UEFA Euro 1992
The 1992 UEFA European Football Championship was hosted by Sweden between 10 and 26 June 1992. It was the ninth European Football Championship, held every four years and supported by UEFA. Denmark won the 1992 championship; the team had qualified only after Yugoslavia was disqualified as a result of the breakup and warfare in the country. Eight national teams contested the finals tournament. Present at the tournament was the CIS national football team, representing the dissolved Soviet Union whose national team had qualified for the tournament, it was the first major tournament at which the reunified Germany had competed. It was to be the last tournament with only eight participants, the last to award the winner of a match with only two points, the last tournament before the introduction of the back-pass rule, brought in after the tournament was completed; when the next competition was held in 1996, 16 teams were involved and were awarded 3 points for a win. On 16 December 1988, Sweden was chosen over Spain to host the event, following a decision made by the UEFA Executive Committee.
Spain was at a disadvantage as they had been chosen to host the EXPO 1992 and the 1992 Summer Olympic Games. Seven of the eight teams had to qualify for the final stage; the Soviet Union qualified for the finals shortly before the break-up of the country, took part in the tournament under the banner of the Commonwealth of Independent States, before the former Soviet republics formed their own national teams after the competition. The CIS team represented the following ex-Soviet republics: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. Four out of 15 ex-republics were not members of the CIS: Estonia and Lithuania did not send their players. Yugoslavia qualified for the final stage, but due to the Yugoslav wars, the team was disqualified and their qualifying group's runner-up, took part in the championship, they shocked the continent when Peter Schmeichel saved Marco van Basten's penalty in the semi-final penalty shoot-out against the Netherlands, thus defeating the defending European champions.
The shock was compounded when Denmark went on to defeat the reigning world champions Germany 2–0 to win the European title. Each national team had to submit a squad of 20 players. Adidas Etrusco Unico was used as the official match ball of the tournament; the ball was used in the 1990 FIFA World Cup. Fourth officials The teams finishing in the top two positions in each of the two groups progress to the semi-finals, while the bottom two teams in each group were eliminated from the tournament. All times are local, CEST. If two or more teams finished level on points after completion of the group matches, the following tie-breakers were used to determine the final ranking: Greater number of points in all group matches Goal difference in all group matches Greater number of goals scored in all group matches Drawing of lots In the knockout phase, extra time and a penalty shoot-out were used to decide the winner if necessary; as with every tournament since UEFA Euro 1984, there was no third place play-off.
All times are local, CEST. There were 32 goals scored for an average of 2.13 goals per match. 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Source: UEFA UEFA Team of the Tournament Small is Beautiful was the official slogan of the contest. The official anthem of the tournament was "More Than a Game", performed by Towe Jaarnek and Peter Jöback, it was the last tournament to use the UEFA plus flag logo, the last before the tournament came to be known as "Euro". It was the first major football competition in which the players had their names printed on their backs, at around the time that it was becoming a trend in club football across Europe; the official mascot of the competition was a rabbit named Rabbit, dressed in a Swedish football jersey, wearing head and wristbands while playing with a ball. UEFA Euro 1992 at UEFA.com
Galatasaray S.K. (football)
Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, is a Turkish football club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul. It is the association football branch of the larger Galatasaray Sports Club, itself a part of the Galatasaray Community Cooperation Committee which includes the prestigious Lycée de Galatasaray, where the football club was founded in October 1905 consisting of student members. Galatasaray is the most successful Turkish football club. Galatasaray is one of three teams to have participated in all seasons of the Süper Lig since 1959, following the dissolution of the Istanbul Football League. Internationally, Galatasaray has won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000, becoming the first and only Turkish team to win a major UEFA competition. In the 1999–2000 season, the club achieved the rare feat of completing a quadruple by winning the Süper Lig, the Turkish Cup, the UEFA Cup and the UEFA Super Cup in a single season. Galatasaray is the only Turkish club to have been ranked first on the IFFHS World Rankings.
