Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud and Rogaland counties. Hordaland is the third largest county after Oslo by population; the county government is the Hordaland County Municipality, located in Bergen. Before 1972, the city of Bergen was its own separate county apart from Hordaland. Hordaland is the old name of the region, revived in 1919; the first element is the plural genitive case of the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land; until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Bergenhus amt which meant " southern Bergenhus amt". Hordaland's flag shows a crown in red; the flag is a banner of the coat of arms derived from the old seal of the guild of St. Olav from Onarheim in Tysnes municipality; this seal was used by the delegates of Sunnhordland in 1344 on the document to install king Haakon V of Norway. It was thus the oldest symbol used for the region and adapted as the arms and flag in 1961; the symbols refer to the patron saint of the guild, Saint Olav, King of Norway, whose symbol is an axe.
The coat-of-arms were granted on 1 December 1961. They were designed by Magnus Hardeland, but the general design had been used in the Sunnhordland region during the 14th century. In the early 20th century, leaders of the county began using the old arms as a symbol for the county once again; the arms are on a red background and consist of two golden axes that are crossed with a golden crown above them. Hordaland county has been around for more than one thousand years. Since the 7th century, the area was made up of many petty kingdoms under the Gulating and was known as Hordafylke since around the year 900. In the early 16th century, Norway was divided into four len; the Bergenhus len encompassed much of western and northern Norway. In 1662, the lens were replaced by amts. Bergenhus amt consisted of the present-day areas of Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sunnmøre and the far northern Nordlandene amt was subordinate to Bergenhus. In the 1680s, Nordlandene and Sunnmøre were split from Bergenhus. In 1763, the amt was divided into northern and southern parts: Nordre Bergenhus amt and Søndre Bergenhus amt.
When the amt was split, the present day municipality of Gulen was split with the southern part ending up in Søndre Bergenhus amt. In 1773, the border was re-drawn so. Søndre Bergenhus amt was renamed Hordaland fylke in 1919; the city of Bergen was classified as a city-county from 1831–1972. During that time in 1915, the municipality of Årstad was annexed into Bergen. In 1972, the neighboring municipalities of Arna, Laksevåg and Åsane were annexed into the city of Bergen. At that same time, the city of Bergen lost its county status, became a part of Hordaland county. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the whole country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years. In Hordaland, the government of the county is the Hordaland County Municipality, it includes. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2015, the Hordaland county municipality has been led by the county mayor; the county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway.
Lars Sponheim is the current County Governor of Hordaland. The municipalities in Hordaland are divided among four district courts: Nordhordland, Sunnhordland and Hardanger. Hordaland is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Nordhordland District Court: Askøy, Austrheim, Fjell, Lindås, Meland, Modalen, Os, Osterøy, Radøy, Sund, Voss, Øygarden, Gulen Sunnhordland District Court: Bømlo, Fitjar, Stord and Tysnes Bergen District Court: the city of Bergen Hardanger District Court: Eidfjord, Jondal, Odda and UlvikMost of the municipalities in Hordaland are part of the Hordaland police district. Gulen and Solund in Sogn og Fjordane county are part of the Hordaland police district. Bømlo, Fitjar and Sveio are a part of the "Haugaland and Sunnhordland" police district, along with eight other municipalities in Rogaland county. Hordaland is semi-circular in shape, it is located on the western coast of Norway, split from southwest to northeast by the long, deep Hardangerfjorden, one of Norway's main fjords and a great tourist attraction.
