Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C
Mondercange is a commune in the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette in south-western Luxembourg. It derives its name from Mondercange; as of 2018 the commune has a population of 6,936 inhabitants. As of 2017, the town of Mondercange, which lies in the west of the commune, has a population of 3,532. Other villages within the commune include Bergem and Pontpierre. Mondercange is home to the Luxembourg Football Federation, the governing body for football in Luxembourg; the local football team FC Mondercange, who compete in Luxembourg's second-tier Division of Honour, play their home matches at the commune's Stade Communal. The karting track in Modercange was used by Michael Schumacher and Jarno Trulli, amongst others, at the beginning of their racing careers owing to Luxembourg's low age restrictions for karting licences. Media related to Mondercange at Wikimedia Commons
Pétange is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette. Pétange lies on the borders with both France; as of 2007, the town of Pétange, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 7,399. Other towns within the commune include Rodange; the commune is one of the smallest communes of Luxembourg, yet is the fifth-most populous. It is the most-populous commune without city status; the modern settlement of Pétange was first mentioned in 938 by the name'Perdgitten'. Six centuries Pétange had still not acquired much prominence. In 1601, the boundary between Luxembourg and the Duchy of Lorraine was definitively demarcated for the first time; the modern commune was divided between the two, with the town of Pétange going to Luxembourg, but the towns of Rodange and Lamadelaine, which are further to the south, lying on the Lorrainian side of the border. When, in 1795, Luxembourg was annexed into Revolutionary France as part of the département of Forêts, its former territories were reunited, the commune's territory was established as it is today.
However, when Luxembourg passed to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, after the Congress of Vienna, the towns of Rodange and Lamadelaine passed with it. The town's importance grew in the late nineteenth century, thanks to the booming iron-mining and steel industries; the first railway into Pétange was opened in 1873. Further railway lines were added to Luxembourg City. On 9 September 1944, Pétange became the first commune in the country to be liberated by Allied soldiers at the end of the German occupation in the Second World War. In remembrance to the first soldier to die in the liberation, a memorial was erected in his honor: Hyman Josefson Square; the commune lies in the extreme south-west of Luxembourg, bordering both the French département of Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Belgian province of Luxembourg. The town of Rodange lies just across the border from the Belgian town of Aubange. Pétange is situated at the west end of the Red Lands: iron-rich sedimentary rocks that form the far south and south-west of Luxembourg.
The town lies in the upper reaches of the Chiers valley, is one of the few places in Luxembourg to lie outside the drainage system of the Rhine. The commune is only 12 square kilometres in area, one of the smallest in Luxembourg, but is the site of three significant towns; the town of Pétange itself has a population of 6,909, despite being the seventh-largest town in Grand Duchy, accounts for under half of the population of the commune. Rodange, in the south-west of the commune, is home to 4,505 people, whilst Lamadelaine, in the south of the commune, has a population of 2,335; the south of the commune is home to Titelberg, a prominent hill on top of which lie the ruins of a Celtic oppidum. The walled hill fort was 1 km long; the entire settlement had a total population of 10,000 before the Roman conquest, making it the largest pre-Roman settlement in Luxembourg. Pétange is the home of the Grand-Duchy's largest pre-Lenten Karneval celebration. Annually hosting a calvalacade with 1200 participants and thousand of participants, the official name is Karneval Gemeng Péiteng or Kagepe.
The Fond de Gras heritage railway and museum recreate the conditions of the Red Lands in the year 1900, at the height of their growth and development. Whilst the centre lies just within the commune of Differdange, to the east, the two steam locomotives take visitors to the towns of Pétange and Rodange, provide a stream of tourists to the towns in the summer. Pétange has a football team in Luxembourg's top-flight National Division, called CS Pétange, they play their home games at the Stade Municipal. Despite being one of the oldest Luxembourgian clubs in existence, having been founded in 1910, Pétange have won only one trophy, the Luxembourg Cup in 2004-05. Union Titus Pétange - football club. Chantelle de Rothschild - Crutchfield Louis-Phillip de Rothschild - Crutchfield Tessy de Nassau Jean-Marie Halsdorf Maribor, Slovenia Schio, Italy Dilijan, Armenia List of mayors of Pétange Commune of Pétange official website
Esch-sur-Alzette is a commune with town status in south-western Luxembourg. It is the country's second "city", its second-most populous commune, with a population of 35,040 inhabitants, as of 2018, it lies in the south-west of the country, on the border with France and in the valley of the Alzette, which flows through the town. The town is referred to as just Esch; the country's capital, Luxembourg City, is 15 km to the north-east. For a long time Esch was a small farming village in the valley of the Uelzecht river; this changed. With the development of the mines and the steel industry the town's population multiplied tenfold in a couple of decades. In 1911 the steel- and iron-producing company ARBED was founded; the development of the steel industry in the south of the country, provided Luxembourg with sustained economic growth during the second half of the 19th century. In the 1970s, as a result of the steel crisis, the mines and many of the blast furnaces were shut down, the last one, in Esch-Belval halting its operations in 1997.
