Highway system of São Paulo
The highway system of São Paulo is the largest statewide road transportation system in Brazil, with 34,650 km. It consists of a hugely interconnected network of municipal and federal roads. More than 90% of the population is within 5 km of a paved road, it has the largest number of two-, four- and six-lane highways in Latin America. According to the National Confederation of Transports, it is the best highway grid in the country, with 59.4% classified as excellent. The term used in Portuguese language for highway is rodovia, for road is estrada; the responsibility for building, expanding and exploiting the state roads fall into the following categories: DERSA Desenvolvimento Rodoviário S. A. A state-owned company, responsible for some state-built roads and highways, such as Rodovias Dom Pedro I, Carvalho Pinto, Ayrton Senna, etc.. A state department belonging to the State Secretary of Transportation. State concessions to private companies. By the law nº 9.361, of July 5, 1996, the state government implemented a comprehensive program of privatization and public concession of highway infrastructure management and economic exploitation, whereby most of the highways under the tutelage and built by the state began to be managed by private companies.
In order to implement the Program, the highway grid was subdivided into 12 sections, with a total of 3,500 km, interconnecting 198 counties with a population of 20 million inhabitants. The following 12 companies were contracted under a public bidding system: AutoBan Autovias Centrovias Colinas Ecovias Intervias Renovias SPVias Tebe Triângulo do Sol ViaoesteUntil August 2005, these companies had invested R$6 billion and generated a revenue of R$2 billion for the state; the concessions led to the duplication of more than 480 km and the construction of 110 new roads. All conceded highways are equipped with fixed emergency phones every 1 km, horizontal and vertical signalling equipment, surveillance cameras, round-the-clock, free-of-charge mechanical and emergency relief vehicles. Which make São Paulo highways the most sophisticated and with the highest safety and service standards of Latin America. All conceded roads, including those managed by DERSA, are toll roads, in order to pay for the services and investments.
Roads managed by the state are not tolled. Toll collection is made in toll gates spaced along the road. Sometimes tolling occur only in other cases, in both directions. Toll pricing is set by the State Secretary of Transportation and vary from US$1 to US$4; the entire São Paulo system of highways use a unified non-stop electronic toll collection named "Sem Parar", based on RFID tags glued to the vehicle windshield, which comprises about 34% of the traffic through these roads. The system has 560,000 of these tags installed and generates 11 million of electronic transactions and revenues of ca. R$120 million per month. Within São Paulo, numbering of highways works as follows, starting with letters SP: numbers - indicates that the highway is radial, that is, connects the state capital to the interior; the number of the highway gives the clockwise angle that it makes with an imaginary line stemming from the state capital and extending northward. Thus SP-270 extends westward. Example: Rodovia Anhangüera, SP-330.
Odd numbers - indicates. The number gives the nearest point of the highway. Thus, SP-425 connects two cities away from the capital, its nearest point is distant 425 km from the state capital, it is customary in Brazil, in São Paulo, to give official names to the highways and roads to pay homage to some politician, significant personality, national hero, etc. or to some symbolic or collective concept. The main two-lane highways built and maintained by the state of São Paulo are: SP-340: Rodovia Adhemar de Barros SP-150: Rodovia Anchieta SP-330: Rodovia Anhangüera SP-322: Rodovia Attilio Balbo SP-070: Rodovia Ayrton Senna SP-348: Rodovia dos Bandeirantes SP-326: Rodovia Brigadeiro Faria Lima SP-070: Rodovia Carvalho Pinto SP-280: Rodovia Castelo Branco SP-320: Rodovia Euclides da Cunha SP-065: Rodovia Dom Pedro I SP-160: Rodovia dos Imigrantes SP-332: Rodovia Professor Zeferino Vaz SP-306: Rodovia Luiz de Queiroz SP-300: Rodovia Marechal Cândido Rondon SP-270: Rodovia Raposo Tavares SP-075: Rodovia Santos Dumont SP-310: Rodovia Washington LuísOther important double- or single-lane roads in the state are: SP-099: Rodovia dos Tamoios SP-123: Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro SP-425: Rodovia Assis Chateaubriand SP-101: Rodovia Jornalista Francisco Aguirre Proença SP-333: Rodovia Miguel JubranThree metropolitan beltways, or ring systems interconnect several highways, encircling the urban core of the cities of São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto: Rodoanel Mário Covas: around the city of São Paulo interconnects the Anhangüera, Castelo Branco, Raposo Tavares, Régis Bittencou
