student. In 1999, a Chinese Brazilian calouro of the University of São Paulo Medicine School named Edison Tsung Chi Hsueh was found dead at the institution's swimming pool. In Scotland, the first year of compulsory education is Primary 1; the first year of secondary school is known as S1 but one can use first year. At the four ancient Scottish universities the traditional names for the four years at university are Bejan, Semi and Magistrand, though all Scottish universities will have a "freshers' week" and the term is as used with more traditional terms.
Freshman is in use as a US English idiomatic term to describe a beginner or novice, someone, naive, a first effort, instance, or a student in the first year of study. New members of Congress in their first term are referred to as freshmen senators or freshmen congressmen or congresswomen, no matter how experienced they were in previous government positions. High school first year students are exclusively referred to as freshmen, or in some cases by their grade year, 9th graders. Second year students are sophomores, or 10th graders juniors or 11th graders, seniors or 12th graders. At college or university, freshman denotes students in their first year of study; the grade designations of high school are not used, but the terms sophomore and senior are kept at most schools. Some colleges, including women's colleges, do not use the term freshman but use first year, instead. Beyond the fourth year, students are classified as fifth year, sixth year, etc; some institutions use the term freshman for specific reporting purposes.
Freshman fifteen Sophomore Junior Senior
University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787 on the edge of the American frontier, it developed and was renamed as Western University of Pennsylvania by a change to its charter in 1819. After surviving two devastating fires and various relocations within the area, the school moved to its current location in the Oakland neighborhood of the city. Pitt was a private institution until 1966 when it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education; the university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and 28,766 undergraduate and professional students. The university includes four undergraduate schools located at campuses within Western Pennsylvania: Bradford, Greensburg and Titusville; the 132-acre Pittsburgh campus has multiple contributing historic buildings of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story Gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning.
The campus is situated adjacent to the flagship medical facilities of its affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, as well as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Schenley Park, Carnegie Mellon University. The university has an annual operating budget of $2 billion; this includes nearly $940 million in research and development expenditures as of 2017, the 16th-highest in the nation. A member of the Association of American Universities, Pitt is the third-largest recipient of federally sponsored health research funding among U. S. universities in 2018 and it is a major recipient of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. It is the second-largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh region behind UPMC. Pitt is ranked among the top research universities in the United States in both domestic and international rankings and it has been listed as a "best value" in higher education by several publications. Pitt students have access to arts programs throughout the campus and city and can participate in over 400 student clubs and organizations.
Pitt's varsity athletic teams, collectively known as the Pittsburgh Panthers, compete in Division I of the NCAA as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh is one of the few universities and colleges established in the 18th century in the United States, it is the oldest continuously chartered institution of learning in the U. S. west of the Allegheny Mountains. The school began as a preparatory school in a log cabin as early as 1770 in Western Pennsylvania a frontier. Brackenridge obtained a charter for the school from the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on February 28, 1787, just ten weeks before the opening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. A brick building was erected in 1790 on the south side of Third Street and Cherry Alley for the Pittsburgh Academy; the small two-story brick building, with a gable facing the alley, contained three rooms: one below and two above.
Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status. The school was named the Western University of Pennsylvania, or WUP, was intended to be the western sister institution to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. By 1830, WUP had moved into a new three-story, freestone-fronted building, with Ionic columns and a cupola, near its original buildings fronting the south side of Third Street, between Smithfield Street and Cherry Alley in downtown Pittsburgh. By the 1830s, the university faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training; the decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly killed the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state. It was during this era that the founder of Mellon Bank, Thomas Mellon and taught at WUP.
The university's buildings, along with most of its records and files, were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1845 that wiped out 20 square blocks of Pittsburgh. Classes were temporarily held in Trinity Church until a new building was constructed on Duquesne Way. Only four years in 1849, this building was destroyed by fire. Due to the catastrophic nature of these fires, operations were suspended for a few years to allow the university time to regroup and rebuild. By 1854, WUP had erected a new building on the corner of Ross and Diamond streets and classes resumed in 1855, it is during this era, in 1867, that Samuel Pierpont Langley, inventor, aviation pioneer and future Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was chosen as director of the Allegheny Observatory, donated to WUP in 1865. Langley was professor of astronomy and physics and remained at WUP until 1891, when he was succeeded by another prominent astronomer, James Keeler. Growing during this period, WUP outgrew its downtown facilities and the university moved its campus to Allegheny City.
The university found itself on a 10-acre site on the North Side's Observatory Hill at the location of its Allegheny Observatory. There, it constructed two new buildings, Science Hall and Main Hall, that were occupied by 1889 and 1890 respectively. During this era, the first