Since 2011, the club's stadium is the 52,332-capacity Türk Telekom Stadium in Istanbul. The club had played at the Ali Sami Yen Stadium, as well as a succession of other grounds in Istanbul, which included groundshares with Beşiktaş and Fenerbahçe at the Taksim Stadium and İnönü Stadium; the club has a long-standing rivalry with other major Istanbul teams, namely with Beşiktaş and Fenerbahçe. The derby between Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe is dubbed the Kıtalar Arası Derbi due to the location of their headquarters and stadiums on the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul; as a result of the team's 20th championship for the 2014–15 Süper Lig season, their logo hereafter contains four stars representing their 20 championships for the league. Galatasaray SK was founded in October 1905 by Ali Sami Yen and other students of Galatasaray High School as a football club. Ali Sami Yen became Galatasaray SK's first president and was given the club's membership number "1"; the team's first match was against Cadi-Keuy FC and Galatasaray won this match with a score of 2–0.
There were discussions about the club's name, in which some suggested Gloria and others Audace, but it was decided that its name would be Galatasaray. The name Galatasaray itself comes from that of Galatasaray High School, which in turn takes its name from Galata Sarayı Enderûn-u Hümâyûn, the name of the original school founded on the site in 1481, which in turn took its name from the nearby medieval Genoese citadel of Galata in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. Galatasaray means "Galata palace". According to researcher Cem Atabeyoğlu, Galatasaray took its name from one of its first matches. In that match, Galatasaray won 2–0 over a local Greek club and the spectators called them "Galata Sarayı efendileri", after this incident, they adopted that name and started to call their club "Galata Sarayı". In 1905, during the era of the Ottoman Empire, there were no laws for associations so the club could not be registered but, after the 1912 Law of Association, the club registered legally. Among with the founder Ali Sami Yen, the co-founders were the ones who were keen to do this sport, such as Asım Tevfik Sonumut, Reşat Şirvani, Cevdet Kalpakçıoğlu, Abidin Daver and Kamil.
Since there weren't any other Turkish teams, Galatasaray joined the Istanbul League, consisting of English and Greek teams in the season of 1905–1906. With their first championship title they won in 1908–1909, they heralded the beginning of Turkish football history. While football in Turkey began to develop, Galatasaray won ten more Istanbul League titles, six Sunday League titles and three Friday League titles until 1952. Upon the initiation of professional football in 1952, the first professional but non-national league of Turkey, Istanbul Professional League, was played between 1952 and 1959. Galatasaray won three of these seven titles. Türkiye Profesyonel 1. Ligi formed in 1959; this is the top-flight professional league in Turkish nationwide football, the most popular sporting competition in the country. Galatasaray won 21 league titles since then; the Turkish Football Federation began organizing the Turkish Cup in the 1962–63 season for Turkish clubs to qualify for the UEFA competitions. This is the only national cup competition in Turkey.
Galatasaray won 16 trophies since then. The greatest record that the club holds is winning national championships in 15 different sport branches in the 1986–87 season. Galatasaray's most successful era came in late 1990s, when the club become the first and only Turkish football club to win a major UEFA competition, they were aided in this by one of Turkey's best generation of homegrown footballers who went on to finish third in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, after having played in the quarter-finals of UEFA Euro 2000. Besides the talented players, visiting teams disliked traveling into Ali Sami Yen Stadium dubbed "Hell" by Galatasaray supporters due to the intimidating atmosphere provided by the fans including chants and riots in the crowds. There are many successful footballers who have played fo
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
Andreas Isaksson is a Swedish former footballer who last played as a goalkeeper for Allsvenskan club Djurgården. Isaksson began his career at local Trelleborgs FF, before representing Juventus, he would return to Sweden, where he won two Allsvenskan titles with Djurgårdens IF. After two seasons with Rennes, he was signed for £2 million by Manchester City of the Premier League, where he was not a regular. After four seasons in the Eredivisie with PSV, he joined Kasımpaşa in Turkey on a free transfer in 2012. Isaksson earned 133 caps for the Sweden national team during his international career, which puts him third in their list of most capped national players of all time, he was included in the Swedish squads for two FIFA World Cups and four UEFA European Championships. Born in Smygehamn, Isaksson began his senior career with Trelleborgs FF, where he played two seasons 1998 and 1999, he became known as a great goalkeeping prospect and was thus bought by Italian club Juventus in July 1999, but with the likes of Dutch international goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar in the squad, Isaksson never played a first-team game for the Turin-based club.
