Hemiunu is a man who lived in Ancient Egypt and he is believed to be the architect of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt. As vizier, Hemiunu was one of the most important members of the court and responsible for all the royal works, his tomb lies close to Khufu's pyramid. As vizier he succeeded his father and his uncle, Kanefer. Hemiunu was his wife, Itet, he is a relative of Khufu, the Old Kingdom king. Hemiunu had many brothers. In his tomb he is described as a hereditary prince, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, on a statue found in his serdab, Hemiunu is given the titles: king's son of his body, chief justice, vizier, greatest of the five of the House of Thoth. Hemiunu's tomb contains reliefs of his image; some stones of his badly damaged mastaba are marked with dates referring to Khufu's reign. His statue can be found at the Pelizaeus Museum, Germany; this statue is scheduled to be loaned for the opening of the Grand Egyptian Museum. His statue was found in the walled-up serdab of Hemiunu's mastaba by archaeologist Hermann Junker in March 1912.
Ancient looters had ransacked the mastaba in their quest for valuable items and the wall to the serbad had a child-sized hole cut into it. The robber forcefully gouged out the statue's precious inlaid eyes and gold castings, in the process the right arm was broken and the head severed; the head has been restored. The seated statue is well-preserved, apart from the damage mentioned above, is notable for its realism, not found in ancient Egyptian art depicting royal figures. Hemiunu's features are only stylized and based on his appearance, he is depicted with notable accumulation of fat in the pectoral region. This contrasts with the more idealized representation of male subjects in royal portraiture in this and most succeeding periods of Ancient Egyptian art. Dieter Arnold, The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I. B. Tauris, 2002 Nigel C. Strudwick, Texts from the Pyramid, SBL, 2005 Cambridge Ancient History by Cambridge University Press, 2000 Francesco Tiradritti, Arte egizia, Giunti, 2002 Lyon Sprague De Camp, Catherine Crook De Camp, Ancient Ruins and Archaeology, Doubleday, 1964 Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, 2003 Media related to Hemiunu at Wikimedia Commons
Art of ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about the 31st century BC to the 4th century AD. Ancient Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and sculpture and was both stylized and symbolic, it was famously conservative, Egyptian styles changed remarkably little over more than three thousand years. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and now there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past. Wall art was not produced to be seen. Ancient Egyptian art included paintings, sculptures in wood and ceramics, drawings on papyrus, jewelry and other art media, it displays an extraordinarily vivid representation of the ancient Egyptian's socioeconomic status and belief systems. The Ancient Egyptian language had no word for'art', art served an functional purpose, intimately bound up with religion and ideology. To render a subject in art was to give it permanence.
Hence, ancient Egyptian art portrayed an idealized, not realistic, view of the world. There was no tradition of individual artistic expression since art served a wider, cosmic purpose of maintaining created order. Egyptian art is famous for its distinctive figure convention, used for the main figures in both relief and painting, with parted legs and head shown as seen from the side, but the torso seen as from the front, a standard set of proportions making up the figure, using 18 "fists" to go from the ground to the hair-line on the forehead; this appears as early as the Narmer Palette from Dynasty I, but there as elsewhere the convention is not used for minor figures shown engaged in some activity, such as the captives and corpses. Other conventions make statues of males darker than females ones. Conventionalized portrait statues appear from as early as Dynasty II, before 2,780 BC, with the exception of the art of the Amarna period of Ahkenaten, some other periods such as Dynasty XII, the idealized features of rulers, like other Egyptian artistic conventions, changed little until after the Greek conquest.
Egyptian art uses hierarchical proportions, where the size of figures indicates their relative importance. The gods or the divine pharaoh are larger than other figures and the figures of high officials or the tomb owner are smaller and at the smallest scale any servants and entertainers, animals and architectural details. Symbolism can be observed throughout Egyptian art and played an important role in establishing a sense of order; the pharaoh's regalia, for example, represented his power to maintain order. Animals were highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art; some colors were expressive. The ancient Egyptian language had 4 basic colour terms: kem, hedj and desher. Blue, for example, symbolized fertility and the life-giving waters of the Nile. Blue and green were the colors of vegetation, hence of rejuvenation. Osiris could be shown with green skin; this color symbolism explains the popularity of turquoise and faience in funerary equipment. The use of black for royal figures expressed the fertile alluvial soil of the Nile from which Egypt was born, carried connotations of fertility and regeneration.
