Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
International Day of Yoga
International Day of Yoga, or and unofficially referred to as Yoga Day, is celebrated annually on 21 June since its inception in 2015. An international day for yoga was declared unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly. Yoga is a physical and spiritual practice originated in India; the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his UN address suggested the date of 21 June, as it is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and shares a special significance in many parts of the world. The idea of International Day of Yoga was first proposed by the current Prime Minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi during his speech at the UNGA, on 27 September 2014, he stated: Yoga is an invaluable gift of India's ancient tradition. It embodies unity of body, it is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help in well being. Let us work towards adopting an International Yoga Day.
The origins of yoga are shrouded in mystery and mythology while some historians find many clues in the practices of Himalayan Shamans as still be seen in Tibet and Nepal. The Lord Shiva is considered the father of ancient yoga while some historian claims that Patanjali is the father of modern yoga. By the 5th century, BC yoga was becoming well known and begun to appear in Vedic Scripture; the word Yoga is a Sanskrit word and it comes from the root word Yuja which means to bind to align to hold. Following this initial proposal, the UNGA held informal consultations on the draft resolution entitled "International Day of Yoga", on 14 October 2014; the consultations were convened by the delegation of India. In 2015 Reserve Bank of India issued a 10 rupees commemorative coin to mark the International Day of Yoga. On 11 December 2014, India's Permanent Representative Asoke Mukherji introduced the draft resolution in UNGA; the draft text received broad support from 177 Member States who sponsored the text, adopted without a vote.
This initiative found support from many global leaders. A total of 177 nations co-sponsored the resolution, the highest number of co-sponsors for any UNGA resolution of such nature; when proposing 21 June as the date, Modi said that the date was the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere, having special significance in many parts of the world. From the perspective of yoga, the summer solstice marks the transition to Dakshinayana; the second full moon after summer solstice is known as Guru Poornima. Shiva, the first yogi, is said to have begun imparting the knowledge of yoga to the rest of mankind on this day, became the first guru. Dakshinayana is considered a time when there is natural support for those pursuing spiritual practices. Following the adoption of the UN resolution, several leaders of the spiritual movement in India voiced their support for the initiative; the founder of Isha Foundation, stated, "this could be a kind of a foundation stone to make scientific approach to the inner well-being of the human being, a worldwide thing...
It's a tremendous step for the world." The founder of Art of Living, Ravi Shankar, lauded the efforts of Modi, saying, "It is difficult for any philosophy, religion or culture to survive without state patronage. Yoga has existed so far like an orphan. Now, official recognition by the UN would further spread the benefit of yoga to the entire world." The first International Day of Yoga was observed around the world on 21 June 2015. The Ministry of AYUSH made the necessary arrangements in India. 35,985 people, including Narendra Modi and dignitaries from 84 nations, performed 21 asanas for 35 minutes at Rajpath in New Delhi. The day was observed by millions across the world. NCC cadets entered the Limca Book of Records for the "largest yoga performance by a single uniformed youth organisation" by performing at multiple venues; the event at Rajpath established two Guinness world records awarded to the Ministry of AYUSH, received by the minister Shripad Yesso Naik. They were for the largest yoga class, of 35,985 people, for the largest number of participating nationalities.
In San Francisco, 5,000 participants gathered in the Marina Green park to practice yoga. A senior government official said, "The government of India has decided to take forward the momentum created by International Day of Yoga, 2015 with greater and more active participation of youth during the current year celebrations." The ministry organized an event titled "The National Event of Mass Yoga Demonstration" at Chandigarh, to be attended by the Indian Prime Minister. India's Permanent Mission to the UN organized celebrations at the United Nations on 20 and 21 June 2016. A special event titled "Conversation with Yoga Masters – Yoga for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals" was the centerpiece. Jaggi Vasudev was the main speaker at the event. In Lucknow, the Indian prime minister Narendra Modi participated in the event and practiced yoga along with 51,000 participants. Many business leaders in India took part in the event. In New York, thousands of participants gathered to practice yoga on Times Square.
