Brazilian Highway System
The Brazilian Highway System is the highway system of Brazil. As of 2010, the system consists of 2 million kilometers of roads, of which 200,000 km are paved; as it is in the United States, Canada or most countries in Europe, larger/wider highways have higher speed limits than normal urban roads, although minor highways, unpaved highways and sections of major highways running inside urban areas have a lower speed limit in general. The national speed limit for cars driving in non-urban roads is 110 km/h unless otherwise stated, regardless of the road design, weather or daylight. Brazilian Regional highways are named YY-XXX, where YY is the abbreviation of the state where the highway is running in and XXX is a number. Brazilian National highways are named BR-XXX. National highways connect multiple states altogether, are of major importance to the national economy and/or connect Brazil to another country; the meaning of the numbers are: 000-099 - it means. It is an exception to the cases below. 100-199 - it means that the highway runs in a south-north way 200-299 - it means that the highway runs in a west-east way 300-399 - it means that the highway runs in a diagonal way.
Highways with odd numbers run northeast-southwest, while numbers run northwest-southeast. 400-499 - it means that the highway interconnects two major highways. Brazilian highways receive names, but continue to have a YY/BR-XXX name. See highway system of São Paulo for numbering designation for São Paulo state roads used in some other states. In 1953, Adhemar de Barros governor of São Paulo, finished Via Anchieta, linking Santos to São Paulo, Via Anhanguera, linking São Paulo to Campinas; when Juscelino Kubitschek assumed the presidency, he created subsidies to bring multinationals like Volkswagen to Brazil and created thousand of miles of roads, linking distant regions of the country. In 1967, the first stretch of Via Castelo Branco, a 2X3 and 2X2 limited-access highway built at par with standards drawn by FHWA, linking the city of São Paulo to the western region of the São Paulo State, was finished, creating a standard for other highways in the same state. In the same year, the Via Dutra was modernized, between Rio de Janeiro.
The country would reach 200,000 km of paved roads in 2000. Between 1995 and 2005 three major highways were modernised; the Southern and Southeast regions of Brazil are connected by highways, most of them paved. In this region, when they are present are unpaved. Manaus, for example, has no major paved highways connecting it to any other city but Boa Vista in the north. Due to the country's growth and the associated traffic increase, the Government has started the construction and adaptation of main road sections into motorways; the first one to be completed was the so-called Via Dutra, the important highway connecting São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro, finished on the 1975 with a 2X2 setting, but retained some grade crossings. Other roads were built or expanded to dual carriageways, like the Via Fernão Dias, connecting Belo Horizonte to São Paulo; the projects are the link between Brasília and Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte and Juiz de Fora, with 200 km, the Rio-Bahia Road System, between Três Rios and Feira de Santana, the important connection between Palmares and Salvador.
The BR-010 is a radial highway that connects the national capital Brasília, to the city of Belém, in the state of Pará. It has the official name of Rodovia Bernardo Sayão, is called Belém-Brasília Highway or as Transbrasiliana Highway, in the stretch between the city of Estreito, in the state of Maranhão, the city of Belém; this is due to the fact that between Brasília and Estreito, the highway has many incomplete and unpaved stretches in the state of Tocantins. Between Brasília and Estreito, the original route of the Belém-Brasília Highway follows the BR-060, the BR-153 and the BR-226 highways, which are paved in this stretch; the BR-010 passes through the Federal District, the states of Goiás, Maranhão and Pará. BR-040 runs radially from near the national capital Brasília, in a northwest-southeast way, to Rio de Janeiro city. BR-040 is the modern way of the so-called "Caminho Novo", opened in the 18th century that linked Ouro Preto, the main center of gold mines of Minas Gerais to the Rio de Janeiro harbor.
In 1861 the road was paved from Petrópolis to Juiz de Fora, becoming the first road paved in Latin America until the 1920s. In 1928, Petrópolis was connected to Rio de Janeiro with a paved road. In the 1930s the route was changed to pass by the new capital of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, although it was unpaved until 1957, when the road was extended to
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
University of Campinas
The University of Campinas called Unicamp, is a public research university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Unicamp is ranked among the top universities in Brazil and Latin America. Established in 1962, Unicamp was designed from scratch as an integrated research center unlike other top Brazilian universities created by the consolidation of existing schools and institutes, its research focus reflects on half of its students being graduate students, the largest proportion across all large universities in Brazil, in the large number of graduate programs it offers: 153 compared to 70 undergraduate programs. It offers several non-degree granting open-enrollment courses to around 8,000 students through its extension school, its main campus occupies 3.5 square kilometres located in the Barão Geraldo district, a suburban area 12 kilometres from the center of Campinas, built shortly after the creation of the university. It has satellite campuses in Limeira and Paulínia, manages two technical high schools located in Campinas and Limeira.