Hence statues of the king as Osiris showed him with black skin. Black was associated with the afterlife, was the color of funerary deities such as Anubis. Gold indicated divinity due to its unnatural association with precious materials. Furthermore, gold was regarded by the ancient Egyptians as "the flesh of the god." Silver, referred to as "white gold" by the Egyptians, was called "the bones of the god."Red and yellow were ambivalent colors. They were associated with the sun. Carnelian has similar symbolic associations in jewelry. Red ink was used to write important names of papyrus documents. However, red was the color of the deserts, hence associated with Seth. Egyptian faience, made from silica, found in form of quartz in sand and natron, produced cheap and attractive small objects in a variety of colors, was used for a variety of types of objects including jewelry. Ancient Egyptian glass goes back to early Egyptian history but was at first much a luxury material. In periods it became common, decorated small jars for perfume and other liquids are found as grave goods.
Ancient Egyptians used steatite and carved small pieces of vases, images of deities, of animals and several other objects. Ancient Egyptian artists discovered the art of covering pottery with enamel. Covering by enamel was applied to some stone works; the color blue, first used in the expensive imported stone lapis lazuli, was regarded by ancient Egypt, the pigment Egyptian blue was used to color a variety of materials. Egyptian blue as a material related to, but distinct from and glass. Called frit, Egyptian blue was made from quartz, alkali and one or more coloring agents; these were heated together until they fused to become a crystalline mass, of uniform color throughout. Egyptian blue could be worked by hand or pressed into molds, to make statuettes and other small objects, it could be grou
Egyptology is the study of ancient Egyptian history, literature, religion and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe on the Continent, Egyptology is regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is regarded as a branch of archaeology; the first explorers were the ancient Egyptians themselves. Thutmose IV restored the Sphinx and had the dream that inspired his restoration carved on the famous Dream Stele. Less than two centuries Prince Khaemweset, fourth son of Ramesses II, is famed for identifying and restoring historic buildings and temples including the pyramid; some of the first historical accounts of Egypt were given by Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus and the lost work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest, during the reign of Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II in the 3rd century BC. The Ptolemies were much interested in the work of the ancient Egyptians, many of the Egyptian monuments, including the pyramids, were restored by them.
The Romans carried out restoration work in Egypt. Throughout the Middle Ages travelers on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land would deviate to visit sites within Egypt, which would include Cairo and its environs, where the Holy Family was thought to have fled, the great Pyramids, which were thought to be Joseph's Granaries, built by the Hebrew patriarch to store grain during the years of plenty. A number of their accounts have survived and offer insights as to conditions in their respective time periods. Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi, a teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments; the 15th-century Egyptian historian al-Maqrizi wrote detailed accounts of Egyptian antiquities. European exploration and travel writings of ancient Egypt commenced from the 13th century onward, with only occasional detours into a more scientific approach, notably by Claude Sicard, Benoît de Maillet, Frederic Louis Norden and Richard Pococke. In the early 17th century, John Greaves measured the pyramids, having inspected the broken Obelisk of Domitian in Rome destined for the Earl of Arundel's collection in London.
He went on to publish the illustrated Pyramidographia in 1646, while the Jesuit scientist-priest Athanasius Kircher was the first to hint at the phonetic importance of Egyptian hieroglyphs, demonstrating Coptic as a vestige of early Egyptian, for which he is considered a "founder" of Egyptology. In the late 18th century, with Napoleon's scholars' recording of Egyptian flora and history, the study of many aspects of ancient Egypt became more scientifically oriented; the British gained the Rosetta Stone. Modern Egyptology is perceived as beginning about 1822. Egyptology's modern history begins with the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte; the subsequent publication of Mémoires sur l'Égypte in 1800, Description de l'Égypte between 1809 and 1829 made numerous ancient Egyptian source materials available to Europeans for the first time. Jean-François Champollion, Thomas Young and Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim; the German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt.
Champollion announced his general decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time, employing the Rosetta Stone as his first aid. The Stone's decipherment was a significant development of Egyptology. With subsequently ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language, the study of Ancient Egyptian civilisation was able to proceed with greater academic rigour and with all the added impetus that comprehension of the written sources was able to engender. Egyptology became more professional via work of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, among others. Petrie introduced techniques of field preservation and excavating. Howard Carter's expedition brought much acclaim to the field of Egyptology. Many educated amateurs now travelled to Egypt, including women such as Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. Who both left accounts of their travels, which revealed learned familiarity with all the latest European Egyptology. In the modern era, the Ministry of State for Antiquities controls excavation permits for Egyptologists to conduct their work.
