Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchley's 1974 novel of the same name. In the film, a giant man-eating great white shark attacks beachgoers on Amity Island, a fictional New England summer resort town, prompting police chief Martin Brody to hunt it with the help of a marine biologist and a professional shark hunter. Murray Hamilton plays the mayor, Lorraine Gary portrays Brody's wife; the screenplay is credited to Benchley, who wrote the first drafts, actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote the script during principal photography. Shot on location on Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts, Jaws had a troubled production, going over budget and past schedule; as the art department's mechanical sharks malfunctioned, Spielberg decided to suggest the shark's presence, employing an ominous and minimalistic theme created by composer John Williams to indicate its impending appearances. Spielberg and others have compared this suggestive approach to that of thriller director Alfred Hitchcock.
Universal Pictures gave the film what was an exceptionally wide release for a major studio picture, on over 450 screens, accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign with a heavy emphasis on television spots and tie-in merchandise. Considered one of the greatest films made, Jaws was the prototypical summer blockbuster, with its release regarded as a watershed moment in motion picture history, it won several awards for its music and editing, it became the highest-grossing film of all time until the release of Star Wars in 1977. Both films were pivotal in establishing the modern Hollywood business model, which revolves around high box-office returns from action and adventure pictures with simple high-concept premises released during the summer in thousands of theaters and advertised, it was followed by three sequels, all without Spielberg or Benchley, many imitative thrillers. In 2001, it was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant".
During a beach party at dusk on Amity Island, New England, a young woman, Chrissie Watkins, goes skinny dipping in the ocean. While treading water, she is violently pulled under; the next day, her partial remains are found on shore. The medical examiner's ruling that the death was due to a shark attack leads police chief Martin Brody to close the beaches. Mayor Larry Vaughn overrules him; the coroner now concurs with the mayor's theory. Brody reluctantly accepts their conclusion until another fatal shark attack occurs shortly thereafter. A bounty is placed on the shark. Local professional shark hunter Quint offers his services for $10,000. Meanwhile, consulting oceanographer Matt Hooper examines Chrissie's remains, confirms her death was caused by a shark—an unusually large one; when local fishermen catch a tiger shark, the mayor proclaims the beaches safe. Hooper disputes that it is the same predator, confirming this after no human remains are found inside it. Hooper and Brody find a half-sunken vessel while searching the night waters in Hooper's boat.
Underwater, Hooper retrieves. He drops it in fright after encountering a partial corpse. Vaughn discounts Brody and Hooper's claims that a huge great white shark is responsible for the deaths, refuses to close the beaches, allowing only added safety precautions. On the Fourth of July weekend, tourists pack the beaches. Following a juvenile prank in which the presence of a shark is simulated, the real shark enters a nearby estuary, killing a boater and causing Brody's oldest son, Michael, to go into shock. Brody convinces Vaughn to hire Quint. Quint and Hooper set out on Quint's boat, the Orca, to hunt the shark. While Brody lays down a chum line, Quint waits for an opportunity to hook the shark. Without warning, it appears behind the boat. Quint, estimating its length at 25 feet and weight at 3 tons, harpoons it with a line attached to a flotation barrel, but the shark pulls the barrel underwater and disappears. At nightfall and Hooper drunkenly exchange stories about their assorted scars and Quint reveals that he survived the USS Indianapolis.
The shark returns unexpectedly, ramming the boat's hull, disabling the power. The men work through the night. In the morning, Brody attempts to call the Coast Guard, but Quint, who has become obsessed with killing the shark without outside assistance, smashes the radio. After a long chase, Quint harpoons another barrel into the shark; the line is tied to the stern cleats, but the shark drags the boat backward, swamping the deck and flooding the engine compartment. Quint prepares to sever the line to prevent the transom from being pulled out but the cleats break off, keeping the barrels attached to the shark. Quint heads toward shore to draw the shark into shallower waters, but he intentionally pushes the damaged engine past the safety limits and the overtaxed engine fails. With the Orca sinking, the trio attempt a riskier approach. Hooper puts on scuba gear and enters the water in a shark-proof cage, intending to lethally inject the shark with strychnine, using a hypodermic spear; the shark demolishes the cage before Hooper can inject it.