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Rodovia Sen. José Ermírio de Moraes
The Rodovia Senador José Ermírio de Moraes or SP-75 is a highway in the southeastern part of the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It ends at the SP-308 near Salto, it is nicknamed Castelinho due to its similarity with Rodovia Castelo Branco. José Ermírio de Morais Archimedes Lammoglia, Deputado Hélio Steffen, Prefeito Rodovia Santos Dumont Ermênio de Oliveira Penteado, Engenheiro
Barretos is a municipality in the northern part of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The city has 112,101 inhabitants and an area of 1565.6 km². Barretos belongs to the Mesoregion of Ribeirão Preto; the city was founded on August 25, 1854. The first chapel was built in 1856, where today lies the "Praça Francisco Barreto". In January 8, 1897, Barretos was established as a municipality; the tertiary sector of the city is the most relevant, with 72.09% of the city GDP. Industry is 21.64% of the GDP, the primary sector corresponds to 6.28%. The largest Latin American cancer center is based in this city. Barretos hosts annually the most famous rodeo festival in the country, the Festa do Peão de Barretos; the city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Barretos. SP-326 Rodovia Brigadeiro Faria Lima SP-425 Rodovia Assis ChateaubriandBarretos is served by Chafei Amsei Airport, which offers general aviation but no scheduled flights. Barretos EC - a football club, in the Campeonato Paulista Segunda Divisão.
Http://www.barretos.sp.gov.br Prefecture of Barretos http://www.citybrazil.com.br/sp/barretos/ http://www.independentes.com.br http://www.barretos.com.br http://www.houseentretenimento.com.br
A toll road known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance. Toll roads have existed in some form since antiquity, with tolls levied on passing travellers on foot, wagon, or horseback; the amount of the toll varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles, with freight trucks charged higher rates than cars. Tolls are collected at toll booths, toll houses, stations, bars, or gates; some toll collection points are unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid. To cut costs and minimise time delay many tolls are collected by some form of automatic or electronic toll collection equipment which communicates electronically with a toll payer's transponder; some electronic toll roads maintain a system of toll booths so people without transponders can still pay the toll, but many newer roads now use automatic number plate recognition to charge drivers who use the road without a transponder, some older toll roads are being upgraded with such systems.
Criticisms of toll roads include the time taken to stop and pay the toll, the cost of the toll booth operators—up to about one-third of revenue in some cases. Automated toll-paying systems help minimise both of these. Others object to paying "twice" for the same road: with tolls. In addition to toll roads, toll bridges and toll tunnels are used by public authorities to generate funds to repay the cost of building the structures; some tolls are set aside to pay for future maintenance or enhancement of infrastructure, or are applied as a general fund by local governments, not being earmarked for transport facilities. This is sometimes prohibited by central government legislation. Road congestion pricing schemes have been implemented in a limited number of urban areas as a transportation demand management tool to try to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Toll roads have existed for at least the last 2,700 years, as tolls had to be paid by travellers using the Susa–Babylon highway under the regime of Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the 7th century BC.
Aristotle and Pliny refer to other parts of Asia. In India, before the 4th century BC, the Arthashastra notes the use of tolls. Germanic tribes charged tolls to travellers across mountain passes. A 14th-century example is Castle Loevestein in the Netherlands, built at a strategic point where two rivers meet. River tolls were charged on boats sailing along the river; the Øresund in Scandinavia was once subject to a toll to the Danish Monarch, who derived a sizable portion of his revenue from it. Many modern European roads were constructed as toll roads in order to recoup the costs of construction, maintenance and as a source of tax money, paid by someone other than the local residents. In 14th-century England, some of the most used roads were repaired with money raised from tolls by pavage grants. Widespread toll roads sometimes restricted traffic so much, by their high tolls, that they interfered with trade and cheap transportation needed to alleviate local famines or shortages. Tolls were used in the Holy Roman Empire in the 15th centuries.
