Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
John Byrne (comics)
John Lindley Byrne is a British-born, Canadian raised, American writer and artist of superhero comics. Since the mid-1970s, Byrne has worked on many major superheroes, with noted work on Marvel Comics' X-Men and Fantastic Four and the 1986 relaunch of DC Comics' Superman franchise, the first issue of which featured comics' first variant cover. Coming into the comics profession as penciller, inker and writer on his earliest work, Byrne began co-plotting the X-Men comics during his tenure on them, launched his writing career in earnest with Fantastic Four. During the 1990s he produced a number of creator-owned works, including Next Men and Danger Unlimited, he scripted the first issues of Mike Mignola's Hellboy series and produced a number of Star Trek comics for IDW Publishing. In 2015, Byrne and his X-Men collaborator Chris Claremont were entered into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame, he is the co-creator of such Marvel characters as Kitty Pryde, Emma Frost, Shadow King, Scott Lang, Omega Red and Rachel Summers.
Byrne was born in Walsall and raised in West Bromwich in Staffordshire, where he lived with his parents and his maternal grandmother. While living there, prior to his family emigrating to Canada when Byrne was 8, he was first exposed to comics, saying in 2005, y'journey into comics' began with George Reeves' Superman series being shown on the BBC in England when I was about 6 years old. Not long after I started watching that series I saw one of the hardcover and white'Annuals' that were being published over there at the time, soon after found a copy of an Australian reprint called Super Comics that featured a story each of Superboy, Johnny Quick and Batman; the Batman story hooked me for life. A couple of years my family emigrated to Canada and I discovered the vast array of American comics available at the time, his first encounter with Marvel Comics was in 1962 with Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four #5. He commented that "the book had an'edge' like nothing DC was putting out at the time".
Jack Kirby's work in particular had a strong influence on Byrne and he has worked with many of the characters Kirby created or co-created. Besides Kirby, Byrne was influenced by the naturalistic style of Neal Adams. In 1970, Byrne enrolled at the Alberta College of Design in Calgary, he created the superhero parody Gay Guy for the college newspaper, which poked fun at the campus stereotype of homosexuality among art students. Gay Guy is notable for featuring a prototype of the Alpha Flight character Snowbird. While there, he published his first comic book, ACA Comix #1, featuring "The Death's Head Knight". Byrne left the college in 1973 without graduating, he broke into comics with a "Fan Art Gallery" piece in Marvel's promotional publication FOOM in early 1974 and by illustrating a two-page story by writer Al Hewetson in Skywald Publications' black-and-white horror magazine Nightmare #20. He began freelancing for Charlton Comics, making his color-comics debut with the E-Man backup feature "Rog-2000", starring a robot character he'd created in the mid-1970s that colleagues Roger Stern and Bob Layton named and began using for spot illustrations in their fanzine CPL.
A Rog-2000 story written by Stern, with art by Byrne and Layton, had gotten the attention of Charlton Comics editor Nicola Cuti, who extended Byrne an invitation. Written by Cuti, "Rog-2000" became one of several alternating backup features in the Charlton Comics superhero series E-Man, starting with the eight-page "That Was No Lady" in issue #6. While, Byrne's first published color-comics work, "My first professional comic book sale was to Marvel, a short story called Dark Asylum'... which languished in a flat file somewhere until it was used as filler in Giant-Size Dracula #5, long after the first Rog story." The story was written by David Anthony Kraft. After the Rog-2000 story, Byrne went on to work on the Charlton books Wheelie and the Chopper Bunch, Space: 1999, Emergency!, co-created with writer Joe Gill the post-apocalyptic science-fiction series Doomsday + 1. Byrne additionally drew a cover for the supernatural anthology The Many Ghosts of Doctor Graves #54. Byrne said he broke into Marvel comics after writer Chris Claremont...saw my work and began agitating for me to draw something he had written.