Japan created a Parliamentary League for the promotion of yoga just prior to the event, in April 2017. In China, the largest gathering was 10,000 participants in the city of Wuxi. In Athens, the event took place on 25 June as part of the Greek Open Yoga Day and in Kyiv, the event happened on 18 June and gathered a few hundred participants. In Ireland, participants met in the round room of the City Hall in Dubl
Altus is a city and the county seat in Jackson County, United States. The population was 19,813 at the 2010 census, a loss of 7.7 percent compared to 21,454 at the 2000 census. Altus is home to Altus Air Force Base, the United States Air Force training base for C-17, KC-46 and KC-135 aircrews, it is home to Western Oklahoma State College and Southwest Technology Center. The town that would be named Altus was founded in 1886; the community was called "Frazer", a settlement of about 50 people on Bitter Creek that served as a trading post on the Great Western Cattle Trail. Cowboys driving herds northward stopped to buy buttermilk from John McClearan. Thus, the town was known locally as "Buttermilk Station"; the Frazer post office opened February 18, 1886. A flash flood nearly destroyed Frazer on June 4, 1891; the residents moved to higher ground 2.5 miles east of the original site. W. R. Baucum suggested renaming the town "Altus", a Latin word meaning "high"; this name stuck, although the town was known as "Leger" from July 10, 1901, to May 14, 1904.
The city has seen steady growth since the beginning. The population doubled between the time of Oklahoma statehood and the 1910 census and increased during the Great Depression. Although Altus had been designated as the Jackson county seat at the time of statehood, an election was held in 1908 to determine the permanent seat; the two towns contending were Olustee. Altus won by a vote of 2,077 to 1,365; the county courthouse was built there in 1910. An irrigation project in the 1940s and World War II led to further growth in the town as the nearby airfield was used to train military pilots. Altus was an important city on the defunct Wichita Falls and Northwestern Railway, one of the Frank Kell and Joseph A. Kemp properties, which stretched from Wichita Falls, Texas, to Forgan in Beaver County in far northwestern Oklahoma, it was purchased by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad and since 1991 is operated by the Wichita and Jackson Railway. In 1908, the Kansas City and Orient Railway built a line through Altus.
Around the same time, the Altus, Wichita Falls and Hollis Railway constructed a line from Altus to the Oklahoma-Texas border. The railroads stimulated economic growth in the area and made Altus a regional agricultural center. By 1930, Altus had eight cotton gins, two cotton compresses, eighteen wholesale businesses. Altus is located in northeastern Jackson County, it is situated in what used to be Old Greer County, an area with disputed ownership until a Supreme Court decision awarded it to Oklahoma Territory instead of Texas. The city lies between North Fork of the Red River. U. S. Routes 62 and 283 cross in the center of Altus. US 62 leads east 73 miles to Lawton and west 66 miles to Childress, while US 283 leads north 23 miles to Mangum and south 34 miles to Vernon, Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Altus has a total area of 18.6 square miles, of which 18.4 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 1.08%, are water. Altus has a humid subtropical climate bordering upon a semi-arid climate.
Summers are hot to sweltering, though heavy rainfall does occur due to remains of Gulf of Mexico hurricanes moving inland. In the absence of these storms, Altus can be among the hottest places in North America: the record high of 120 °F or 48.9 °C recorded twice during 1936 has been exceeded by only Kansas and the western states of California, New Mexico and Nevada. Autumn is brief, with very warm afternoons and comfortably cool mornings, while winter is variable. Chinook winds can sometimes raise temperatures to uncomfortably hot in the low winter sun, in the process drying out vegetation to produce wildfires. On the other hand, if a block forms over the Gulf of Alaska cold air can be driven into the Plains States from Canada, producing temperatures below 0 °F or −17.8 °C in extreme cases. Such cold temperatures on average occur once every three winters, although on average 78.5 mornings each year fall to or below the freezing point. Snowfall is rare and erratic: the most in a months being 16.1 inches in January 1966, while most rainfall comes during the unsettled spring season, when heavy thunderstorms can occur from the convergence of hot and cold air masses to produce intense short-period rainfall.