The blast furnaces were replaced by an electric furnace, fed with scrap metal rather than iron ore. Today the industrial wastelands on Belval left behind by the steel industry, are being redeveloped and converted into a new, modern town quarter. New cultural buildings such as the cinema Utopolis Belval and the Rockhal, Luxemburg's biggest concert hall, schools and Belval Plaza, a shopping centre, have been built in the last years; the area around the old blast furnaces will host different structures of the University of Luxembourg, many research centres and the national archives. Two of the University's three faculties relocated there: The Faculty of Arts and Education Sciences moved in the summer of 2016, the Faculty of Sciences and Communication in fall 2017. Esch-sur-Alzette is home to the National Museum of the Resistance, which has material related to the resistance to German occupation during the Second World War. Lucien Wercollier's sculpture. Other tourist attractions include the large park, the Berwart Tower, built in 1621.
The Lankelz miniature railway operates on Sunday afternoons and public holidays from May to mid-October. Esch is home to the Conservatoire de Musique. Founded as a school of music in 1926, it achieved Conservatoire status in 1969. There are two cinemas in the centre of the town, one called the'Ariston', the'Kinosch' and a third one called'Utopolis Belval' is situated in the former industrial wastelands Belval; the main theatre is the Théâtre d’Esch. There is the Kulturfabrik, a cultural centre in a reconverted abattoir which hosts performances of various kinds; the town is the site of one of the six regional headquarters of the Grand Ducal Police. The town has the longest shopping street in Luxembourg. One of the largest employers in the town is ArcelorMittal, the world's largest steel producer, which formed from the merger of Aceralia, ARBED, Usinor. Esch is governed by its communal council. Elections take place to this body every 6 years, under a system of proportional representation; the mayor is Vera Spautz, of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party.
The governing majority on the council consists of The Greens. The council, in office reflects the 2011 local election results, its mandate will run out in January 2018.'G' denotes parties that went on to form the governing majority. 2017 electionsThe most recent elections were held on 8 October 2017. This new council will take office in January 2018. After the elections, a coalition agreement was signed between 3 parties, the CSV, the Greens, the DP, who will form the new governing majority on the council; the designated new mayor is Tom Schlesser of Dei Lénk. For national elections to the Chamber of Deputies, Esch is located in the Sud constituency. Esch is in the heart of the traditional footballing heartland of the south of the country, the town was the first place in the country to embrace the game; the first two football clubs in the country, CS Fola Esch and Jeunesse Esch, both come from the town. Jeunesse have been the most successful Luxembourgian club, winning an unrivalled twenty-eight National Division titles.
They play in the south of the town. Fola were important in the early history of the sport in Luxembourg, winning five titles up to 1930. Fola's home stadium is Stade Émile Mayrisch, in the south-east of Esch, which it shares with its sister athletics club CA Fola Esch. In 2017 US Esch joined Jeunesse and CS Fola in the top flight after winning the second division Promotion d'Honneur. At the 2006 Tour de France, Esch-sur-Alzette hosted the end of Stage 2 and the start of Stage 3; the Tour passed through the town in 2017. Esch-sur-Alzette is the southern terminus of the A4 motorway; the east-west A13 meets the A4 just to the north of Esch, terminates at Pétange in the west and meets the German Bundesautobahn 8 at its eastern end. Esch is one of four towns in the Grand Duchy to have more than one railway station. Esch's three railway stations, Esch-s
Reckange-sur-Mess is a commune and small town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette; the commune comprises the villages of Reckange-sur-Mess, Ehlange-sur-Mess, Roedgen and Wickrange. It is situated on the Mess River. Media related to Reckange-sur-Mess at Wikimedia Commons
Hesperange is a commune and town in southern Luxembourg. It is located south-east of Luxembourg City; the total population of the commune is 14.701 people. This breaks down into 6.909 Luxembourgers, 2.021 French, 1.758 Portuguese, 1.052 Italians, 627 Belgians, 514 Germans, 241 Spanish, 207 British, 190 Polish, 106 Dutch, 1.076 persons of other nationalities. As of 2008, the town of Hesperange, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 2.651. Other towns within the commune include Alzingen, Fentange and Itzig; each of these five towns has a population of over 1,000, making Hesperange unique amongst Luxembourgian communes in having five towns with over a thousand inhabitants. The mayor of the commune is Marc Lies. Hesperange is home of FC Swift Hesperange, a football club that plays in the top-flight National Division; the club's home games are played at Stade Alphonse Theis. They have won the Luxembourg Cup on one occasion. Hesperange Castle, now a ruin, has a history dating from the 13th century.
Hesperange has a park called Hesper Park which has a memorial commemorating the death of three American soldiers who died in a tank accident on the nearby bridge over the Alzette river on 26 December 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge. Szerencs, Hungary Media related to Hesperange at Wikimedia Commons Commune de Hesperange Friends of the History of Hesperange Hesperange Schools