A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos is a major city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One of the leading industrial and research centers with emphasis in aerospace sciences in Latin America, the city is located in the Paraíba Valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, it is the main city of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte. A native of São José dos Campos is called a joseense. Total area: 1,099.60 km2 urban area: 353.9 km2 rural: 745.7 km2 Source: City administration website Northern Border: Camanducaia, Sapucaí Mirim in Minas Gerais Southern Border: Jacareí, Jambeiro in São Paulo State Eastern Border: Monteiro Lobato, Caçapava in São Paulo State Western border: Igaratá, Joanópolis, Piracaia in São Paulo State The municipality comprises three districts: São José dos Campos — the city itself, Eugênio de Melo and São Francisco Xavier. The last one is known for its natural sites and ecotourism.
The district of São José dos Campos is subdivided into 2 subdistricts. However, for administrative purposes, the city is composed of 7 urban regions: Center, South, East, Southeast and São Francisco Xavier. Highlands predominate in the northern region of the municipality with altitudes ranging from 660 to 975 m; the northern border of the municipality lies over the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, with some peaks reaching over 2000 meters. The highest point in the municipality is known. In the urban area, there are rolling hills; the lowest elevation in the city is found in the Paraíba do Sul river, at an elevation of 550 m. The municipality is bounded at the south by the'Serra do Jambeiro' mountains, with an elevation of about 900m. Municipality: Elevations 550 to 2,082 m City: Elevations 550 to 690 m; the municipality holds the 11,559 hectares São Francisco Xavier Environmental Protection Area, established in 2002. It contains part of the 292,000 hectares Mananciais do Rio Paraíba do Sul Environmental Protection Area, created in 1982 to protect the sources of the Paraiba do Sul river.
The climate of the city can be best described as a mix between the subtropical climate of southern parts of the country, the tropical climate of most of the country and the subtropical highland climate of neighbouring mountainous regions. Technically, the city has a humid subtropical climate with significant less precipitation during winters. Winters are mild, with average temperature in the coldest month of 17 °C. Summers are not excessively hot, with average temperature of the hotttest month of 24 °C. With global warming it is likely that the city's climate will transition to a true tropical climate in the near future. Frosts are rare, happening on average once per decade. There's no record of snow precipitation in the city center; the peaks at the northern border of the municipality due to altitude have a colder Cwb/Cfb climates, with occasional snowfalls. The origins of São José dos Campos lie at the end of the 16th Century when Jesuits founded a cattle farm, Aldeia do Rio Comprido; the farm was created through a concession of settlements around 1590 to the Society of Jesus.
The farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido, natural division between São José and the city of Jacareí today. The farm status was an artifice to hide a religious outpost, one of the several Jesuit Reductions in Brazil, known for their resistance to enslavement, from the Portuguese expedition leaders and indigenous people hunters, known as the Bandeirantes. On September 10, 1611, the local was recognized and the farmers precluded from utilizing the Natives as slaves. However, a turmeric conflict between farmers and the religious led to the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1640 from the region and the consequent dispersion of the mission; the Jesuits returned and reestablished a new settlement, where the current city center is spotted. It was about 15 km northeast of the previous mission, on a higher plain with a privileged view above a geological depression, which guaranteed security against invasions and floods. Again, despite being a new mission, it was treated as a cattle farm; the initial urbanization plan is attributed to the Jesuit priest Manoel de Leão, whose main occupation was to be an administrator of the community.
In 1692, documents named the village. At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle in Brazil, the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines. After the definitive expulsion of Jesuits from the Portuguese Empire in 1759, all the religious order's assets, such as farms and villages were taken under the Portuguese Crown's custody; the governor, D. Luis Antonio Botelho Mourão, had as a priority to turn these new assets into productive units and increase tax collection. For that, Boutelho Mourão requested authorization from the Viceroy to create civil parishes, known as freguesias, to change the fiscal status of villages to the category of V
Paraíba do Sul
The Paraíba do Sul, or termed Paraíba, is a river in southeast Brazil. It flows 1,137 km west to northeast from its farthest source at the source of the river Paraitinga to the sea near Campos dos Goytacazes; the river receives its name. Its main tributaries are the rivers Jaguari, Paraibuna, Preto and Muriaé; these last two join the main river 140 km and 50 km from the mouth respectively. The valley of the Paraíba do Sul is porrathe latitudes 20°26' and 23°39'S and the longitudes of 41° and 46°30'W and covers an area of about 57,000 km2 distributed over three states; the main economic activities are industry and cattle raising. Presently only two parts of the river can be navigated: The lower section, between the mouth and São Fidélis, about 90 km, it has a declivity of 22 cm/km. There is incipient navigation carried out by small boats that transport construction material to the city of Campos dos Goytacazes; the upper middle section, between Cachoeira Paulista and Guararema, about 280 km. Despite the small declivity of 19 cm/km, navigation is restricted to tourist boats.