The wettest month has been May 1980 with 13.34 inches, whilst zero precipitation has on occasion been recorded in every month except May and June, the wettest 24 hour period on October 20, 1983 with 7.10 inches. The wettest calendar year has been 1941 with the driest 1970 with 10.42 inches. As of the census of 2010, there were 19,813 people residing in the city; the population density was 1,200 people per square mile. There were 8,890 housing units at an average density of 540 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 72.62% White, 10.41% African American, 1.48% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 10.32% from other races, 3.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.25% of the population. There were 7,896 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individua
Prāṇāyāma is a Sanskrit word alternatively translated as "extension of the prāṇa" or "breath control." The word is composed from two Sanskrit words: prana meaning life force, either ayama or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw out. It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India. Prāṇāyāma is a Sanskrit compound. V. S. Apte provides fourteen different meanings for the word prāṇa including: Breath, respiration The breath of life, vital air, principle of life Energy, vigor The spirit or soulOf these meanings, the concept of "vital air" is used by Bhattacharyya to describe the concept as used in Sanskrit texts dealing with prāṇāyāma. Thomas McEvilley translates prāṇa as "spirit-energy"; the breath is understood to be its most subtle material form, but is believed to be present in the blood, most concentrated in men's semen and women's vaginal fluid. Monier-Williams defines the compound prāṇāyāma as " N. of the three'breath-exercises' performed during Saṃdhyā (See pūrak, kumbhak".
This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes as explained by Bhattacharyya: pūrak and rechak. There are other processes of prāṇāyāma in addition to this three-step model. Macdonell gives the etymology as prāṇa + āyāma and defines it as "m. suspension of breath". Apte's definition of āyāmaḥ derives it from ā + yām and provides several variant meanings for it when used in compounds; the first three meanings have to do with "length", "expansion, extension", "stretching, extending", but in the specific case of use in the compound prāṇāyāma he defines āyāmaḥ as meaning "restrain, stopping". An alternative etymology for the compound is cited by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that: Expansion of individual energy into cosmic energy is called prāṇāyāma. Prāṇāyāma is mentioned in verse 4.29 of the Bhagavad Gītā. According to Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, prāṇāyāma is translated to "trance induced by stopping all breathing" being made from the two separate Sanskrit words, prāṇa and āyām.
Pranayama is the fourth "limb" of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali, a Hindu Rishi, discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice. Patanjali does not elucidate the nature of prana, the theory and practice of pranayama seem to have undergone significant development after him, he presents pranayama as an exercise, preliminary to concentration, as do the earlier Buddhist texts. Many yoga teachers advise that pranayama should be part of an overall practice that includes the other limbs of Patanjali's Raja Yoga teachings Yama and Asana; the Indian tradition of Hatha Yoga makes use of various pranayama techniques. The 15th century Hatha Yoga Pradipika is a key text of this tradition and includes various forms of pranayama such as breath retention techniques termed Kumbhaka and various body locks. Other forms of pranayama breathing include Ujjayi breath and Kapalabhati.
According to the Pali Buddhist Canon, the Buddha prior to his enlightenment practiced a meditative technique which involved pressing the palate with the tongue and forcibly attempting to restrain the breath. This is described as both painful and not conducive to enlightenment. According to the Buddhist scheme, breathing stops with the fourth jhana, though this is a side-effect of the technique and does not come about as the result of purposeful effort; the Buddha did incorporate moderate modulation of the length of breath as part of the preliminary tetrad in the Anapanasati Sutta. Its use there is preparation for concentration. According to commentarial literature, this is appropriate for beginners. Indo-Tibetan developments in Buddhist pranayama which are similar to Hindu forms can be seen as early as the 11th century, in the Buddhist text titled the Amṛtasiddhi, which teaches three bandhas for kumbakha; these developments continued in Tibetan Buddhism which includes its own forms of pranayama exercises termed Tsa-lung incorporated into a system of yogic practice such as Trul khor or into the full Tantric systems of various Buddhist Tantras such as the Six Yogas of Naropa of the Cakrasamvara tradition.