Funding is provided entirely by the state government and, like other Brazilian public universities, no tuition fees or administrative fees are charged for undergraduate and graduate programs. Unicamp is responsible for around 15% of Brazilian research, a disproportionately high number when compared to much larger and older institutions in the country such as the University of São Paulo, it produces more patents than any other research organization in Brazil, being second only to the state-owned oil company, Petrobras. Multiple international university rankings place it amongst the best universities in the world, with QS placing it in the Top 200 globally and ranking it the 11th best university under 50 years, in 2015 it was rated as the best university in the country by Brazil's Ministry of Education. In the early 1960s the Government of the State of São Paulo planned to open a new research center in the interior of the state to promote development and industrialization in the region, commissioned Zeferino Vaz, founder of the University of São Paulo's School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, to organize it.
In parallel, a medical school was being planned in Campinas, a demand from the local population that dated from the early 1940s. The School of Medicine of Campinas was created by law in 1959, but actual implementation never took place; the new university was created by law on December 28, 1962, but effective functioning begun in 1966. Before that, only the School of Medicine functioned. In April 1963 the first vestibular, the general admissions exam, with 1,592 candidates competing for 50 spots in the medicine program; the first lecture in the newly created University of Campinas took place on May 20 of the same year. By 1965, the organizing commission for the new university started looking for a location for a new campus. A large area comprising 110 hectares was donated by the Almeida Prado family, located in a valley in the district of Barão Geraldo in the city of Campinas, near the intersections of multiple highways; until Barão Geraldo was a small village surrounded by farmland, in particular sugar cane plantations.
The new development brought dramatic change to the district, resulting in entire new neighborhoods being zoned and built by the same Almeida Prado family. Work on the new campus begun on October 5, 1966, the first building completed was the Institute of Biology, followed by administrative buildings. In the same year, Zeferino Vaz was nominated the rector. In parallel to the new campus, new units were opened in other cities; the Dental School of Piracicaba was absorbed in 1967, in 1969 the Engineering School of Limeira. Over the following two decades, the new university expanded rapidly; the campus grew to 19 institutes and schools, after Zeferino Vaz died in 1981 was named after him. With the campus construction completed, the School of Medical Sciences was moved into the new campus, its teaching hospital, Hospital de Clínicas, became the largest public hospital in the region. Expansion on the campus continued with new buildings and expansions being added nearly every year, but by the late 1970s, the university faced a crisis.
During its fast expansion, it relied on draft bylaws borrowed from the University of São Paulo, lacked formal internal regulations with the aging Zeferino Vaz, while no longer the rector, acting as a moderating force between parties with conflicting interests, in particular the leftist academic community and the State's government, appointed by the conservative military regime ruling the country. After Zeferino's death in 1981, a conflict took place between the university's General Coordinator and backed by the government, the Directive Council, composed of directors of the different institutes; the rector introduced new rules reducing the power of the General Coordinator. As retaliation, the State's government removed 6 members of the Directive Council, replacing them with people from the state's Education Council, loyal to the governor, Paulo Maluf. Tensions between the academic community and the government-appointed counselors increased, with the future Minister of Education, Paulo Renato Costa Souza president of the Faculty Association, classifying the episode as a "white intervention".