Elsewhere navigation is hampered by various obstacles. Other factors impeding navigation are the existence of highway and railway bridges, the proximity of roads and railways following the riverbank and the location of several cities on its banks; the Paraíba Valley is fertile and has always been a region of dense population. Cities located on or near the river are State of Rio de Janeiro: Barra do Piraí Barra Mansa Três Rios Paraiba do Sul Sapucaia Campos dos Goytacazes - center of a rich sugar cane growing area Vassouras - site of a respected agricultural university Volta Redonda - site of Brazil's first steel industry) State of São Paulo: Aparecida - site of Brazil's most famous Marian pilgrimage site Guaratinguetá São José dos Campos - high-tech industry and home to Embraer, Brazil's aircraft manufacturer Taubaté - Volkswagen and Ford plants State of Minas Gerais: Além Paraíba Estrela Dalva Juiz de Fora - Important manufacturing city on the Paraibuna River, one of the major tributaries of the Paraíba.
Unlike rivers in northern Brazil where seasonal variations in water temperature are limited, those in southern Brazil, such as Paraíba do Sul, exhibit distinct differences between winter and summer. During a survey of the river in Lorena, São Paulo, the water varied from 26.6 °C in the summer to 15.2 °C in the winter. The pH is neutral and fluctuates between 6 and 8; the Paraíba do Sul basin is home to just above 100 native fish species with most in the families Loricariidae and Trichomycteridae. About 40% of the fish species in the river basin are endemic and new species have been discovered in recent years, including the small catfish Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis that only was scientifically described in 2013; as a consequence of flowing through one of the most densely populated and industrialised parts of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul suffers from pollution. Studies of the native cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis have found that levels of some heavy metals exceed the limits set by the Brazilian Food Legislation.
Other threats are dams and the 70 introduced species, including 46 species of non-native fish and the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea. Several native species are threatened, a general fall in abundance and species richness has been observed. Some, such as the endemic Hypostomus auroguttatus, have adapted to the changes; the catfish Potamarius grandoculis is only known from the vicinity of the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul and Doce Rivers, but it may be extinct. Other threatened species in the Paraíba do Sul basin are the bivalves Diplodon dunkerianus, D. expansus and D. fontaineanus, the Hoge's side-necked turtle. A national conservation plan with recommendations for the river basin was published in 2010
Pindamonhangaba is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, located in the Paraíba valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. It is accessible by the Via Dutra at the 99th km; this place name comes from the Old Tupi language meaning where hooks are made or, according to a different interpretation, where the river bends. Estimated population: 164,000 inhabitants Total area: 729.9 km2 Density: 220/km2 Population: 146,995 inhabitants Density: 201,39/km2 Source: IBGE Altitude: 540 m Tropical climate Average annual temperature: 22.4 °C The region occupied by the Portuguese was Pindamonhangaba at least since July 22, 1643, registering more remote occupation by a certain Captain João Prado Martins. Six years on May 17, 1649, the area was formalized as a land grant and donated to the captain, it seems there is no information about what occurred between that date and August 12, 1672, so 13 years a chapel was built in honor of São José by brothers Antônio Bicudo Leme and Braz Esteves Leme.
The brothers Leme have acquired of the Countess of Vimieiro, the lands north of the town of Taubaté. There is no news of how the allotment had passed from the hands of Captain Prado Martins to the Countess of Vimieiro. Given the uncertainties of history, two recent mayors of the city solved the problem by fiat: Caio Gomes Mayor officiated at the date of August 12, 1672 as the founding date of the city and Mayor João Bosco Nogueira decreed magna that date the county was founded was the date of emancipation, July 10, 1705. Luiz Gustavo, footballer for Olympique de Marseille. Matheus Salustiano, footballer for Rio Claro Futebol Clube. João Carlos de Oliveira, gold medal of triple jump in 1975 Pan American Games. Geraldo Alckmin, governor of São Paulo from 2001 to 2006, again from 2011 to 2018. Ciro Gomes, governor of Ceará from 1991 to 1994. Antônio Moreira César, Brazilian army officer. Official website
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Campos do Jordão
Campos do Jordão is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte; the population is 51,454 in an area of 290.52 square kilometres. The city is the highest city in Brazil. There are numerous outdoor activities for tourists and winter residents; these include hiking, mountain climbing, treetop cable swings, horseback riding, ATV and motorbike riding. July, of winter season vacations, sees an enormous influx of visitors, due in part to the winter festival of classical music, its attractions throughout the year include German and Italian cuisine restaurants, a cable car. There are many chalets. In order to cater to the large number of visitors, several bars, lounges and clubs open during the winter months. Total Population: 51,454 Population Density: 152.86 Infant Mortality: 8.52 Life Expectancy: 75.73 Total Fertility Rate: 2.18 Literacy Rate: 92.28% Human Development Index: 0.820 IHDI-M Income: 0.763 IHDI-M Life Expectancy: 0.846 IHDI-M Education: 0.851 The city's economy is based on tourism.