Tibetan Buddhist breathing exercises such as the "nine breathings of purification" or the "Ninefold Expulsion of Stale Vital Energy", a form of alternate nostril breathing include visualizations. In the Nyingma tradition of Dzogchen these practices are collected in the textual cycle known as "The Oral Transmission of Vairotsana". Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress-related disorders. A Cochrane systematic review on the symptomatic relief of asthma by breathing exercises did not find a statistically significant improvement but did find that there was a statistically significant increase in the dose of histamine needed to provoke a 20% reduction in FEV1 during pranayama breathing but not with the placebo device. Aut
An air force known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that conducts aerial warfare. More it is the branch of a nation's armed services, responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army or navy. Air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, providing support to land and naval forces in the form of aerial reconnaissance and close air support; the term "air force" may refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force, an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces consist of a combination of fighters, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are responsible for operations of the military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles, communications equipment; some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as anti-aircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems.
Some nations, principally Russia, the former Soviet Union and countries who modelled their militaries along Soviet lines, have or had an air defence force, organizationally separate from their air force. Peacetime/non-wartime activities of air forces may include air-sea rescue. Air forces are not just composed of pilots, but rely on a significant amount of support from other personnel to operate. Logistics, intelligence, special operations, cyber space support, weapons loaders, many other specialties are required by all air forces; the first aviation force in the world was the Aviation Militaire of the French Army formed in 1910, which became L'Armée de l'Air. In 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, Italy employed aircraft for the first time in the world for reconnaissance and bombing missions against Turkish positions on Libyan Territory; the Italian–Turkish war of 1911–1912 was the first in history that featured air attacks by airplanes and dirigible airships. During World War I France, Italy, the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire all possessed significant forces of bombers and fighters.
World War I saw the appearance of senior commanders who directed aerial warfare and numerous flying aces. An independent air force is one, a separate branch of a nation's armed forces and is, at least nominally, treated as a military service on par with that of older services like navies or armies; the British Royal Air Force was the first independent air force in the world. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918 by amalgamation the British Army's Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. On establishment the RAF comprised over 20,000 aircraft, was commanded by a Chief of the Air Staff who held the rank of major-general and was governed by its own government ministry. Arguably, the Finnish Air Force was the first independent air force in the world, formed on 6 March 1918, when the Swedish count, Eric von Rosen gave Finland the second aircraft, a Thulin Typ D; some considered that the Finnish Air Force did not exist during the Finnish Civil War, the Red Guards had its own air force. Over the following decades most countries with any substantial military capability established their own independent air forces.
The South African Air Force was formed on 1 February 1920 and the Royal Australian Air Force was formed shortly afterwards on 31 March 1921, although it was not until 1922 that the head of the Service was titled as Chief of the Air Staff, placing him on a par with his Australian Army and Navy counterparts. The Canadian Air Force was formed at the end of World War I, was abolished and reorganized several times between 1918 and 1924, it became the permanent Royal Canadian Air Force when it received the "Royal" title by royal proclamation on 1 April 1924. It did not however become independent of the Canadian Army until 1938 when its head was designated as Chief of the Air Staff; the Royal New Zealand Air Force was established in 1923 as the New Zealand Permanent Air Force but did not become independent of the New Zealand Army until 1937. Other British-influenced countries established their own independent air forces. For example, the Royal Egyptian Air Force was created in 1937 when Egyptian military aviation was separated from Army command.
The Afghan Air Force was established on 22 August 1924, with support from the Soviet Union and Great Britain, but a civil war destroyed most of the planes and it wasn't reestablished until 1937, when King Mohammed Nadir Shah took power. Outside of the British Empire, the Italian Royal Air Force was founded in 1923, the Finnish Air Force was established as a separate service on 4 May 1928, the Brazilian Air Force was created in 1941. Both the United States Air Force and the Philippine Air Force were formed as a separate branches of their respective armed forces in 1947; the Israeli Air Force came into being with the State of Israel on 18 May 1948, but evolved from the pre-existing Sherut Avir of the Haganah paramilitary. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force was not established until 1954. Unlike all these countries, the Mexican Air Force remains an integral part of the Mexican Army. Germany was the first country to organize regular air attacks on enemy infrastructure with the Luftstreitkräfte. In World War I, it used its zeppelins to drop bombs on British cities.