Industrialisation in Europe needed major improvements to the transport infrastructure which included many new or improved roads, financed from tolls. The A5 road in Britain was built to provide a robust transport link between Britain and Ireland and had a toll house every few miles. In the 20th century, road tolls were introduced in Europe to finance the construction of motorway networks and specific transport infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels. Italy was the first European country to charge motorway tolls, on a 50 kilometres motorway section near Milan in 1924, it was followed by Greece, which made users pay for the network of motorways around and between its cities in 1927. In the 1950s and 1960s, France and Portugal started to build motorways with the aid of concessions, allowing rapid development of this infrastructure without massive state debts. Since road tolls have been introduced in the majority of the EU member states. In the United States, prior to the introduction of the Interstate Highway System and the large federal grants supplied to states to build it, many states constructed their first controlled-access highways by floating bonds backed by toll revenues.
Starting with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1940, followed by similar roads in New Jersey, New York and others, numerous states throughout the 1950s established major toll roads. With the establishment of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s, toll road construction in the U. S. slowed down as the federal government now provided the bulk of funding to construct new freeways, regulations required that such Interstate highways be free from tolls. Many older toll roads were added to the Interstate System under a grandfather clause that allowed tolls to continue to be collected on toll roads that predated the system; some of these such as the Connecticut Turnpike and the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike removed their tolls when the initial bonds were paid off. Many states, have maintained the tolling of these roads as a consistent source of revenue; as the
Rodovia Presidente Dutra
The Rodovia Presidente Dutra, colloquially known as Via Dutra is a federal highway which runs through the eastern part of the state of São Paulo and southwestern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. It is the part of BR-116 connecting the city of São Paulo to the city of Rio de Janeiro. Major cities connected by this part of BR-116 are the city of São Paulo, Jacareí, São José dos Campos, Taubaté, Guaratinguetá, Barra Mansa, Volta Redonda and the city of Rio de Janeiro, it covers a total distance of 402 kilometres, starting at the Trevo das Margaridas in Rio de Janeiro and ending at the junction with Marginal Tietê in São Paulo. It merges with Rodovia Ayrton Senna in the county of Guararema and has junctions with Rodovia Fernão Dias, BR-354 and BR-459; the highway follows the Paraíba do Sul river valley. Via Dutra is considered the most important Brazilian highway since it connects the two biggest and most important cities of Brazil and runs through one of the richest regions of the country, the Paraíba Valley.
It is the most important connection between the Southern Region and the Northeast Region. The first road between the city of São Paulo and the city of Rio de Janeiro was built by the Washington Luis government and inaugurated on May 5, 1928. At the end of the 1940s industrialization and the necessity of a faster and more efficient and modern road connection of the two biggest Brazilian cities led to the construction of the Rodovia Presidente Dutra as it is known today, it was inaugurated on January 19, 1951 by the President Eurico Gaspar Dutra and called BR-2. It was a two-lane road with exception of the stretches between São Paulo and Guarulhos and in the Baixada Fluminense where it was a four-lane dual carriageway. In the 1960s it had various stretches converted to four-lane divided road. In 1967 it was upgraded to four-lane highway status. In the 1970s traffic has been eased on the Via Dutra due to the construction of the Rodovia dos Trabalhadores, now called Rodovia Ayrton Senna and its part built in the 1990s called Rodovia Governador Carvalho Pinto leading up to Taubaté.
The highway is managed and maintained by a state concession to the private company NovaDutra S/A since March 1996, therefore is a toll road. From that transfer of ownership up to today it has improved in road quality and safety. Highway system of São Paulo Brazilian Highway System NovaDutra S/A
Rodovia Dom Pedro I
Rodovia Dom Pedro I is a highway in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One of the most modern and scenic highways in the country, it interconnects the Anhangüera and the Presidente Dutra highways, serving the major cities of Campinas, Jacareí and São José dos Campos, it is 126 km long and crosses a picturesque hilly region full of lakes and temperate forests. The highway intersects the Fernão Dias Highway, between São Paulo and Belo Horizonte, near the city of Atibaia; the part of the highway that runs inside the city of Campinas comprises one leg of the Campinas Beltway. The highway was named after Emperor Dom Pedro I because it was inaugurated in 1972 and served to commemorate 150 years of Independence. A second roadway was built and the road enhanced to highway standards in 1990; the highway is managed and maintained by DERSA, a state-owned company, is a toll road. Highway system of São Paulo Brazilian Highway System