About half of the National park of Hardangervidda is in this county. The county includes many well-known waterfalls, such as Vøringsfossen and Stykkjedalsfossen, it includes the Folgefonna and Hardangerjøkulen glaciers. More than 60 % of the inhabitants live in the surrounding area. Other urban or semi-urban centres include Leirvik and Odda. In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units each with their own governments; the number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, at present there are 33 municipalities in Hordaland. Hordaland is conventionally divided into traditional districts; the inland districts are Hardanger and Voss and the coastal districts are Sunnhordland and Nordhordland. Strilelandet is the colloquial name of a more informal region held to enc
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time annually. GDP per capita does not, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; the OECD defines GDP as "an aggregate measure of production equal to the sum of the gross values added of all resident and institutional units engaged in production." An IMF publication states that "GDP measures the monetary value of final goods and services—that are bought by the final user—produced in a country in a given period of time."Total GDP can be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP and the same is called Mean Standard of Living. GDP is considered the "world's most powerful statistical indicator of national development and progress". William Petty came up with a basic concept of GDP to attack landlords against unfair taxation during warfare between the Dutch and the English between 1654 and 1676 Charles Davenant developed the method further in 1695.
The modern concept of GDP was first developed by Simon Kuznets for a US Congress report in 1934. In this report, Kuznets warned against its use as a measure of welfare. After the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, GDP became the main tool for measuring a country's economy. At that time gross national product was the preferred estimate, which differed from GDP in that it measured production by a country's citizens at home and abroad rather than its'resident institutional units'; the switch from GNP to GDP in the US was in 1991. The role that measurements of GDP played in World War II was crucial to the subsequent political acceptance of GDP values as indicators of national development and progress. A crucial role was played here by the US Department of Commerce under Milton Gilbert where ideas from Kuznets were embedded into governmental institutions; the history of the concept of GDP should be distinguished from the history of changes in ways of estimating it. The value added by firms is easy to calculate from their accounts, but the value added by the public sector, by financial industries, by intangible asset creation is more complex.
These activities are important in developed economies, the international conventions governing their estimation and their inclusion or exclusion in GDP change in an attempt to keep up with industrial advances. In the words of one academic economist "The actual number for GDP is therefore the product of a vast patchwork of statistics and a complicated set of processes carried out on the raw data to fit them to the conceptual framework." GDP can be determined in three ways. They are the income approach, or the speculated expenditure approach; the most direct of the three is the production approach, which sums the outputs of every class of enterprise to arrive at the total. The expenditure approach works on the principle that all of the product must be bought by somebody, therefore the value of the total product must be equal to people's total expenditures in buying things; the income approach works on the principle that the incomes of the productive factors must be equal to the value of their product, determines GDP by finding the sum of all producers' incomes.
This approach mirrors the OECD definition given above. Estimate the gross value of domestic output out of the many various economic activities. Deduct intermediate consumption from gross value to obtain the gross value added. Gross value added = gross value of output – value of intermediate consumption. Value of output = value of the total sales of goods and services plus value of changes in the inventory; the sum of the gross value added in the various economic activities is known as "GDP at factor cost". GDP at factor cost plus indirect taxes less subsidies on products = "GDP at producer price". For measuring output of domestic product, economic activities are classified into various sectors. After classifying economic activities, the output of each sector is calculated by any of the following two methods: By multiplying the output of each sector by their respective market price and adding them together By collecting data on gross sales and inventories from the records of companies and adding them togetherThe value of output of all sectors is added to get the gross value of output at factor cost.
Subtracting each sector's intermediate consumption from gross output value gives the GVA at factor cost. Adding indirect tax minus subsidies to GVA at factor cost gives the "GVA at producer prices"; the second way of estimating GDP is to use "the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer units". If GDP is calculated this way it is sometimes called gross domestic income, or GDP. GDI should provide the same amount. By definition, GDI is equal to GDP. In practice, measurement errors will make the two figures off when reported by national statistical agencies; this method measures GDP by a
Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate, sometimes called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate, or total period fertility rate of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if: She was to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime, She was to survive from birth to the end of her reproductive life. It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time; the TFR is a synthetic rate, not based on the fertility of any real group of women since this would involve waiting until they had completed childbearing. Nor is it based on counting up the total number of children born over their lifetime. Instead, the TFR is based on the age-specific fertility rates of women in their "child-bearing years", which in conventional international statistical usage is ages 15–44 or 15–49; the TFR is, therefore, a measure of the fertility of an imaginary woman who passes through her reproductive life subject to all the age-specific fertility rates for ages 15–49 that were recorded for a given population in a given year.
