In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Mogi das Cruzes
Mogi das Cruzes is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, located within the metropolitan region of the state capital of the city of São Paulo. The population is 424,633 in an area of 713 km², it is located 40 km to the east of the city of São Paulo. It was founded in 1560 by the bandeirantes; the municipality is subdivided into the following districts: Brás Cubas Biritiba-Ussu César de Sousa Jundiapeba Quatinga Sabaúna Taiaçupeba Bruno Cazarine - professional footballer, played at top levels in Brazil, Middle East, Asia and in Australia with Sydney FC. Edmar Halovskyi - professional footballer, plays for Ukrainian national team. Maikon Leite - professional footballer, plays for Figueirense. Maurício de Sousa - cartoonist, creator of Monica's Gang. Neymar - professional footballer, plays for Brazilian national team. Yan Gomes - baseball catcher, plays for the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball. Zhang Daqian - Chinese artist and forger. Media related to Mogi das Cruzes at Wikimedia Commons Official website of Mogi das Cruzes Municipal Government
Paraíba do Sul
The Paraíba do Sul, or termed Paraíba, is a river in southeast Brazil. It flows 1,137 km west to northeast from its farthest source at the source of the river Paraitinga to the sea near Campos dos Goytacazes; the river receives its name. Its main tributaries are the rivers Jaguari, Paraibuna, Preto and Muriaé; these last two join the main river 140 km and 50 km from the mouth respectively. The valley of the Paraíba do Sul is porrathe latitudes 20°26' and 23°39'S and the longitudes of 41° and 46°30'W and covers an area of about 57,000 km2 distributed over three states; the main economic activities are industry and cattle raising. Presently only two parts of the river can be navigated: The lower section, between the mouth and São Fidélis, about 90 km, it has a declivity of 22 cm/km. There is incipient navigation carried out by small boats that transport construction material to the city of Campos dos Goytacazes; the upper middle section, between Cachoeira Paulista and Guararema, about 280 km. Despite the small declivity of 19 cm/km, navigation is restricted to tourist boats.
Elsewhere navigation is hampered by various obstacles. Other factors impeding navigation are the existence of highway and railway bridges, the proximity of roads and railways following the riverbank and the location of several cities on its banks; the Paraíba Valley is fertile and has always been a region of dense population. Cities located on or near the river are State of Rio de Janeiro: Barra do Piraí Barra Mansa Três Rios Paraiba do Sul Sapucaia Campos dos Goytacazes - center of a rich sugar cane growing area Vassouras - site of a respected agricultural university Volta Redonda - site of Brazil's first steel industry) State of São Paulo: Aparecida - site of Brazil's most famous Marian pilgrimage site Guaratinguetá São José dos Campos - high-tech industry and home to Embraer, Brazil's aircraft manufacturer Taubaté - Volkswagen and Ford plants State of Minas Gerais: Além Paraíba Estrela Dalva Juiz de Fora - Important manufacturing city on the Paraibuna River, one of the major tributaries of the Paraíba.
Unlike rivers in northern Brazil where seasonal variations in water temperature are limited, those in southern Brazil, such as Paraíba do Sul, exhibit distinct differences between winter and summer. During a survey of the river in Lorena, São Paulo, the water varied from 26.6 °C in the summer to 15.2 °C in the winter. The pH is neutral and fluctuates between 6 and 8; the Paraíba do Sul basin is home to just above 100 native fish species with most in the families Loricariidae and Trichomycteridae. About 40% of the fish species in the river basin are endemic and new species have been discovered in recent years, including the small catfish Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis that only was scientifically described in 2013; as a consequence of flowing through one of the most densely populated and industrialised parts of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul suffers from pollution. Studies of the native cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis have found that levels of some heavy metals exceed the limits set by the Brazilian Food Legislation.
Other threats are dams and the 70 introduced species, including 46 species of non-native fish and the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea. Several native species are threatened, a general fall in abundance and species richness has been observed. Some, such as the endemic Hypostomus auroguttatus, have adapted to the changes; the catfish Potamarius grandoculis is only known from the vicinity of the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul and Doce Rivers, but it may be extinct. Other threatened species in the Paraíba do Sul basin are the bivalves Diplodon dunkerianus, D. expansus and D. fontaineanus, the Hoge's side-necked turtle. A national conservation plan with recommendations for the river basin was published in 2010
Highway system of São Paulo
The highway system of São Paulo is the largest statewide road transportation system in Brazil, with 34,650 km. It consists of a hugely interconnected network of municipal and federal roads. More than 90% of the population is within 5 km of a paved road, it has the largest number of two-, four- and six-lane highways in Latin America. According to the National Confederation of Transports, it is the best highway grid in the country, with 59.4% classified as excellent. The term used in Portuguese language for highway is rodovia, for road is estrada; the responsibility for building, expanding and exploiting the state roads fall into the following categories: DERSA Desenvolvimento Rodoviário S. A. A state-owned company, responsible for some state-built roads and highways, such as Rodovias Dom Pedro I, Carvalho Pinto, Ayrton Senna, etc.. A state department belonging to the State Secretary of Transportation. State concessions to private companies. By the law nº 9.361, of July 5, 1996, the state government implemented a comprehensive program of privatization and public concession of highway infrastructure management and economic exploitation, whereby most of the highways under the tutelage and built by the state began to be managed by private companies.
