Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The Agony of the Eagles (1952 film)
The Agony of the Eagles is a 1952 French historical drama film directed by Jean Alden-Delos and starring Roger Pigaut, Charles Moulin and Noël Roquevert. Two previous films of the story had been made a 1933 sound film; the film's sets were designed by the art director Claude Bouxin. Roger Pigaut as Col. de Montander Charles Moulin as Goglu Noël Roquevert as Capt. Doguereau Raymond Rognoni as Coutillo Colette Pearl as Lise Dorian Pierre Morin as Chambusque Jean Mauvais as Le commandant Thiéry Catherine Arley as La comtesse d'Ormesson Gérald Castrix as Lt. Triaire Robert Allan as Lt. Pascal de Breuilly Léonce Corne as Constant Henri Valbel as Le président du tribunal Roger Vincent as Le docteur Georges Bréhat Paul Lalloz Jean-Marc Lambert Jean Berton Maurice Dorléac Lucien Bryonne Jean-Pierre Lorrain Klossner, Michael; the Europe of 1500-1815 on Film and Television: A Worldwide Filmography of Over 2550 Works, 1895 Through 2000. McFarland & Company, 2002; the Agony of the Eagles on IMDb
Her Final Role
Her Last Part or Her Final Role is a 1946 French drama film directed by Jean Gourguet and starring Gaby Morlay, Jean Debucourt and Marcel Dalio. A top actress discovers that she is ill. Gaby Morlay as Hermine Wood Jean Debucourt as Le professeur Mercier Marcel Dalio as Ardouin Jean Tissier as L'hôtelier Georges Chamarat as Le suicidé Germaine Charley Paula Dehelly Paul Demange Gabrielle Fontan Germaine Ledoyen Héléna Manson Nina Myral Roger Vincent Rège, Philippe. Encyclopedia of French Film Directors, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2009, her Final Role on IMDb
Dropped from Heaven
Dropped from Heaven is a 1946 French comedy film directed by Emil E. Reinert and starring Jacqueline Gauthier, Claude Dauphin and Giselle Pascal. A singer jokingly tells one of her bandmates that he is the father of her child, not her daughter at all but belongs to a friend. Jacqueline Gauthier as Gaby Claude Dauphin as Maurice Giselle Pascal as Madeleine Albert Broquin Jean Carmet Henri de Livry Pierre Destailles as Fernand Mona Dol Charlotte Ecard Jean Gabert Jean Gaven as Robert Renaud Mary as Raymond Geneviève Morel Félix Oudart as Léon Sinoël Roger Vincent Jeanne Véniat Guy Lefranc was assistant director on the movie. Rège, Philippe. Encyclopedia of French Film Directors, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Dropped from Heaven on IMDb
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Murderer is Not Guilty
The Murderer is Not Guilty is a 1946 French crime film directed by René Delacroix and starring Albert Préjean, Jacqueline Gauthier and Jules Berry. A writer investigates. Albert Préjean as Julien Brisseau Jacqueline Gauthier as Juliette Brisseau Jules Berry as Himself Henri Charrett as L'inspecteur Vétillard Jean Gaven as Le jeune inspecteur Gustave Perkinson François Joux as Himself Ky Duyen as Tao – le domestique Marcel Raine as Pierre Carrel – le réalisateur Maurice Schutz as Le collectionneur Sinoël as Le producteur de cinéma Germaine Stainval as Une des deux demoiselles de Kéradec Madeleine Suffel Jacques Vallauris Héléna Manson as Anne-Marie Mahé Rosine Deréan as Madame Carrel Marguerite de Morlaye as La vieille dame qui témoigne René Delacroix Lucien Desagneaux Rudy Lenoir Palmyre Levasseur as La femme qui fait une déclaration René Marjac Franck Maurice as Le gendarme planton Pierre Moncorbier as Le fou Roger Pigaut as Himself Pâquerette Pierre Vaudier Roger Vincent Rège, Philippe.
Encyclopedia of French Film Directors, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2009; the Murderer is Not Guilty on IMDb