The TFR represents the average number of children a woman would have, were she to fast-forward through all her childbearing years in a single year, under all the age-specific fertility rates for that year. In other words, this rate is the number of children a woman would have if she was subject to prevailing fertility rates at all ages from a single given year, survives throughout all her childbearing years. An alternative fertility measure is the net reproduction rate, which measures the number of daughters a woman would have in her lifetime if she were subject to prevailing age-specific fertility and mortality rates in the given year; when the NRR is one each generation of women is reproducing itself. The NRR is less used than the TFR, the United Nations stopped reporting NRR data for member nations after 1998, but the NRR is relevant where the number of male babies born is high due to gender imbalance and sex selection. This is a significant factor in world population, due to the high level of gender imbalance in the populous nations of China and India.
The gross reproduction rate, is the same as the NRR, except that—like the TFR—it ignores life expectancy. The TFR is a better index of fertility than the crude birth rate because it is independent of the age structure of the population, but it is a poorer estimate of actual completed family size than the total cohort fertility rate, obtained by summing the age-specific fertility rates that applied to each cohort as they aged through time. In particular, the TFR does not predict how many children young women now will have, as their fertility rates in years to come may change from those of older women now. However, the TFR is a reasonable summary of current fertility levels; the TPFR is affected by a tempo effect—if age of childbearing increases while the age of childbearing is increasing, TPFR will be lower, the age of childbearing stops increasing, the TPFR will increase though the life cycle fertility has been unchanged. In other words, the TPFR is a misleading measure of life cycle fertility when childbearing age is changing, due to this statistical artifact.
This is a significant factor such as the Czech Republic and Spain in the 1990s. Some measures seek to adjust for this timing effect to gain a better measure of life-cycle fertility. Replacement fertility is the total fertility rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels. If there were no mortality in the female population from birth to the end of the childbearing years, the replacement level of TFR would be close to 2.1. The replacement fertility rate is indeed only above 2.0 births per woman for most industrialized countries, but ranges from 2.5 to 3.3 in developing countries because of higher mortality rates child mortality. The global average for the replacement total fertility rate was 2.33 children per woman in 2003. The term "lowest-low fertility" is defined as TFR at or below 1.3. This is characteristic of some Eastern Southern European and East Asian countries. In 2001, more than half of the population of Europe lived in countries with lowest-low TFR, but TFRs have since increased there.
A population that maintained a TFR of 3.8 over an extended period without a correspondingly high death or emigration rate would increase whereas a population that maintained a TFR of 2.0 over a long time would decrease, unless it had a large enough immigration. However, it may take several generations for a change in the total fertility rate to be reflected in birth rate, because the age distribution must reach equilibrium. For example, a population that has dropped below replacement-level fertility will continue to grow, because the recent high fertility produced large numbers of young couples who would now be in their childbearing years; this phenomenon carries forward for several generations and is called population momentum, population inertia or population-lag effect. This time-lag effect is of great importance to the growth rates of human populations. TFR and long term population growth rate, g, are related. For a population structure in a steady state and with zero migration, g equal
Diocese of Stavanger
The Diocese of Stavanger is a diocese in the Church of Norway. It covers all of Rogaland county in western Norway; the cathedral city is Stavanger. The bishop is Ivar Braut, who has held the post since 2017; the Diocese of Stavanger was established in the 12th century when it was separated from the Ancient Diocese of Bergen. The large diocese covered the counties of Rogaland, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder as well as the regions of Valdres and the parishes of Eidfjord and Røldal. After the Protestant Reformation, the Diocese of Stavanger continued in the new Church of Norway. Over time, the diocese was reduced in size; the parish of Eidfjord was transferred to the neighboring Diocese of Bjørgvin in 1630. The regions of Valdres and Hallingdal were transferred to the Diocese of Oslo in 1631, but in exchange, the Diocese of Oslo had to give the upper part of Telemark and transfer that to the Diocese of Stavanger. In 1682 Christian V, King of Denmark-Norway, issued an order that the Bishop and the Prefect of the Diocese of Stavanger were to be moved to the Christianssand Cathedral, consecrated in 1646 and which the King intended be perfect site for a new cathedral.