Buildings are vernacular architecture from German, Swiss, or Italian models. Many of the wealthiest residents in the state of São Paulo have winter country houses here. Despite the high income of many visitors, the HDI of Campos do Jordão is not high because the owners of the houses in the best neighbourhoods are not regular inhabitants; the city can be reached from São Paulo by road through the Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro. There is a picturesque railroad from Pindamonhangaba, used by tourists. At the end of the main road going through Campos do Jordão, there is a state park called Horto Florestal; the municipality contains the 8,341 hectares Campos do Jordão State Park, created in 1941. It contains the 503 hectares Mananciais de Campos do Jordão State Park, created in 1993 to protect the water supply of the municipal seat, it contains the 28,800 hectares Campos do Jordão Environmental Protection Area, created in 1984. The Mantiqueira Mountains provide unique panoramic views, the municipality's region still has undeveloped old growth Atlantic Forest habitat.
The native Brazilian Paraná pine is found here. A former state governor had a winter residence in the city, the Boa Vista Palace, now a museum in the city; the city is located in the northeastern side of the State of São Paulo, bordering Minas Gerais in the north. Campos do Jordão is at a distance of 180 km from the City of São Paulo, 334 km from the City of Rio de Janeiro, 486 km from Belo Horizonte. Campos do Jordão is located on a crystalline plateau where the High Felds are located formed from the quaternary, increasing the geomorphological risks with the increase of urbanization and seen inadequate occupations as in straight slopes. T hese areas may be at risk of landslide; the municipality has rounded topos and amphitheaters where organic clay is found due to erosive processes and due to this constiution its characteristic is the concentration of water. Campos do Jordão features a subtropical highland climate/mesothermal but technically moist, although other sources define it as Cwb, more common for its tropical location, except for the definition of a dry season, there is a no greater difference in climate modeling of the plateau climates.
According to a detailed study on the climate classifications it is affirmed that the Cwb is more frequent, but that Cfb appears more in the average in spatial distribution. In general, is characterized with warm to cool summers and mild winters but cold for São Paulo state. Although at a higher elevation than the higher portions than Santa Catarina, the latitude compensates for such a difference by giving winters a little warmer and with unknown snow over a long period associated with the drier mid-year air; as it is a montane vegetation and with mild temperatures, trees like Araucaria augustifolia is part of the ecosystem of the highest part of th Mantiqueira Mountains. The annual sweating evaporation is one of the smallest of the cities of São Paulo, which can tend to water deficiencies in the driest months; the average annual precipitation is 1850 mm annually, concentrated in December and January. The average annual compensated temperature is 14.5 °C, falling to below zero in winter at the same time at a few degrees Celsius in the Paraíba Valley, with a thermal sensation that may be lower, but there may be years with temperatures above freezing as in 1999.
As said with high altitude latitude together is not enough for snowfall and therefore, the occurrence of snow in the city is rare, having been recorded in years as 1928, 1942, 1947 and 1966, four records at intervals of two decades that seems to be discontinued so far, in addition the dates are not consensual and INMET installed since 1944 did not record any occurrence of flakes. According to data from the National Institute of Meteorology, since 1961 the absolute minimum temperature rec
Serra do Mar
Serra do Mar is a 1,500 km long system of mountain ranges and escarpments in Southeastern Brazil. The Serra do Mar runs parallel to the Atlantic Ocean coast from the state of Espírito Santo to southern Santa Catarina, although some literature includes Serra Geral in the Serra do Mar, in which case the range would extend to northeastern Rio Grande do Sul; the main escarpment forms the boundary between the sea-level littoral and the inland plateau, which has a mean altitude of 500 to 1,300 metres. This escarpment is part of the Great Escarpment that runs along much of the eastern coast of Brazil south from the city of Salvador, Bahia; the mountain ranges are discontinuous in several places and are given individual names such as Serra de Bocaina, Serra de Paranapiacaba, Serra Negra, Serra dos Órgãos, Serra do Indaiá, etc. The range extends to some large islands near the coastline, such as Ilhabela and Ilha Anchieta. With an altitude of 2,255 metres, Pico da Caledônia in Nova Friburgo is among the highest points in Serra do Mar. Geologically, the range belongs to the massive crystalline rock platform that forms Eastern South America, tectonically it is stable.
Most of the elevations of Serra do. At the time of the European discovery of Brazil, the Serra do Mar supported a rich and diversified ecosystem, composed of lush tropical rain forest, called Atlantic Forest. Due to urbanization and deforestation, most of the forest cover has been destroyed and what cover remains is exclusively on the steep escarpments facing the sea. A chain of national and state parks, ecological stations and biological reserves now protect the Mata Atlântica and its biological heritage, but acid rain, poachers, clandestine loggers, forest fires and encroachment by urban areas and farms are still causing active destruction in the areas around cities. Several large metropolises, such as Vale do Itajaí, Curitiba, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, are near the Serra do Mar. Reforestation and recuperation of biological diversity are notoriously difficult to bring about in destroyed rain forest habitats. Flora of Atlantic Forest Ecoregions of the Atlantic Forest biome List of plants of Atlantic Forest vegetation of Brazil