At that time, Britain did have aircraft, though her airships were less advance
Yoga pants are a type of flexible, form-fitting pants designed for the practice of yoga as well as other physical activities that involve a lot of movement and stretching. They are worn for sports and physical exercise, martial arts, pilates, or aerobics; these pants are made from a blend of cotton, lycra spandex, polyester, wool, or a light and stretchy synthetic material giving the pants a soft, smooth and silky finish when worn. Although designed for yoga, the pants are casually worn as everyday dress by many women. According to Anu Hastings with the product database Indix, over 2,700 types of so-called "yoga pants" are now available on the market. There are various types and styles, including the traditional boot-cut and flared yoga pants with flat waistbands; the typical type of yoga pants traditionally come in black, are tight-fitted, boot-cut, flared style, are reversible, carry a four way stretch fabric and have a flat elastic waistband folded over at the top. The traditional boot-cut and flared yoga pants with waistbands are the most well-known and most popular type used for casual wear, active wear, lounge wear, maternity wear, dancewear or clubwear.
They are tight-fitted, giving them flexibility and comfort as well as the moisture-wicking fabrics within the pants move perspiration away from the body to the fabric's outer surface where it can evaporate giving the pants an advantage when worn during physical activities that exert heavy perspiration keeping the wearer cool and comfortable. The flat and fold-over waists are utilized to provide flexibility, coverage, style and versatility. Flat and fold-over waist boot cut and flare yoga pants are used as casual wear and exercise wear, maternity wear, making errands, lounging around the house, yoga class, or as clubwear as women would wear the body-hugging pants to permit freedom of movement when dancing during nights out at their local nightclub; the more spandex in the yoga pants, the more they are used as exercise, dance or clubwear. The more cotton fabrics are more used for loungewear. There are various styles of yoga pants in addition to the traditional; the flared yoga pants are commonly used as dancewear allowing it to stretch and for the ease of movement it affords.
They typically have combinations of stretchy fabric blends offered by lycra spandex and nylon giving the pants a rich and silky appearance and feel when worn. Crop-fitted yoga pants lie above the ankle, are oftentimes utilized for a more flattering and dressier look during warmer times of the year, they are used as casual wear, for making errands, lounging or as clubwear on a night out. The flared yoga pants are paired with flip-flops, running shoes, flats, or sheepskin boots, worn along with hoodies, cardigans or wraps paired with a tank top or shirt tucked underneath. Due to their high elasticity, yoga pants are comfortable enough to wear for many purposes, they were created for practicing yoga, but have become popular as everyday mainstream clothing item in classrooms, restaurants, shopping malls, nightclubs. Demand for comfortable active, athletic and casual wear has increased since the turn of the 21st century. Nike, Inc. reported their women's business comprised 7 billion in 2010 and the larger market grew to $33.6 billion by 2015.
Nike claims the driving factor has been by the demand for fashionable workout gear, flattering. New colors and structural design of yoga pants created more versatility and increased their wear in public settings. Author Mae Anderson described the new craze of yoga pants outside the gym by calling them the "new jeans."Many high-end fashion houses and mass-market trend-chasers have capitalized on the growth of the modern sportswear market, leading an emphasis on technical fabrics and garments that facilitate wearing them as everyday dress. Market research analysts have sought to explain the trend by referencing the extension of work hours in major cities across North America, leading to a "day-to-night" than a "gym-to-work"—while other explanations cite the North American passion for fitness and healthy living. In the United States, reaction to the wider adoption of yoga pants proved somewhat controversial for schools; some schools adopted dress codes banning yoga pants for all students, or banning them only for female students.
Bitch magazine argued such bans are gendered, focusing on the damage caused by "distraction" by girls. There are others. Most the reasoning for disagreeing with wearing yoga pants publicly is that they promote a relaxed and informal atmosphere. Amanda Hallay, professor of fashion and cultural history at New York City's LIM College, was interviewed for her opinion on yoga pants being a replacement for jeans, she said, "Yoga pants are a step above pajamas and we don't wear pajamas out to lunch, we don't wear them to work. Pajamas are for sleeping in, ergo, not appropriate to wear in any other setting; the same can be said for yoga pants. Yoga pants are to be worn while doing yoga." Yoga pants being worn in public can be perceived as unattractive. According to Hallay, to promote a more business-like or mature persona, a person should dress as such. In the U. S. state of Montana, some state House members unsuccessfully attempted to ban the wearing of in public of "any device, costume, or covering that gives the appearance of or simulates the genitals, pubic hair, anus region, or pubic hair region."
The author of the l