In order to implement the Program, the highway grid was subdivided into 12 sections, with a total of 3,500 km, interconnecting 198 counties with a population of 20 million inhabitants. The following 12 companies were contracted under a public bidding system: AutoBan Autovias Centrovias Colinas Ecovias Intervias Renovias SPVias Tebe Triângulo do Sol ViaoesteUntil August 2005, these companies had invested R$6 billion and generated a revenue of R$2 billion for the state; the concessions led to the duplication of more than 480 km and the construction of 110 new roads. All conceded highways are equipped with fixed emergency phones every 1 km, horizontal and vertical signalling equipment, surveillance cameras, round-the-clock, free-of-charge mechanical and emergency relief vehicles. Which make São Paulo highways the most sophisticated and with the highest safety and service standards of Latin America. All conceded roads, including those managed by DERSA, are toll roads, in order to pay for the services and investments.
Roads managed by the state are not tolled. Toll collection is made in toll gates spaced along the road. Sometimes tolling occur only in other cases, in both directions. Toll pricing is set by the State Secretary of Transportation and vary from US$1 to US$4; the entire São Paulo system of highways use a unified non-stop electronic toll collection named "Sem Parar", based on RFID tags glued to the vehicle windshield, which comprises about 34% of the traffic through these roads. The system has 560,000 of these tags installed and generates 11 million of electronic transactions and revenues of ca. R$120 million per month. Within São Paulo, numbering of highways works as follows, starting with letters SP: numbers - indicates that the highway is radial, that is, connects the state capital to the interior; the number of the highway gives the clockwise angle that it makes with an imaginary line stemming from the state capital and extending northward. Thus SP-270 extends westward. Example: Rodovia Anhangüera, SP-330.
Odd numbers - indicates. The number gives the nearest point of the highway. Thus, SP-425 connects two cities away from the capital, its nearest point is distant 425 km from the state capital, it is customary in Brazil, in São Paulo, to give official names to the highways and roads to pay homage to some politician, significant personality, national hero, etc. or to some symbolic or collective concept. The main two-lane highways built and maintained by the state of São Paulo are: SP-340: Rodovia Adhemar de Barros SP-150: Rodovia Anchieta SP-330: Rodovia Anhangüera SP-322: Rodovia Attilio Balbo SP-070: Rodovia Ayrton Senna SP-348: Rodovia dos Bandeirantes SP-326: Rodovia Brigadeiro Faria Lima SP-070: Rodovia Carvalho Pinto SP-280: Rodovia Castelo Branco SP-320: Rodovia Euclides da Cunha SP-065: Rodovia Dom Pedro I SP-160: Rodovia dos Imigrantes SP-332: Rodovia Professor Zeferino Vaz SP-306: Rodovia Luiz de Queiroz SP-300: Rodovia Marechal Cândido Rondon SP-270: Rodovia Raposo Tavares SP-075: Rodovia Santos Dumont SP-310: Rodovia Washington LuísOther important double- or single-lane roads in the state are: SP-099: Rodovia dos Tamoios SP-123: Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro SP-425: Rodovia Assis Chateaubriand SP-101: Rodovia Jornalista Francisco Aguirre Proença SP-333: Rodovia Miguel JubranThree metropolitan beltways, or ring systems interconnect several highways, encircling the urban core of the cities of São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto: Rodoanel Mário Covas: around the city of São Paulo interconnects the Anhangüera, Castelo Branco, Raposo Tavares, Régis Bittencou
São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos is a major city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One of the leading industrial and research centers with emphasis in aerospace sciences in Latin America, the city is located in the Paraíba Valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, it is the main city of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte. A native of São José dos Campos is called a joseense. Total area: 1,099.60 km2 urban area: 353.9 km2 rural: 745.7 km2 Source: City administration website Northern Border: Camanducaia, Sapucaí Mirim in Minas Gerais Southern Border: Jacareí, Jambeiro in São Paulo State Eastern Border: Monteiro Lobato, Caçapava in São Paulo State Western border: Igaratá, Joanópolis, Piracaia in São Paulo State The municipality comprises three districts: São José dos Campos — the city itself, Eugênio de Melo and São Francisco Xavier. The last one is known for its natural sites and ecotourism.
The district of São José dos Campos is subdivided into 2 subdistricts. However, for administrative purposes, the city is composed of 7 urban regions: Center, South, East, Southeast and São Francisco Xavier. Highlands predominate in the northern region of the municipality with altitudes ranging from 660 to 975 m; the northern border of the municipality lies over the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, with some peaks reaching over 2000 meters. The highest point in the municipality is known. In the urban area, there are rolling hills; the lowest elevation in the city is found in the Paraíba do Sul river, at an elevation of 550 m. The municipality is bounded at the south by the'Serra do Jambeiro' mountains, with an elevation of about 900m. Municipality: Elevations 550 to 2,082 m City: Elevations 550 to 690 m; the municipality holds the 11,559 hectares São Francisco Xavier Environmental Protection Area, established in 2002. It contains part of the 292,000 hectares Mananciais do Rio Paraíba do Sul Environmental Protection Area, created in 1982 to protect the sources of the Paraiba do Sul river.