The field can now use geophysical methods and other applications of modern sensing techniques to further Egyptology. Egyptology was established as an academic discipline through the research of Emmanuel de Rougé in France, Samuel Birch in England, Heinrich Brugsch in Germany. In 1880, Flinders Petrie, another British Egyptologist, revolutionised the field of archaeology through controlled and scientifically recorded excavations. Petrie's work determined that Egyptian culture dated back as early as 4500 BC; the British Egypt Exploration Fund founded in 1882 and other Egyptologists promoted Petrie's methods. Other scholars worked on producing a hieroglyphic dictionary, developing a Demotic lexicon, establishing an outline of ancient Egyptian history. In the United States, the founding of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago and the expedition of James Henry Breasted to Egypt and Nubia established Egyptology as a legitimate field of study. In 1924, Breasted started the Epigraphic Survey to make and publish accurate copies of monuments.
In the late 19th
History of Peru
The history of Peru spans 4 millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the lakes. Peru was home to the Norte Chico civilization, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the six oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most advanced state in Pre-Columbian America, it was conquered by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, which established a Viceroyalty with jurisdiction over most of its South American domains. The nation declared independence from Spain in 1821, but consolidated only after the Battle of Ayacucho, three years later. Hunting tools dating back to more than 11,000 years ago have been found inside the caves of Pachacamac, Telarmachay and Lauricocha; some of the oldest civilizations appeared circa 6000 BC in the coastal provinces of Chilca and Paracas, in the highland province of Callejón de Huaylas. Over the following three thousand years, inhabitants switched from nomadic lifestyles to cultivating land, as evidence from sites such as Jiskairumoko and Huaca Prieta demonstrates.
Cultivation of plants such as corn and cotton began, as well as the domestication of animals such as the wild ancestors of the llama, the alpaca and the guinea pig. Inhabitants practiced spinning and knitting of cotton and wool and pottery; as these inhabitants became sedentary, farming allowed them to build settlements and new societies emerged along the coast and in the Andean mountains. The first known city in the Americas was Caral, located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima, it was built in 2500 BC. What is left from the civilization called Norte Chico, is about 30 pyramidal structures built up in receding terraces ending in a flat roof. Caral is one of the world centers of the rise of civilization. In the early 21st century, archeologists have discovered new evidence of ancient pre-Ceramic complex cultures. In 2005 Tom D. Dillehay and his team announced the discovery of three irrigation canals that were 5,400 years old, a possible fourth, 6,700 years old, all in the Zaña Valley in northern Peru, evidence of community activity to support improved agriculture at a much earlier date than believed.
In 2006, Robert Benfer and a research team discovered a 4,200-year-old observatory at Buena Vista, a site in the Andes several kilometers north of present-day Lima. They believe the observatory was related to the society's reliance on agriculture and understanding the seasons; the site includes. In 2007 the archeologist Walter Alva and his team found a 4,000-year-old temple with painted murals at Ventarrón, in the northwest Lambayeque region; the temple contained ceremonial offerings gained from exchange with Peruvian jungle societies, as well as those from the Ecuadoran coast. Such finds show sophisticated, monumental construction requiring large-scale organization of labor, suggesting that hierarchical, complex cultures arose in South America much earlier than scholars had thought. Many other civilizations developed and were absorbed by the most powerful ones such as Kotosh, Paracas, Nasca, Tiwanaku, Lambayeque and Chincha, among others; the Paracas culture emerged on the southern coast around 300 BC.
They are known for their use of vicuña fibers instead of just cotton to produce fine textiles—innovations that did not reach the northern coast of Peru until centuries later. Coastal cultures such as the Moche and Nazca flourished from about 100 BC to about AD 700: the Moche produced impressive metalwork, as well as some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca are known for their textiles and the enigmatic Nazca lines; these coastal cultures began to decline as a result of recurring el Niño floods and droughts. In consequence, the Huari and Tiwanaku, who dwelt inland in the Andes became the predominant cultures of the region encompassing much of modern-day Peru and Bolivia, they were succeeded by powerful city-states, such as Chancay and Cajamarca, two empires: Chimor and Chachapoyas culture These cultures developed advanced techniques of cultivation and silver craft, pottery and knitting. Around 700 BC, they appear to have developed systems of social organization that were the precursors of the Inca civilization.
In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD. Not all Andean cultures were willing to offer their loyalty to the Incas as the Incas expanded their empire, many were hostile; the people of the Chachapoyas culture were an example of this, but the Inca conquered and integrated them into their empire. The Incas built dynasty of pre-Columbian America; the Tahuantinsuyo—which is derived from Quechua for "The Four United Regions"—reached its greatest extension at the beginning of the 16th century. It dominated a territory that included: the southwest part of Ecuador, part of Colombia, the northern part of Chile, the northwest part of Argentina; the empire originated from a tribe based in Cusco. Pachacutec wasn't the first Inca, but he was the first ruler to expand the boundaries of the Cusco state- he could be compared to Alexander the great, Julius Caesar and Genghis Khan.