The shark attacks the boat directly and devours Quint. Trapped on the sinking vessel, Brody jams a pressurized scuba tank into the shark's mouth, climbing the crow's nest, shoots the tank with a rifle; the resulting explosion obliterates the shark. Hooper su
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition was relaunched in March 2014. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC. IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U.
S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family; as a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement. Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.
Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue, it shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year.
Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.
Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co. The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the
The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back is a 1980 American epic space-opera film directed by Irvin Kershner. Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan wrote the screenplay, with George Lucas writing the film's story and serving as executive producer; the second installment in the original Star Wars trilogy, it was produced by Gary Kurtz for Lucasfilm and stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, David Prowse, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, Frank Oz. The film is set three years after Star Wars; the Galactic Empire, under the leadership of the villainous Darth Vader and the mysterious Emperor, is in pursuit of Luke Skywalker and the rest of the Rebel Alliance. While Vader relentlessly pursues the small band of Luke's friends—Han Solo, Princess Leia Organa, others—across the galaxy, Luke studies the Force under Jedi Master Yoda; when Vader captures Luke's friends, Luke must decide whether to complete his training and become a Jedi Knight or to confront Vader and save them. Following a difficult production, The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980.
It received mixed reviews from critics but has since grown in esteem, becoming the most critically acclaimed film in the Star Wars franchise. The film ranked at #3 on Empire's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, it became the highest-grossing film of 1980 and, to date, has earned more than $538 million worldwide from its original run and several re-releases. When adjusted for inflation, it is the second-highest-grossing sequel of all time and the 13th-highest-grossing film in North America; the film was followed by Return of the Jedi, released in 1983. In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States' National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally and aesthetically significant". Three years after the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebel Alliance, led by Princess Leia, has set up a new base on the ice planet of Hoth; the Imperial fleet, led by Darth Vader, continues to hunt for the new Rebel base by dispatching probe droids across the galaxy.
Luke Skywalker is captured by a wampa while investigating one such probe, but manages to escape from the wampa's lair with his lightsaber. Before Luke succumbs to hypothermic sleep, the Force ghost of his late mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobi, instructs him to go to Dagobah to train under Jedi Master Yoda. Han Solo locates cuts open the tauntaun he rode there on to keep his friend warm. Meanwhile, the probe alerts the Imperial fleet to the Rebels' location; the Empire launches a large-scale attack using AT-AT walkers to capture the base, which forces the Rebels to retreat. Han and Leia escape with C-3PO and Chewbacca on the Millennium Falcon, but the ship's hyperdrive malfunctions, they hide in an asteroid field, where Han and Leia grow closer amidst tension and kiss. Vader summons bounty hunters to assist in finding the Falcon. Luke, escapes with R2-D2 in his X-wing fighter and crash-lands on the swamp planet of Dagobah, he meets a diminutive creature. After evading the Imperial fleet, Han's group travels to the floating Cloud City on the gas planet of Bespin, run by Han's old friend, Lando Calrissian.
Unbeknownst to the group, the bounty hunter Boba Fett has tracked the Falcon. Vader plans to use the group as bait to lure out Luke, intending to capture him and take him to Emperor Palpatine. Luke experiences a premonition of Han and Leia in pain and, against the wishes of Yoda and Obi-Wan, abandons his training to rescue them, promising to return and complete his training. Intending to hold Luke in suspended animation via carbon freezing, Vader selects Han to be frozen as a test subject. Han survives the process and is given to Fett, who plans to collect the bounty on Han from Jabba the Hutt. Lando frees Leia and Chewbacca, they flee the city. Meanwhile, Luke arrives and engages Vader in a lightsaber duel that leads them over the city's central air shaft. Vader severs Luke's right hand, disarming him, tempts him to join forces. Luke accuses Vader of murdering his father. Horrified, Luke drops into the air shaft and is ejected beneath the floating city, where he hangs on an antenna, he reaches out telepathically to Leia, who persuades Lando to turn back.