When Pat Broderick missed a deadline on the'Iron Fist' series in Marvel Premiere, John Verpoorten fired him and offered the book to me.... I turned around the first script in time to meet the deadline, so started getting more work from Marvel, until I was able to leave Charlton and focus on the Marvel stuff." Byrne soon went on to draw series including The Champions and Marvel Team-Up. Byrne first drew the X-Men in Marvel Team-Up #53. For many issues, he was paired with Claremont, with whom he teamed for some issues of the black-and-white Marvel magazine Marvel Preview featuring Star-Lord; the Star-Lord story was inked by Terry Austin, who soon afterward teamed with Claremont and Byrne on X-Men. Byrne joined Claremont beginning with The X-Men #108, their work together, along with inker Terry Austin, on such classic story arcs as "Proteus", "Dark Phoenix Saga", "Days of Future Past" would make them both fan favorites. Byrne insisted that the title keep its Canadian character and contributed a series of story elements to justify Wolverine's presence which made the character among the most popular in Marvel's publishing history.
With issue #114, Byrne beg
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction, intended to frighten, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or frightens the reader, or induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an frightening atmosphere. Horror is supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural; the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person; these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires and ghosts. European horror fiction became established through works by Ancient Romans; the well-known 19th century novel about Frankenstein was influenced by the story of Hippolytus, where Asclepius revives him from death.
Euripides wrote plays based on Hippolytos Kalyptomenos and Hippolytus. Plutarch's "The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Cimon describes the spirit of a murderer, who himself was murdered in a bathhouse in Chaeronea. Pliny the Younger tells the tale of Athenodorus Cananites. Athenodorus was cautious. While writing a book on philosophy, he was visited by a spectre bound in chains; the figure disappeared in the courtyard. The earliest recording of an official accusation of Satanism by the Church took place in Toulouse in AD 1022 against a couple of clerics. Werewolf stories were popular in medieval French literature. One of Marie de France's twelve lais is a werewolf story titled "Bisclavret"; the Countess Yolande commissioned a werewolf story titled "Guillaume de Palerme". Anonymous writers penned two werewolf stories, "Biclarel" and "Melion". Much horror fiction derives from the cruellest personages of the 15th century. Dracula can be traced to the Prince of Wallachia Vlad III whose alleged war crimes were published in German pamphlets.
A 1499 pamphlet published by Markus Ayrer is most notable for its woodcut imagery. The alleged serial killer spree of Giles de Rais have been seen as the inspiration for "Bluebeard"; the motif of the vampiress is most notably derived from the real life noblewoman and murderess, Elizabeth Bathory, helped usher in the emergence of horror fiction in the 18th century, such as through László Turóczi's 1729 book Tragica Historia. The 18th century saw the gradual development of the Gothic horror genre, it drew on the written and material heritage of the Late Middle Ages, finding its form with Horace Walpole's seminal and controversial 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as modern, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or in poor taste — but it proved popular. Otranto inspired Vathek by William Beckford, A Sicilian Romance, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk by Matthew Lewis.
A significant amount of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed towards a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the genre modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Influential works and characters that continue resonating in fiction and film today saw their genesis in the Brothers Grimm's "Hänsel und Gretel", Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Jane C. Loudon's "The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century", Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Thomas Peckett Prest's Varney the Vampire, Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, the works of Sheridan Le Fanu, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, H. G. Wells' The Invisible Man, Bram Stoker's Dracula; each of these works created an enduring icon of horror seen in re-imaginings on the page and screen.
A proliferation of cheap periodicals around turn of the century led to a boom in horror writing. For example, Gaston Leroux serialized his Le Fantôme de l'Opéra before it was a novel in 1910. One writer who specialized in horror fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction deals with themes of madness and cruelty. Specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, prominent among them Weird Tales and Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums; the venerated horror author H. P. Lovecraft, his enduring Cthulhu Mythos pioneered the genre of cosmic horror, M. R. James is credited with redefining the ghost story in that era; the serial murderer became a recurring theme. Yellow journalism and sensationalism of various murderers, such as Jack the Ripper, lesser so, Carl Panzram, Fritz Haarman, Albert Fish, all perpetuated this phenomenon; the trend continued in the postwar era renewed after the murders committed by Ed Gein.