The citizens of Stavanger protested, with the Prefect and the Bishop refusing to move and ignoring the order. It took; the diocese was renamed Diocese of Christianssand. On 1 January 1925, the Diocese of Kristiansand was divided and all of the diocese located in Rogaland county was moved to the newly re-established Diocese of Stavanger and the cathedral in Stavanger regained its place as the seat of a bishop; the Diocese of Stavanger is divided into nine deaneries spread out over the county. Each deanery corresponds a geographical area one or more municipalities in the diocese; each municipality is further divided into one or more parishes which each contain one or more congregations. See each municipality below for lists of churches and parishes within them
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder counties. Rogaland is the center of the Norwegian petroleum industry. In 2016, Rogaland had an unemployment rate of one of the highest in Norway. In 2015, Rogaland had a fertility rate of 1.78 children per woman, the highest in the country. The Diocese of Stavanger for the Church of Norway includes all of Rogaland county. Rogaland is the region's Old Norse name, revived in modern times. During Denmark's rule of Norway until the year 1814, the county was named Stavanger amt, after the large city of Stavanger; the first element is the plural genitive case of rygir, referring to the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land which means "land" or "region". In Old Norse times, the region was called Rygjafylki; the coat-of-arms is modern. The arms are blue with a silver pointed cross in the centre; the cross is based on the old stone cross in the oldest national monument in Norway. It was erected in memory of Erling Skjalgsson after his death in 1028.
This type of cross was common in medieval Norway. Rogaland is a coastal region with fjords and islands, the principal island being Karmøy; the vast Boknafjorden is the largest bay, with many fjords branching off from it. Stavanger/Sandnes, the third-largest urban area of Norway, is in central Rogaland and it includes the large city of Stavanger and the neighboring municipalities of Sandnes and Sola. Together, this conurbation is ranked above the city Trondheim in population rankings in Norway. There are many cities/towns in Rogaland other than Sandnes, they include Haugesund, Sauda, Kopervik, Åkrehamn, Skudeneshavn. Karmøy has large deposits of copper. Sokndal has large deposits of ilmenite. Rogaland is the most important region for oil and gas exploration in Norway, the Jæren district in Rogaland is one of the country's most important agricultural districts. There are remains in Rogaland from the earliest times, such as the excavations in a cave at Viste in Randaberg; these include. Various archeological finds stem from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Many crosses in Irish style have been found. Rogaland was called Rygjafylke in the Viking Age. Before Harald Fairhair and the Battle of Hafrsfjord, it was a petty kingdom; the Rugians were a tribe connected with Rogaland. A series of festivals and congresses of international fame and profile are arranged, such as The Chamber Music Festival, The Maijazz Festival, The Gladmat Festival, The ONS event, held in Stavanger every second year since 1974; the ONS is a major international conference and exhibition with focus on oil and gas, other topics from the petroleum industry. The Concert Hall and Music Complex at Bjergsted and the Stavanger Symphony Orchestra provide important inspiration in the Norwegian musical environment. Another annual event in Stavanger is The World Tour Beach Volleyball. During this tournament, the downtown is converted into a beach volleyball arena. Rogaland is home to many natural wonders, like Prekestolen and Gloppedalsura. In Stavanger, there is an archeological museum with many artifacts from early history in Rogaland.
An Iron Age farm at Ullandhaug in Stavanger is reconstructed on the original farm site dating back to 350–500 AD. The Viking Farm is a museum at Karmøy; the county is conventionally divided into traditional districts. These are Haugalandet north of the Boknafjorden, Ryfylke in the mountainous east, Jæren to the southwest, Dalane in the far south, the Stavanger region. Rogaland has a total of 26 municipalities: Total population: Anders Andersen Bjelland, politician Bendix Ebbell, amateur Egyptologist, Rogaland county physician from 1917 to 1935. Official county website Region Stavanger Official tourism site for the Stavanger region