Following the dismissal of several institute heads and members of the administration, the administrative workers went on strike, with the support of students and faculty. With activities in the university frozen by the strike, the governor declared a formal intervention in the
Cosmópolis is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas; the population is 66,807 in an area of 154.67 km². The elevation is 652 m
Paulínia is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. It is part of the São Paulo Macrometropolis; the population is 100,128 in an area of 138.78 km². The elevation is 590 m, it is known for hosting the largest refinery of Petrobras. The municipality was created in 1964 from a part of the municipality of Campinas. Paulínia Futebol Clube is the municipality's football club, they play their home games at Estádio Municipal Luís Perissinoto. São José Betel The municipality contains part of the Mata de Santa Genebra, an area of relevant ecological interest. Boehringer Ingelheim inaugurated a new production site for veterinary vaccines in 2017. Theatro Municipal de Paulínia Atibaia River Jaguari River Escola Técnica de Paulínia Paulínia Shopping
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
Highway system of São Paulo
The highway system of São Paulo is the largest statewide road transportation system in Brazil, with 34,650 km. It consists of a hugely interconnected network of municipal and federal roads. More than 90% of the population is within 5 km of a paved road, it has the largest number of two-, four- and six-lane highways in Latin America. According to the National Confederation of Transports, it is the best highway grid in the country, with 59.4% classified as excellent. The term used in Portuguese language for highway is rodovia, for road is estrada; the responsibility for building, expanding and exploiting the state roads fall into the following categories: DERSA Desenvolvimento Rodoviário S. A. A state-owned company, responsible for some state-built roads and highways, such as Rodovias Dom Pedro I, Carvalho Pinto, Ayrton Senna, etc.. A state department belonging to the State Secretary of Transportation. State concessions to private companies. By the law nº 9.361, of July 5, 1996, the state government implemented a comprehensive program of privatization and public concession of highway infrastructure management and economic exploitation, whereby most of the highways under the tutelage and built by the state began to be managed by private companies.
In order to implement the Program, the highway grid was subdivided into 12 sections, with a total of 3,500 km, interconnecting 198 counties with a population of 20 million inhabitants. The following 12 companies were contracted under a public bidding system: AutoBan Autovias Centrovias Colinas Ecovias Intervias Renovias SPVias Tebe Triângulo do Sol ViaoesteUntil August 2005, these companies had invested R$6 billion and generated a revenue of R$2 billion for the state; the concessions led to the duplication of more than 480 km and the construction of 110 new roads. All conceded highways are equipped with fixed emergency phones every 1 km, horizontal and vertical signalling equipment, surveillance cameras, round-the-clock, free-of-charge mechanical and emergency relief vehicles. Which make São Paulo highways the most sophisticated and with the highest safety and service standards of Latin America. All conceded roads, including those managed by DERSA, are toll roads, in order to pay for the services and investments.
Roads managed by the state are not tolled. Toll collection is made in toll gates spaced along the road. Sometimes tolling occur only in other cases, in both directions. Toll pricing is set by the State Secretary of Transportation and vary from US$1 to US$4; the entire São Paulo system of highways use a unified non-stop electronic toll collection named "Sem Parar", based on RFID tags glued to the vehicle windshield, which comprises about 34% of the traffic through these roads. The system has 560,000 of these tags installed and generates 11 million of electronic transactions and revenues of ca. R$120 million per month. Within São Paulo, numbering of highways works as follows, starting with letters SP: numbers - indicates that the highway is radial, that is, connects the state capital to the interior; the number of the highway gives the clockwise angle that it makes with an imaginary line stemming from the state capital and extending northward. Thus SP-270 extends westward. Example: Rodovia Anhangüera, SP-330.
Odd numbers - indicates. The number gives the nearest point of the highway. Thus, SP-425 connects two cities away from the capital, its nearest point is distant 425 km from the state capital, it is customary in Brazil, in São Paulo, to give official names to the highways and roads to pay homage to some politician, significant personality, national hero, etc. or to some symbolic or collective concept. The main two-lane highways built and maintained by the state of São Paulo are: SP-340: Rodovia Adhemar de Barros SP-150: Rodovia Anchieta SP-330: Rodovia Anhangüera SP-322: Rodovia Attilio Balbo SP-070: Rodovia Ayrton Senna SP-348: Rodovia dos Bandeirantes SP-326: Rodovia Brigadeiro Faria Lima SP-070: Rodovia Carvalho Pinto SP-280: Rodovia Castelo Branco SP-320: Rodovia Euclides da Cunha SP-065: Rodovia Dom Pedro I SP-160: Rodovia dos Imigrantes SP-332: Rodovia Professor Zeferino Vaz SP-306: Rodovia Luiz de Queiroz SP-300: Rodovia Marechal Cândido Rondon SP-270: Rodovia Raposo Tavares SP-075: Rodovia Santos Dumont SP-310: Rodovia Washington LuísOther important double- or single-lane roads in the state are: SP-099: Rodovia dos Tamoios SP-123: Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro SP-425: Rodovia Assis Chateaubriand SP-101: Rodovia Jornalista Francisco Aguirre Proença SP-333: Rodovia Miguel JubranThree metropolitan beltways, or ring systems interconnect several highways, encircling the urban core of the cities of São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto: Rodoanel Mário Covas: around the city of São Paulo interconnects the Anhangüera, Castelo Branco, Raposo Tavares, Régis Bittencou