In January 2001, Isaksson signed with Stockholm-based Djurgårdens IF in order to play first-team football. In his first two full seasons, 2002 and 2003, Djurgården won two-straight Swedish titles as well as the cup in 2002, he was voted best Swedish goalkeeper for four consecutive years from 2002 to 2005. In July 2004, French club Rennes signed him to replace Petr Čech, he became the starting goalkeeper. After the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Isaksson completed a £2 million move to Manchester City of the Premier League on 15 August 2006, he was expected to replace David James as their first choice goalkeeper, but due to knee and ankle injuries and the form of Nicky Weaver, he did not achieve this. He made his debut on 9 December 2006, when he replaced the injured Weaver at half-time in a Manchester derby match which City lost 3–1 to Manchester United. After his second start for City on 14 March 2007, he played all of the remaining ten games of 2006–07, keeping four clean sheets, saved a penalty kick from Jermain Defoe on the last day of the season, although City nonetheless lost 2–1 to Tottenham Hotspur.
Isaksson played the majority of City's next pre-season campaign in Sweden and Belgium, but after his thumb was fractured in a training session, he did not play for City in the first two months of 2007–08, picking up a knee injury right afterwards. Isaksson made his first appearance of the season for Manchester City by keeping a clean sheet in a 1–0 away win against Bolton Wanderers to put the team into the quarter-finals of the League Cup, on 31 October 2007. In November and December, he had a run of five league games in the first team, as part of a rotation used by manager Sven-Göran Eriksson to decide upon his first-choice goalkeeper. His run, was ended by an injury. While he was out, England under-21 goalkeeper Joe Hart impressed; the youngster kept his place after Isaksson returned to full fitness and the Swede was once again relegated to the bench. Manchester City confirmed that they would be willing to sell Isaksson at the end of the season, his final appearance was in the humiliating 8–1 defeat by Middlesbrough which would have been worse if not for several excellent saves by Isaksson.
Isaksson signed for Dutch champions PSV. He took over the number 1 shirt from Heurelho Gomes. Isaksson tallied 124 league appearances for PSV before leaving the club in the summer of 2012 when his contract expired. On 9 July 2012, it was confirmed that Isaksson had left PSV after four seasons to join newly promoted Turkish side Kasımpaşa on a free transfer. On joining the club, Isaksson signed a three-year deal and became the Turkish side's sixth signing during the summer transfer window. On 11 August 2016, Isaksson signed a two-and-a-half-year contract with Djurgårdens IF, returning after 12 years away from Sweden and the club. On 24 August, he played his first game in his second spell for Djurgården in the Swedish Cup qualifier, a 5–1 win against Smedby AIS, he conceded one goal in the final minute from a penalty. On 7 August 2017, Isaksson made his 100th match in Allsvenskan for Djurgården. On 10 May 2018, he played. While at Djurgården, Isaksson established himself as the second-choice goalkeeper after Magnus Hedman for the Sweden national team, making his international debut against Switzerland in March 2002.
An injury to Hedman allowed Isaksson the opportunity to play for Sweden on a regular basis, playing in all but one of Sweden's qualifying matches for UEFA Euro 2004, all of Sweden's matches during the tournament. Isaksson remained the first-choice goalkeeper for his national team since Euro 2004, making three appearances in the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. An injury prevented him from playing in more games. By July 2006, he had amassed 42 caps for his country. Isaksson was selected for Sweden's Euro 2008 squad, appeared in all three of Sweden's group games, he kept a clean sheet in Sweden's first match against Greece, which ended 2–0, but Sweden were unable to reach the quarter-finals. Isaksson was the first-choice goalkeeper through Sweden's disappointing qualification campaign for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa as well as the qualifying rounds for Euro 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. On 29 May 2012, national team manager Erik Hamrén announced his final 23-man squad for the Euros, including the vastly experienced Isaksson.
