Nathaniel Peabody Rogers
Nathaniel Peabody Rogers was an American abolitionist writer who, from June 1838 until June 1846, served as editor of the New England anti-slavery newspaper Herald of Freedom. A native of the New Hampshire town of Plymouth, Nathaniel Peabody Rogers was the fifth child of Harvard-educated physician and poet, John Rogers, his wife, Betsy Mulliken. Young Nathaniel entered Dartmouth College in 1811 but, within a few months, suffered severe internal damage while participating in a game of football, was forced to withdraw for a year of recuperation, with the injuries continuing as a source of pain for the remainder of his life contributing to his death at age 52. Returning to Dartmouth, he graduated in 1816, studied law with Salisbury attorney and future Massachusetts congressman Richard Fletcher until 1819, was admitted to the New Hampshire Bar that year. In 1838, giving up a lucrative 19-year legal practice in his native Plymouth and moving to Concord, he became editor of the abolitionist newspaper Herald of Freedom, to which he had been contributing articles since its 1835 founding by the New Hampshire Anti-Slavery Society.
His editorial writings, noted for an impulsive and witty, sometimes sarcastic, style as well as for poetic descriptions of nature, were reprinted in New York Tribune and other anti-slavery newspapers, under pen name "The Old Man of the Mountain". In 1840, he represented New Hampshire abolitionists in London at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, but he withdrew in protest when the Convention refused to seat American women delegates, he did however appear in the painting. Returning to America and finding himself praised for supporting equality of the sexes, as well as equality of color, he received offers to head major newspapers and became known as a public speaker on issues of temperance, women's rights and the abolition of slavery, in the process becoming the subject of Henry David Thoreau's 1844 Dial essay, "Herald of Freedom", which Thoreau revised for its 1846 republication in memoriam of Rogers. Four months before his death, sensing failing health, Rogers wrote to his old friend, the poet John Greenleaf Whittier, "I am striving to get me an asylum of a farm.
I have every one of them with a whole spirit. I don't want to be separated from any of them, only with a view to come together again. I have a beautiful little retreat in prospect, forty odd miles north, where I imagine I can get potatoes and repose,—a sort of haven or port. I am among the breakers, and'mad for land.' If I get this home,—it is a mile or two in among the hills from the pretty domicil once visited by yourself and glorious Thompson,—I am this moment indulging the fancy that I may see you at it before we die." Whittier published a posthumous profile of his anti-slavery compatriot as a chapter in the 1850 literary collection, Old Portraits and Modern Sketches. Rogers, N. P.. A Collection from the Newspaper Writings of Nathaniel Peabody Rogers. Concord, N. H.: John R. French Pillsbury, Parker. "Nathaniel Peabody Rogers", Granite Monthly, vol. 4, no.7. Bell, Charles H.. The Bench and Bar of New Hampshire Stearns, Ezra S.. History of Plymouth, New Hampshire
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district is located in western and central Massachusetts. The largest Massachusetts district in area, it covers about one-third of the state and is more rural than the rest, it has Mount Greylock. The district includes the cities of Springfield, West Springfield, Pittsfield and Westfield; the shape of the district underwent some changes effective from the elections of 2012, after Massachusetts congressional redistricting to reflect the 2010 census. The entire Springfield area is included in the new 1st district, the Worcester County areas of the old 1st district were split between the new 2nd and 3rd districts. Richard Neal, a Democrat from Springfield, represents the district. All of Berkshire County, all of Hampden County, the following towns and cities: In Franklin County: Ashfield, Buckland, Colrain, Hawley, Leyden, Monroe and Shelburne. In Hampshire County: Chesterfield, Easthampton, Granby, Middlefield, South Hadley, Westhampton and Worthington. In Worcester County: Brookfield, Dudley, East Brookfield, Southbridge and Warren.