In 1959, Robert Bloch, inspired by the murders, wrote Psycho. The crimes committed in 1969 by the Manson family influenced the slasher theme in horror fiction of the 1970s. In 1981, Thomas Harris wrote Red Dragon. In 1988, the sequel to tha
Samuel Goldwyn known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish-American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood, his awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1958. Goldwyn was born Szmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw to Polish Jewish Hasidic parents, Aaron Dawid Gelbfisz, a peddler, his wife, Hanna Reban, he made his way for Hamburg. There he stayed with acquaintances of his family. On 26 November 1898 Goldwyn left Hamburg for Birmingham, where he remained with relatives for six weeks under the name Samuel Goldfish. On January 4, he sailed from Liverpool, arrived in Baltimore on 19 January 1899 and came to New York in late January 1899, he found work in New York in the bustling garment business. Soon his innate marketing skills made him a successful salesman at the Elite Glove Company. After four years, as vice-president of sales, he moved back to New York City and settled at 10 West 61st Street.
In 1913, along with his brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky, Cecil B. DeMille, Arthur Friend formed a partnership, The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, to produce feature-length motion pictures. Film rights for a stage play, The Squaw Man, were purchased for $4,000 and Dustin Farnum was hired for the leading role. Shooting for the first feature film made in Hollywood began on December 29, 1913. In 1914, Paramount was a film exhibition corporation headed by W. W. Hodkinson. Looking for more movies to distribute, Paramount signed a contract with the Lasky Company on June 1, 1914 to supply 36 films per year. One of Paramount's other suppliers was Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Company; the two companies merged on June 1916 forming The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. Zukor had been buying Paramount stock, two weeks prior to the merger, became president of Paramount Pictures Corporation and had Hodkinson replaced with Hiram Abrams, a Zukor associate. With the merger, Zukor became president of both Paramount and Famous Players-Lasky, with Goldfish being named chairman of the board of Famous Players-Lasky, Jesse Lasky first vice-president.
After a series of conflicts with Zukor, Goldfish resigned as chairman of the board, as member of the executive committee of the corporation on September 14, 1916. Goldfish was no longer an active member of management, although he still owned stock and was a member of the board of directors. Famous Players-Lasky would become part of Paramount Pictures Corporation, Paramount would become one of Hollywood's major studios. In 1916, Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, using a combination of both names to call their film-making enterprise Goldwyn Pictures. Seeing an opportunity, he had his name changed to Samuel Goldwyn, which he used for the rest of his life. Goldwyn Pictures proved successful but it is their "Leo the Lion" trademark for which the organization is most famous. On April 10, 1924, Goldwyn Pictures was acquired by Marcus Loew and merged into his Metro Pictures Corporation. Despite the inclusion of his name, Goldwyn had no role in the management or production at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Before the sale and merger of Goldwyn Pictures in April 1924, Goldwyn had established Samuel Goldwyn Productions in 1923 as a production-only operation. Their first feature was Potash and Perlmutter, released in September 1923 through First National Pictures; some of the early productions named for Goldwyn's wife, Frances. For 35 years, Goldwyn built a reputation in filmmaking and developed an eye for finding the talent for making films. William Wyler directed many of his most celebrated productions, he hired writers such as Ben Hecht, Sidney Howard, Dorothy Parker, Lillian Hellman. During that time, Goldwyn made numerous films and reigned as the most successful independent producer in the US. Many of his films were forgettable. William Wyler was responsible for most of Goldwyn's lauded films, with Best Picture Oscar nominations for Dodsworth, Dead End, Wuthering Heights, The Little Foxes and The Best Years of Our Lives. Leading actors in several of Goldwyn films those directed by Wyler, were Oscar-nominated for their performances.