Hildesheim is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants. It is in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste River, a small tributary of the Leine River. With the Hildesheim Cathedral and the St. Michael's Church Hildesheim has become a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. Hildesheim, one of the oldest cities in Northern Germany, became the seat of the Bishopric of Hildesheim in 815 and may have been founded when the bishop moved from Elze to the Innerste ford, an important market on the Hellweg trade route; the settlement around the cathedral quickly developed into a town and was awarded market rights by King Otto III in 983. The market was held in a street called Old Market which still exists today; the first market place was laid out around the church St. Andreas; when the city grew further, a bigger market place became necessary. The present market place of Hildesheim was laid out at the beginning of the 13th century when the city had about 5,000 inhabitants.
When Hildesheim obtained city status in 1249, it was one of the biggest cities in Northern Germany. For four centuries the clergy ruled Hildesheim, before a city hall was built and the citizens gained some influence and independence. Construction of the present City Hall started in 1268. In 1367 Hildesheim became a member of the Hanseatic League. A war between the citizens and their bishop cost dearly in 1519 -- 23. Hildesheim became Lutheran in 1542, only the cathedral and a few other buildings remained in imperial hands. Several villages around the city remained Catholic as well. In 1813, after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Kingdom of Hanover, annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia as a province after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1868 a valuable trove of about 70 Roman silver vessels for eating and drinking, the so-called Hildesheim Treasure, was unearthed by Prussian soldiers; the city was damaged by air raids in 1945 on 22 March. Although it had little military significance, two months before the end of the war in Europe the historic city was bombed as part of the Area Bombing Directive in order to undermine the morale of the German people.
28.5% of the houses were destroyed and 44.7% damaged. 26.8% of the houses remained undamaged. The centre, which had retained its medieval character until was levelled; as in many cities, priority was given to rapid building of badly needed housing, concrete structures took the place of the destroyed buildings. Most of the major churches, two of them now UNESCO World Heritage Sites, were rebuilt in the original style soon after the war. During the war, valuable world heritage materials had been hidden in the basement of the city wall. In 1978, the University of Hildesheim was founded. In the 1980s a reconstruction of the historic centre began; some of the unattractive concrete buildings around the market place were torn down and replaced by replicas of the original buildings. In the autumn of 2007, a decision was made to reconstruct the Umgestülpter Zuckerhut, an iconic half-timbered house famous for its unusual shape. In 2015 the city and the diocese celebrates their 1200 anniversary with the Day of Lower Saxony.
In 1542 most of the inhabitants became Lutherans. Today, 28.5% of the inhabitants self-identify as Roman Catholics and 38.3% as Protestants. 33.0 % of the inhabitants do not have a religion at all. The Serbian Orthodox bishop of Frankfurt and all of Germany has his seat in Himmelsthür; the historic market place was reconstructed in 1984–1990 after its destruction in the March 1945 air raid. The more noteworthy buildings in the square are: The Knochenhaueramtshaus built in 1529 and destroyed in 1945, it was reconstructed from 1987 to 1989 according to original plans; the façade is sumptuously decorated with German proverbs. Today the building houses the City Museum; the Bäckeramtshaus is a half-timbered house, built in 1825. It was destroyed in 1945 and rebuilt 1987-89. Today, it houses a café; the Town Hall, erected in the 13th century in Gothic style. Destroyed in 1945, it was rebuilt and inaugurated in 1954; the Tempelhaus, a late-Gothic 14th-century patrician house, which today houses the tourist information office.
It suffered some damage during the Second World War but was restored and inaugurated in 1950. The Wedekindhaus, a 16th-century patrician house, is characterised by its high, ornately carved storeys including their ledges with depictions of allegorical figures; the adjoining Lüntzelhaus was built in 1755 in Baroque style. The Rolandhaus was built in the 14th century in Gothic style. In 1730, the house was remodelled, a Baroque portal and a large bay window were added; the Stadtschänke is a large half-timbered house, built in 1666. The smaller adjoining Rococcohaus was built in 1730 in rococo style; the Wollenwebergildehaus was built in 1600. The Romanesque St. Mary's Cathedral, with other treasures; the cathedral was built in the 9th century, but completely destroyed in 1945. It has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985; the "Thousand-year Rose" is a reputedly 1,000‑year‑old dog rose bush the world's oldest living rose. It continues to flourish on the wall of the cathedra
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website