Massachusetts's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. "CNN.com Election 2004". Retrieved March 15, 2019 – via CNN.com. "CNN.com - Elections 2006". CNN.com. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Massachusetts Congressional Districts". Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth. January 1, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present". Retrieved March 15, 2019
Zeno Scudder was the son of Deacon Josiah and Hannah Scudder. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, he was born in Osterville, Massachusetts on August 18, 1807. He wanted to follow the sea, he studied medicine at Bowdoin College but his lameness hindered his practice so he decided to take up law at the Cambridge Law School. He was conducted a lucrative practice in Barnstable, Massachusetts. Scudder was a member of the Massachusetts Senate 1846–1848 and served as Senate President. Scudder was elected as a Whig to the Thirty-third Congresses, his special interest while in Congress was American Fisheries. He served from March 4, 1851, until his resignation on March 4, 1854, because of a broken leg suffered in a fall, the effects of which he never recovered. Scudder died in Barnstable, Massachusetts on June 26, 1857 and was interred in Hillside Cemetery, Osterville. United States Congress. "Zeno Scudder". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Zeno Scudder at Find a Grave Soper Edwin L. Scudder Association, John Scudder, index 01, p. 166 Zeno Scudder
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe. Douglass wrote several autobiographies, he described his experiences as a slave in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a bestseller, was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War.
Douglass actively supported women's suffrage, held several public offices. Without his approval, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee of Victoria Woodhull, on the Equal Rights Party ticket. Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American, or recent immigrant, he was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, in the liberal values of the U. S. Constitution; when radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass' willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, Maryland. The plantation was between Cordova; the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14.
In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it."Douglass was of mixed race, which included Native American and African on his mother's side, as well as European. His father was "almost white," as shown by historian David W. Blight in his 2018 biography of Douglass, he said his mother. After escaping to the North years he took the surname Douglass, having dropped his two middle names, he wrote of his earliest times with his mother: The opinion was... whispered that my master was my father. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant... It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a early age.... I do not recollect seeing my mother by the light of day.... She would lie down with me, get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After this early separation from his mother, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey.
At the age of six, he was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. Douglass's mother died. After Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore, he felt himself lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were freemen, compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about twelve, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another". Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, by observing the writings of the men with whom he worked.
Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself how to write. He often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom." As Douglass began to read newspapers, political materials, books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator, an anthology that he discovered at about age twelve, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights; the book, first published in 1797, is a classroom reader, containing essays and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly Sunday school; as word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went unnoticed. While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated.
One Sunday they burst i
1848 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1848 was the 16th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1848. In the aftermath of the Mexican–American War, General Zachary Taylor of the Whig Party defeated Senator Lewis Cass of the Democratic Party; the contest was the first presidential election that took place on the same day in every state, it was the first time that Election Day was statutorily a Tuesday. Despite Taylor's unclear political affiliations and beliefs, the Whig opposition to the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Whig National Convention nominated the popular general over party stalwarts such as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. For vice president, the Whigs nominated Millard Fillmore, a New York Whig known for his moderate views on slavery. Incumbent President James K. Polk, a Democrat, honored his promise not to seek re-election, leaving his party's nomination open; the 1848 Democratic National Convention rejected former President Martin Van Buren's bid for a second term, instead nominating Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan.
Van Buren broke from his party to lead the ticket of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the extension of slavery into the territories. The Whig choice of Zachary Taylor was made out of desperation; the Democrats had a record of prosperity and had acquired the Mexican cession and parts of Oregon country. It appeared certain that they would win unless the Whigs picked Taylor. Taylor won a plurality of the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote, while Van Buren won 10.1% of the popular vote, a strong showing for a third party candidate. Taylor's victory made him the second of two Whigs to win a presidential election, following William Henry Harrison's victory in the 1840 presidential election. Like Harrison, Taylor died during his term, he was succeeded by Fillmore. Discounting Republican Abraham Lincoln's 1864 re-election on the National Union ticket, Taylor is the most recent individual, not a member of the Democratic or Republican parties to win a presidential election. Mexican–American War General Zachary Taylor of Kentucky, an attractive candidate because of his successes on the battlefield, but who had never voted in an election himself, was courted by both the Democratic and Whig parties.