Throughout the 1930s, he released all his films through United Artists, but beginning in 1941, continuing through the end of his career, Goldwyn released his films through RKO Radio Pictures. In 1946, the year he was honored by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences with the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, Goldwyn's drama, The Best Years of Our Lives, starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Teresa Wright and Dana Andrews, won the Academy Award for Best Picture. In the 1950s Samuel Goldwyn turned to making a number of musicals including the 1952 hit Hans Christian Andersen, the 1955 hit Guys and Dolls starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra, Vivian Blaine, based on the successful Broadway musical; this was the only independent f
The Comic Reader
The Comic Reader was a comics news-fanzine published from 1961 to 1984. Debuting in the pre-direct market era, TCR was the first published comics industry news fanzine, was able to secure many contacts from within the ranks of the larger publishers; as TCR increased in popularity and influence, it was able to attract professional artist to illustrate the covers. TCR proved to be a launching pad for aspiring comic book creators, many of whom published work in the fanzine as amateurs. Contributors from the world of fandom included founding editor Jerry Bails, key editor Paul Levitz, Paul Kupperberg, Tony Isabella, Byron Preiss, Neal Pozner, Don Rosa, Carl Gafford, Doug Hazlewood; the fanzine was founded in 1961 as On the Drawing Board by Jerry Bails, the "Father of Comics Fandom. During its run, TCR won a number of industry awards, including the Alley Award and the Goethe Award/Comic Fan Art Award. In its last incarnation, published by Street Enterprises, it was more professional magazine than fanzine, was known colloquially as "the TV Guide of the comics industry."
Jerry Bails founded and published On the Drawing Board In October 1961, to showcase the latest comic news. Spinning-off from Bails' other zine, Alter Ego, On the Drawing Board "was devoted to blurbs and news items pertaining to upcoming events in pro comics."Released in stand-alone form as "a single-page news-sheet," On the Drawing Board #4 debuted on October 7, 1961. Comics fandom historian Bill Schelly described its impact: Suddenly, fans had a way to see what was coming up on the newsstands. In some cases, they found out the names of the writers and artists of certain features, in an era before such credits were given. While there was considerable interest in developments at DC, fans closely followed the entrance of other companies into the costumed hero sweepstakes: Archie Comics, Gold Key and Marvel. In March 1962, issue #8 of On the Drawing Board was retitled The Comic Reader; the "On the Drawing Board" name was retained for the periodical's news section. The monthly title became "a mainstay of fandom," winning a 1963 Alley Award.
In January 1964, Bails announced the merger of The Comic Reader with another of his fanzines, The Comicollector, under the editorship of Bill White. However, a death in White's family prevented the merger from happening, at which point Florida-based published G. B. Love merged The Comicollector into his own fanzine Rocket's Blast, as well as offering to absorb The Comic Reader; the ACBFC board, voted to maintain TCR as a standalone publication, in mid-1964 New Mexico-based comics enthusiast Glen Johnson stepped forward to take over editorial duties. Johnson was followed a succession of editors, including Derrill Rothermich, who switched the fanzine to offset printing in late 1965. Mark Hanerfeld took over TCR in 1968 with issue #65, but by mid-1969 was having trouble maintaining a consistent publication schedule. Hanerfeld was doing double-duty as executive secretary of the ACBFC, this workload was too much for him; the ACBFC went defunct in mid-1969. In early 1971, New York teenager Paul Levitz bought the property and took over The Comic Reader with issue #78, merging it with Etcetera, a zine he had co-published with Paul Kupperberg.
From issues # 78 -- # 89, the merged zine was called The Comic Reader. Under Levitz's editorship, TCR increased circulation and changed format featuring an illustrated cover and 16 pages in length; as the zine gained in popularity and influence, it was able to attract industry professionals, such as Jack Kirby, Rich Buckler, Walt Simonson, Howard Chaykin, to illustrate the covers. During this period, TCR won two Best Fanzine Comic Fan Art Awards. TCR published ballots for the 1973 Goethe Awards. Issue #99 featured TCR's first color cover. In November 1973, with issue #101, Wisconsin-based publisher Street Enterprises took over TCR, Mike Tiefenbacher took over as editor. Under Street Enterprises' oversight, TCR changed format to digest size, giving it more the impression of being "the TV Guide of the comics industry."In early 1979, due to the cancellation of another Street Enterprises title, The Menomonee Falls Gazette, the publisher moved many of the strips featured in The Gazette over to The Comic Reader.