The climate of the city can be best described as a mix between the subtropical climate of southern parts of the country, the tropical climate of most of the country and the subtropical highland climate of neighbouring mountainous regions. Technically, the city has a humid subtropical climate with significant less precipitation during winters. Winters are mild, with average temperature in the coldest month of 17 °C. Summers are not excessively hot, with average temperature of the hotttest month of 24 °C. With global warming it is likely that the city's climate will transition to a true tropical climate in the near future. Frosts are rare, happening on average once per decade. There's no record of snow precipitation in the city center; the peaks at the northern border of the municipality due to altitude have a colder Cwb/Cfb climates, with occasional snowfalls. The origins of São José dos Campos lie at the end of the 16th Century when Jesuits founded a cattle farm, Aldeia do Rio Comprido; the farm was created through a concession of settlements around 1590 to the Society of Jesus.
The farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido, natural division between São José and the city of Jacareí today. The farm status was an artifice to hide a religious outpost, one of the several Jesuit Reductions in Brazil, known for their resistance to enslavement, from the Portuguese expedition leaders and indigenous people hunters, known as the Bandeirantes. On September 10, 1611, the local was recognized and the farmers precluded from utilizing the Natives as slaves. However, a turmeric conflict between farmers and the religious led to the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1640 from the region and the consequent dispersion of the mission; the Jesuits returned and reestablished a new settlement, where the current city center is spotted. It was about 15 km northeast of the previous mission, on a higher plain with a privileged view above a geological depression, which guaranteed security against invasions and floods. Again, despite being a new mission, it was treated as a cattle farm; the initial urbanization plan is attributed to the Jesuit priest Manoel de Leão, whose main occupation was to be an administrator of the community.
In 1692, documents named the village. At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle in Brazil, the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines. After the definitive expulsion of Jesuits from the Portuguese Empire in 1759, all the religious order's assets, such as farms and villages were taken under the Portuguese Crown's custody; the governor, D. Luis Antonio Botelho Mourão, had as a priority to turn these new assets into productive units and increase tax collection. For that, Boutelho Mourão requested authorization from the Viceroy to create civil parishes, known as freguesias, to change the fiscal status of villages to the category of V
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Ubatuba is a Brazilian municipality, located on the southeast coast, in the state of São Paulo. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte; the population is 86,392 in an area of 723.88 km². Ubatuba is linked with the Rodovia Longitudinal or the BR-101, it is located east of east/north/east of Santos and west of Rio de Janeiro. The city lies on the Tropic of Capricorn; the urban area is concentrated in the Atlantic and valley areas. The city receives rain, hence the nickname Uba Chuva. Much of the land to the north is forested and mountainous, forming a part of the Serra do Mar mountains. Serra do Mar State Park covers 83% of the city and has few connector roads through the mountain range; the municipality contains part of the Tupinambás Ecological Station, which protects some of the coastal islands. A marine park was created under Projeto TAMAR to protect sea turtles. In addition, the Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo runs the Clarimundo de Jesus research base in Ubatuba.
Ubatuba is an important tourist city. Ubatuba features over 100 beaches. Among these are Maranduba, Lázaro, Vermelha, Enseada, Perequê, Saco da Ribeira. Ubatuba features an island named Anchieta after José de Anchieta, it has been a nature preserve since March 22, 1977. Ubatuba is considered, by law, as "The Surf Capital of São Paulo State"; the city has received this honour because more than ten important surf contests are held off its beaches every year, including two world qualifying series, two Super Surf Pro series, other competitions supported by such well-established brands as Billabong and Dunkelvolk. The city is known by its biodiversity in relation to birds. There are more than 565 different birds species identified, what has each day attracted more and more birdwatchers; the origin of the name comes from tuba. Ubatuba was the place where the Portuguese signed the first treaty of peace of the Americas with the Tupinambá Indians, a treaty that kept Brazil in Portuguese hands, with only one language and one faith.
Back in the 16th century the Tupinambá families were forced into slavery, working on sugar cane plantations along the Southern Shores surrounding the towns of Saint Vincent and Itanhaém, a region called "Morpion" at that time. The Tupinambá responded to this outrage with the Tamoio Confederation, a powerful military alliance that stood to destroy Saint Vincent, with the help of the French, who had founded a Protestant refugee colony, France Antarctique in Guanabara Bay before the foundation of Rio de Janeiro; the Portuguese sent two Jesuit priests, Fathers Anchieta and Nobrega, to Ubatuba, to make peace with the Tupinambá Indians. Anchieta was kept as a hostage and Nobrega returned to Saint Vincent along with the Chief Cunhambebe to make arrangements for the final Treaty; the Portuguese won, keeping the land. Green ubatuba Media related to Ubatuba at Wikimedia Commons Ubatuba travel guide from Wikivoyage City Hall website Ubatuba on Explorevale