After Luke is brought aboard, they are chased by TIE fighters and Vader on his Star Destroyer, but R2-D2 reactivates the Falcon's hyperdrive, allowing them to escape. Rejoined with the Rebel fleet, Luke's severed hand is replaced with a robotic hand. Lando and Chewbacca depart in the Falcon with hopes of saving Han. Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: A Jedi in training, powerfully connected with the Force. Harrison Ford as Han Solo: A smuggler and Captain of the Millennium Falcon. Carrie Fisher as Leia Organa: A leader of the Rebel Alliance, the former Princess of the destroyed planet Alderaan. Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian: Administrator of Cloud City and an old friend to Han Solo. Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: A humanoid protocol droid in the Rebel Alliance. David Prowse as Darth Vader: Luke's father and a warrior of the dark side of the Force and the Emperor's second-in command; the character's voice is provided by James Earl Jones. Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: A Wookiee and loyal friend to Han Solo.
Kenny Baker as R2-D2: An astromech droid in the
White Plains, New York
White Plains is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is the county seat and commercial hub of Westchester, a suburban county just north of New York City, home to one million people. White Plains is located in south-central Westchester, with its downtown 25 miles north of Midtown Manhattan; as of 2013, the city's total population was estimated to be 57,866, up from 53,077 at the 2010 census. According to the city government, the daytime weekday population is estimated at 250,000; the city was ranked third in the top 10 places to live in New York for 2014, according to national online real estate brokerage Movoto. At the time of the Dutch settlement of Manhattan in the early 17th century, the region had been used as farmland by the Weckquaeskeck tribe, a Wappinger people, was called "Quarropas". To early traders it was known as "the White Plains", either from the groves of white balsam which are said to have covered it, or from the heavy mist that local tradition suggests hovered over the swamplands near the Bronx River.
The first non-native settlement came in November 1683, when a party of Connecticut Puritans moved westward from an earlier settlement in Rye and bought about 4,400 acres from the Weckquaeskeck. However, John Richbell of Mamaroneck claimed to have earlier title to much of the territory through his purchase of a far larger plot extending 20 miles inland from a different tribe; the matter wasn't settled until 1721, when a Royal Patent for White Plains was granted by King George II. In 1758, White Plains became the seat of Westchester County when the colonial government for the county left West Chester, located in what is now the northern part of the borough of the Bronx, in New York City; the unincorporated village remained part of the Town of Rye until 1788 when the town of White Plains was created. On July 9, 1776, a copy of the Declaration of Independence was delivered to the New York Provincial Congress, meeting in the county courthouse; the delegates adopted a resolution approving the Declaration, thus declaring both the colony's independence and the formation of the State of New York.
The Declaration itself was first publicly read from the steps of the courthouse on July 11. During September and October 1776, troops led by George Washington took up positions in the hills of the village, hotly pursued by the British under General Sir William Howe, who attacked on October 28; the Battle of White Plains took place on Chatterton Hill, the Bronx River. Howe's force of 4,000–6,000 British and Hessian soldiers required three attacks before the Continentals, numbering about 1,600 under the command of Generals Alexander McDougall and Israel Putnam, joining Washington's main force, which did not take part in the battle. Howe's forces had suffered 250 casualties, a severe loss, he made no attempt to pursue the Continentals, whose casualties were about 125 dead and wounded. Three days after the battle Washington withdrew north of the village, this was occupied by Howe's forces, but after several inconclusive skirmishes over the next week Howe withdrew on November 5, leaving White Plains to the Continentals.
One of Washington's subordinates, Major John Austin, drunk after having celebrated the enemy's withdrawal, reentered the village with his detachment and proceeded to burn it down. Although he was court-martialed and convicted for this action, he escaped punishment; the first United States Census, conducted in 1790, listed the White Plains population at 505, of whom 46 were slaves. By 1800, the population stood at 575 and in 1830, 830. By 1870, 26 years after the arrival of the New York Central Railroad, it had swollen to 2,630 and by 1890 to 4,508. In the decades that followed the count grew to 7,899 and 26,425. White Plains was incorporated as a village in 1866 and as a city in 1916. Following World War II, White Plains' downtown area developed into what amounted to a "destination" shopping district featuring branch stores of many famous New York-based department and specialty stores; some of these retail locations were the first large-scale suburban stores built in the United States and ushered in the eventual post-war building boom.