The Comic Reader published its final issue, #219, in September 1984. In addition to news about creators, publishers and the like, TCR ran recurring comic strips and features such as: "Bullet Crow" by Chuck Fiala "Captain Kentucky" by Don Rosa "Dateline @!!?#" by Fred Hembeck "Dick Duck, Duck Dick" by Jim Engel "Fandom Confidential" by Jim Engel and Chuck Fiala "Fowl of Fortune" by Chuck Fiala 1963: Alley Award for "Best Comics Fanzine" 1969: Alley Award for "Best Unlimited Reproduction Fanzine" 1973: Goethe Award for "Favorite Fan Magazine" 1974: Comic Fan Art Award for "Favorite Fa
Roger Stern is an American comic book author and novelist. In the early 1970s, Stern and Bob Layton published the fanzine CPL, one of the first platforms for the work of John Byrne. CPL became a popular fan publication, led to the two forming an alliance with Charlton Comics to produce and publish "the now-famous Charlton Bullseye magazine". During the mid-1970s, both Marvel and DC were publishing in-house "fan" publications, Charlton wished to make inroads into the superhero market, as well as "establish a fan presence," leading to the alliance with CPL to produce the Charlton Bullseye; this led to Charlton giving Layton and Stern "access to unpublished material from their vaults by the likes of Steve Ditko, Jeff Jones and a host of others." Stern broke into the industry as a writer in 1975 as part of the Marvel Comics "third wave" of creators, which included artists John Byrne and Frank Miller, writers Jo Duffy, Mark Gruenwald and Ralph Macchio. Stern worked as an editor from 1976 to 1980.
Jim Shooter claims that Stern co-plotted his last few stories for DC Comics in 1976. Stern wrote the "Guardians of the Galaxy" feature in Marvel Presents #10-12 in 1977, he collaborated with Byrne on Captain America. The two produced a story wherein Captain America considered running for the office of President of the United States, an idea developed by Roger McKenzie and Don Perlin. Stern, in his capacity as editor of the title, had rejected the idea but changed his mind about the concept. McKenzie and Perlin received credit for the idea on the letters page at Stern's insistence. Stern became the writer of The Spectacular Spider-Man with issue #43, he took over The Amazing Spider-Man with issue #224. In addition to his Spider-Man work, Stern is known for his lengthy stints on Doctor Strange, The Avengers. In 1982, he co-created Marvel's second Captain Marvel and the Hobgoblin, both with artist John Romita Jr.. Stern wrote "The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man" in The Amazing Spider-Man #248, a story which ranks among his most popular.
Stern ended his run with Amazing Spider-Man #250, chiefly due to his difficulty working with new Spider-Man editor Danny Fingeroth. That same year, he co-created the Avengers spin-off The West Coast Avengers, with artist Bob Hall. In 1987, after a dispute with editor Mark Gruenwald over upcoming storylines, Stern was fired from The Avengers, he began freelancing for DC Comics, where he was one of the core Superman writers for a decade, working on Superman, Action Comics, Superman: The Man of Tomorrow. He contributed to such storylines as "Panic in the Sky" and "The Death of Superman" which revived interest in the character in the early 1990s, he created the Eradicator in Action Comics Annual #2 and incorporated the character into the "Reign of the Supermen" story arc beginning in The Adventures of Superman #500. Stern wrote the 1991 story wherein Clark Kent revealed his identity as Superman to Lois Lane In Summer 1995, Stern and artist Tom Grummett created a new quarterly series, Superman: The Man of Tomorrow.