Taylor declared himself a Whig, took their nomination, receiving 171 delegate votes to defeat Henry Clay, Winfield Scott, Daniel Webster and others. After Webster turned down the vice-presidential candidacy, Millard Fillmore received the party's nomination for vice-president, defeating—among others—Abbott Lawrence, a Massachusetts politician whose mild opposition to slavery led him to be dubbed a "Cotton Whig". Former President Martin Van Buren once again sought the Democratic nomination, but Lewis Cass was nominated on the fourth ballot. Cass had served as Governor and Senator for Michigan, as well as Secretary of War under Andrew Jackson, from 1836 to 1842 as ambassador to France. General William O. Butler was nominated to join Cass on the ticket, garnering 169 delegate votes to defeat five other candidates, including future Vice-President William R. King and future Confederate President Jefferson Davis; the Democrats chose a platform that remained silent on slavery, with Cass suspected of pro-slavery leanings, many anti-slavery Democrats walked out of the Baltimore convention to begin the Free Soil Party.
Van Buren had burned for the nomination. Neither his name nor his stand received any support at the Democratic convention; the Free Soil Party was organized for the 1848 election to oppose further expansion of slavery into the western territories. Much of its support came from disaffected anti-slavery Barnburner Democrats and Conscience Whigs, including former President Martin Van Buren; the party was led by Salmon P. Chase and John Parker Hale and held its 1848 convention in Utica and Buffalo, New York. On June 22, Van Buren defeated Hale by a 154-129 delegate count to capture the Free Soil nomination, while Charles Francis Adams, whose father and grandfather had both served as president, was chosen as the vice-presidential nominee. Van Buren knew that the Free Soilers had not the slightest chance of winning, rather that his candidacy would split the Democratic vote and throw the election to the Whigs. Bitter and aging, Van Buren did not care despite the fact that his life had been built upon the rock of party solidarity and party regularity.
He loathed the principle of popular sovereignty with equal intensity. Despite their significant showing in the prior presidential election, certain events would conspire to remove the Liberty Party from political significance; the nomination was to be decided in the fall of 1847 at a Convention in Buffalo, New York. There, Senator John P. Hale was nominated over Gerrit Smith, brother-in-law to the party's previous nominee James G. Birney. Leicester King, a former judge and state senator in Ohio, was nominated to be Hale's running mate. Anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs, disappointed with their respective nominees, would form a new movement in conjunction with members of the Liberty Party such as John Hale and Salmon Chase to form the Free Soil Party that summer. At this point, both Hale and King withdrew in favor of a Free Soil ticket led by former President Martin Van Buren, the great majority of members of the Liberty Party followed them into the new political party. A small faction refused to support Van Buren for the presidency, however.
They held another convention in June 1848 as the "National Liberty Party." Gerrit Smith was nominated unanimously with Charles Foote, a religious minister from Michigan, as his ru
The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Senate comprises 40 elected members from 40 single-member senatorial districts in the state. All but one of the districts are named for the counties. Senators serve two-year terms, without term limits; the Senate convenes in Boston. The current session is the 191st General Court, which convened January 2, 2019, it consists of 6 Republicans. The President of the Senate is Karen E. Spilka of Ashland; the Senate Minority Leader, from the Republican Party, is Bruce Tarr of Gloucester. The last state general election was on November 6, 2018. Democrats hold a supermajority in the Senate; the current standing committees of the Massachusetts Senate are as follows: Current members of the Senate, sorted by district name: *Originally elected in a special election Massachusetts Senate Delegations Massachusetts House of Representatives Massachusetts Senate elections, 2004, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2006, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2008, Massachusetts Senate elections, 2010 "Senate of the General Court of Massachusetts".
Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 2005. 2007 "House–Senate power struggle brewing", Boston Globe, April 4, 2015 Senate Members of the General Court official government website Official Senate district definitions as of 2011 2002 2010, with names of senators State Senate of Massachusetts at Project Vote Smart Massachusetts Senate at Ballotpedia