Isaksson again appeared in all three group games as Sweden failed to make it out of the group, although he did keep a clean sheet in their 2–0 victory ove
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven
Germany national football team
The Germany national football team is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic. Both have been absorbed along with their records by the current national team; the official name and code "Germany FR" was shortened to "Germany" following the reunification in 1990. Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won four World Cups, three European Championships, one Confederations Cup, they have been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, a further four third-place finishes at World Cups. East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976.
Germany is the only nation to have won both the FIFA Women's World Cup. At the end of the 2014 World Cup, Germany earned the highest Elo rating of any national football team in history, with a record 2205 points. Germany is the only European nation that has won a FIFA World Cup in the Americas; the manager of the national team is Joachim Löw. Between 1899 and 1901, prior to the formation of a national team, there were five unofficial international matches between German and English selection teams, which all ended as large defeats for the German teams. Eight years after the establishment of the German Football Association, the first official match of the Germany national football team was played on 5 April 1908, against Switzerland in Basel, with the Swiss winning 5–3. Gottfried Fuchs scored a world record 10 goals for Germany in a 16–0 win against Russia at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm on 1 July, becoming the top scorer of the tournament, he was Jewish, the German Football Association erased all references to him from their records between 1933 and 1945.
As of 2016, he was still the top German scorer for one match. The first match after World War I in 1920, the first match after World War II in 1950 when Germany was still banned from most international competitions, the first match in 1990 with former East German players were all against Switzerland as well. Germany's first championship title was won in Switzerland in 1954. At that time the players were selected by the DFB; the first manager of the Germany national team was Otto Nerz, a school teacher from Mannheim, who served in the role from 1926 to 1936. The German FA could not afford travel to Uruguay for the first World Cup staged in 1930 during the Great Depression, but finished third in the 1934 World Cup in their first appearance in the competition. After a poor showing at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Sepp Herberger became coach. In 1937 he put together a squad, soon nicknamed the Breslau Elf in recognition of their 8–0 win over Denmark in the German city of Breslau, Lower Silesia.
After Austria became part of Germany in the Anschluss of March 1938, that country's national team – one of Europe's best sides at the time due to professionalism – was disbanded despite having qualified for the 1938 World Cup. Nazi politicians ordered five or six ex-Austrian players, from the clubs Rapid Vienna, Austria Vienna, First Vienna FC, to join the all-German team on short notice in a staged show of unity for political reasons. In the 1938 World Cup that began on 4 June, this "united" German team managed only a 1–1 draw against Switzerland and lost the replay 2–4 in front of a hostile crowd in Paris, France; that early exit stands as Germany's worst World Cup result, one of just two occasions the team failed to progress the group stage. During World War II, the team played over 30 international games between September 1939 and November 1942. National team games were suspended, as most players had to join the armed forces. Many of the national team players were gathered together under coach Herberger as Rote Jäger through the efforts of a sympathetic air force officer trying to protect the footballers from the most dangerous wartime service.
After World War II, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until 1950. The DFB was not a full member of FIFA, none of the three new German states — West Germany, East Germany, Saarland — entered the 1950 World Cup qualifiers; the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to as West Germany, continued the DFB. With recognition by FIFA and UEFA, the DFB continued the record of the pre-war team. Switzerland was once again the first team that played West Germany in 1950. West Germany qualified for the 1954 World Cup; the Saarland, under French control between 1947 and 1956, did not join French organisations, was barred from participating in pan-German ones. It sent their own team to the 1954 World Cup qualifiers. In 1957, Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1949, the communist German Democratic Republic was founded. In 1952 the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR was established and the East Germany national football team took to the field, they were the only team to beat the 1974 FIFA World Cup winning West Germans in the onl
The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.
The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.
Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.
Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of