Additionally, Stern was one of the many creators who worked on the Superman: The Wedding Album one-shot in 1996 which featured the title character's marriage to Lois Lane. Besides his work on Superman, Stern wrote Legionnaires from 1996 to 1999. Other work for DC included a relaunched Atom series drawn by Dwayne Turner and the co-creation of the Will Payton version of Starman with artist Tom Lyle. In 1996, Stern returned to Marvel to write the miniseries Spider-Man: Hobgoblin Lives, contributed to three issues of Spectacular Spider-Man in 1998 which featured the first confrontation between Norman Osborn and Roderick Kingsley. Over the next four years, he wrote the short-lived Marvel Universe series, as well as such miniseries as Avengers Two, Avengers Infinity, Spider-Man: Revenge of the Green Goblin. Stern collaborated with Avengers writer Kurt Busiek on Iron Man and the miniseries Avengers Forever, with John Byrne on Marvel: The Lost Generation. After a major editorial shuffle at Marvel in 2000 left him without assignments, Stern began writing for European publisher Egmont, for whom he produced scripts for Fantomen, Panini UK, for whose Marvel Rampage magazine he wrote Spider-Man and Hulk stories.
Stern and Busiek co-wrote the Darkman vs. Army of Darkness limited series, drawn by artist James Fry and published by Dynamite Entertainment. In 2007, Stern wrote an issue of The All-New Atom and reunited with Byrne to produce a five-issue story arc for JLA Classified for DC; the next year, Stern returned to Marvel, where he wrote new stories for Giant-Size Incredible Hulk, The Amazing Spider-Man, Young Allies 70th Anniversary Special, Amazing Spider-Man Family, Web of Spider-Man, Captain America and The Many Loves of the Amazing Spider-Man. He collaborated again with Busiek, co-writing several issues of Marvels: Eye of the Camera, the sequel to the Marvels miniseries. Stern has continued to freelance for Marvel, writing the 2010 miniseries Captain America: Forever Allies, followed by the one-issue special Doctor Strange: From the Marvel Vault and Captain America Corps, another miniseries, in 2011. In 2012, he worked on an issue of the limited series Hulk Smash Avengers with artist Karl Moline, wrote issue 156.1 of Peter Parker: Spider-Man.
In 2015, he contributed a story to Spider-Verse Team-Up #1. Stern has written a number of graphic novels, including Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment.
Charlton Bullseye (fanzine)
The Charton Bullseye was a fanzine published from 1975-76 by the CPL Gang highlighting Charlton Comics. It was a large format publication, with black & white interiors. Charton Bullseye published several unpublished Charlton superhero and adventure stories, along with articles on Charlton comics, reviews and more; the CPL Gang was a group of comics enthusiasts who published the fanzine Contemporary Pictorial Literature in the mid-1970s. Founded by Roger Stern and Bob Layton, the CPL Gang included Roger Slifer, Duffy Vohland, the young John Byrne, all of whom themselves became comics professionals by the tail-end of the 1970s. CPL became a popular fan publication, led to the CPL Gang forming an alliance with Charlton. During the mid-1970s, both Marvel Comics and DC Comics were publishing in-house "fan" publications, Charlton wished to make inroads into the superhero market, as well as "establish a fan presence." The CPL Gang first got permission to publish a one-shot called Charlton Portfolio in 1974 which included the unpublished sixth issue of Blue Beetle vol.
5. The positive response to Charlton Portfolio led to the CPL Gang getting approval to publish a Charlton-focused fanzine, Charlton Bullseye; this in turn led to Charlton giving Layton and Stern "access to unpublished material from their vaults by the likes of Steve Ditko, Jeff Jones and a host of others." Much of this material made it into the five issues of Charlton Bullseye. First half of unpublished Captain Atom #90 story, finished by John Byrne Second half of unpublished Captain Atom story Kung Fu Issue, unpublished "Wrong Country" by Sanho Kim intended for Yang. — new E-man story and first half of unpublished final Doomsday+1 story. — new The Question story by Alex Toth and second half of unpublished final Doomsday+1 story Charlton Spotlight Charlton Bullseye, CPL/GANG Publications, 1975 Series at the Grand Comics Database Charlton Bullseye #2