Construction of nearby parkways and expressways in the 1940s through the 1970s only enhanced White Plains' role as a retail location. With a city opening ceremony, Macy's launched a grand White Plains store on Main Street across from City Hall in 1949; as the mayor said at the time, this was a significant event in the life of White Plains. Other prestigious stores followed, such as B. Altman & Co. Rogers Peet, Saks Fifth Avenue, Lord & Taylor, Alexander's, a short-lived branch of Bergdorf Goodman, converted to sister chain Neiman Marcus in 1981. White Plains is still a huge retail destination in the area with Bloomingdale's, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom Rack, Macy's, Burlington Coat Factory, over 1000 other small and mid-size stores in four malls. During the late 1960s, the city of White Plains developed an extensive urban renewal plan for residential and mixed-use redevelopment that called for the demolition of its entire central business district from the Bronx River Parkway east to Mamaroneck Avenue.
By 1978, the urban renewal program centered around the construction of the Westchester County Courthouse, the Westchester One office building, the Galleria at White Plains mall, a number of other office towers, retail centers and smaller commercial buildings. At the time of its construction, the West
Milford is a town in Worcester County, United States. The population was 27,999 according to the 2010 census. First settled in 1662 and incorporated in 1780, Milford became a booming industrial and mining community in the 19th century due to its unique location which includes the nearby source of the Charles River, the Mill River, the Blackstone River watershed, large quantities of Milford pink granite. Milford was first settled in 1662 as a part of Mendon; the King Philip's War destroyed the town in 1676, but settlers returned in 1680. The Mill River flows through Milford and had several conspicuous fords that were familiar to the Native Americans, used by the early white settlers; these "mill fords" gave Milford its name. Milford was incorporated April 11, 1780 and the first Town Hall built in 1819; the Milford Town Hall was built in 1854 by architect Thomas Silloway. Milford is renowned for its pink Milford granite, discovered in 1870. Milford quarries fueled the local economy until about 1940.
The granite has been used for local buildings such as Memorial Hall, the Bancroft Memorial Library in Hopedale, Worcester City Hall, the Boston Public Library. Other notable buildings include the original Pennsylvania Station in New York City, the main post office in New York City, most the Singapore Changi Airport in 2002; the Battle Monument at West Point is made of Milford granite, is reputed to be the largest column of polished granite in the Western Hemisphere. The Milford Hospital was donated in 1903 by Governor Eben Sumner Draper. Today, the health care facility exists as the Milford Regional Medical Center. In January 2008, the Center opened a cancer treatment facility with the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute; the Center is affiliated with UMass Medical Center as a teaching hospital. In 2015 the hospital completed a $54 million expansion project that created a new emergency department and updated the intensive care unit, as well as patient rooms. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.9 square miles, of which 14.6 square miles is land, 0.3 square miles, or 1.82%, is water.
Milford is drained by the Charles River. The town is crossed by Interstate 495 and state routes 16, 85, 109, 140; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,799 people, 10,420 households, 7,200 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,835.6 people per square mile. There were 10,713 housing units at an average density of 733.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.95% White, 1.35% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.76% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.99% from other races, 1.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.36% of the population. There were 10,420 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,856, the median income for a family was $61,029. Males had a median income of $42,173 versus $30,989 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,742. About 5.8% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Milford has been growing at a fast rate since the introduction of Interstate 495, which opened in the area with dual exits at Route 85 and Route 109 in 1969. Since many major retailers have opened in town; the core of Milford's governing system is the representative town meeting, where elected citizens can voice their opinions, but more directly effect changes in the community.
Along with a Board of Selectmen, Town Administrator, Planning Board, Finance Committee, etc. the citizens of Milford have input into how the town is run. The Massachusetts Department of Correction is headquartered in Milford; the Milford Town Library was established in 1858. In fiscal year 2008, the town of Milford spent 1.5% of its budget on its public library—some $35 per person. Milford Public Schools operates six public schools and is an eligible town for a vocational school, Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School. Independence Day fireworks, held on Plains Park within a day of July 4 Portuguese Picnic, a two-night festival held at the Portuguese Club Memorial Hall and museum of the Milford Historical Commission Ted's Diner, placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000, was the oldest diner built by the Tierney Diner Company. Ted's was left abandoned by the town and vandalized moved to make way for a new fire station. St. Mary's Cemetery holds the only Irish round tower in the United States, built from local granite.
The Milford Daily News is a daily newspaper covering Milford and several nearby towns in Norfolk and Worcester counties. WMRC 1490-AM and simulcasted as MyFM 101.3 on FM is the radio station licensed to serve Milford. Local news every morning with school cancellations and general information also. Light, music is the fare the rest of the time. Two non-profit public and government access cable TV sta