Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles; the main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, cumulative supplements are published annually. The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large; the official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration. After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office; the Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.
Slip laws are competent evidence. The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research, it is arranged in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes repeal or amend earlier laws, extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time; the United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U. S. House of Representatives; the LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly; because of this codification approach, a single named statute may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem.
For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7, Title 26, Title 43. When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress; the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code as enacted. Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law; the authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U. S. C. § 92 for decades because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U. S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.
By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; this process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.
The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service, which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large. Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code. If these limited provisions are significant, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sectio
68th United States Congress
The Sixty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1923, to March 4, 1925, during the last months of Warren G. Harding's presidency, the first years of the administration of his successor, Calvin Coolidge; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Decennial Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority. August 2, 1923 – President Warren Harding died. Vice President Calvin Coolidge became President of the United States September 22, 1923: U. S. Coal Commission Act April 26, 1924: Seed and Feed Loan Act May 19, 1924: World War Adjusted Compensation Act, Sess. 1, ch. 157, 43 Stat. 121 May 24, 1924: Rogers Act May 26, 1924: Immigration Act of 1924, Sess. 1, ch. 190, 43 Stat. 153 May 29, 1924: Indian Oil Leasing Act of 1924 June 2, 1924: Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, Sess.
1, ch. 233, 43 Stat. 253 June 2, 1924: Revenue Act of 1924, Sess. 1, ch. 234, 43 Stat. 253 June 3, 1924: Inland Waterways Act of 1924 June 7, 1924: Pueblo Lands Act of 1924 June 7, 1924: Oil Pollution Act of 1924, Pub. L. 68–238, ch. 316, 43 Stat. 604 June 7, 1924: Clarke–McNary Act, Sess. 1, ch. 348, 43 Stat. 653 January 30, 1925: Hoch–Smith Resolution January 31, 1925: Special Duties Act February 2, 1925: Airmail Act of 1925 February 12, 1925: Federal Arbitration Act February 16, 1925: Home Port Act of 1925 February 24, 1925: Purnell Act February 27, 1925: Temple Act February 28, 1925: Classification Act of 1925 February 28, 1925: Federal Corrupt Practices Act March 2, 1925: Judiciary Act of 1925 March 3, 1925: River and Harbors Act of 1925 March 3, 1925: Helium Act of 1925 March 4, 1925: Establishment of the United States Navy Band March 4, 1925: Probation Act of 1925 June 2, 1924: Approved an amendment to the United States Constitution that would authorize Congress to regulate "labor of persons under eighteen years of age", submitted it to the state legislatures for ratificationThis amendment known as the Child Labor Amendment, has not been ratified and is still pending before the states.
The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section??.?% President: Calvin Coolidge, until August 3, 1923. President pro tempore: Albert B. Cummins Majority leader: Charles Curtis Majority whip: Wesley L. Jones Republican Conference Secretary: James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. Minority leader: Joseph T. Robinson Minority whip: Peter G. Gerry Democratic Caucus Secretary: William H. King Speaker: Frederick H. Gillett Majority leader: Nicholas Longworth Majority Whip: Albert H. Vestal Republican Conference Chair: Sydney Anderson Minority Leader: Finis J. Garrett Minority Whip: William Allan Oldfield Democratic Caucus Chairman: Henry Thomas Rainey Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Arthur B. Rouse This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district.
Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1928; the names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss Farmer–Labor: 1 seat net gain deaths: 7 resignations: 0 vacancy: 0 Total seats with changes: 8 replacements: 22 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 15 resignations: 6 contested election: 0 Total seats with changes: 24 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banking and Currency Campaign Expenditures Charges against Burton K. Wheeler Civil Service Claims Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Enrolled Bills Expenditures in Executive Departments Finance Foreign Relations Immigration Immigration and Naturalization Indian Affairs Internal Revenue Bureau Interoceanic Canals Interstate Commerce Judiciary Library Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Nine Foot Channel from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Pat
United States Foreign Service
The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic service of the United States federal government, under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of over 13,000 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U. S. citizens abroad. Created in 1924 by the Rogers Act, the Foreign Service combined all consular and diplomatic services of the U. S. government into one administrative unit. In addition to the unit's function, the Rogers Act defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad. Members of the Foreign Service are selected through a series of oral examinations, they serve at any of the 265 United States diplomatic missions around the world, including embassies and other facilities. Members of the Foreign Service staff the headquarters of the four foreign affairs agencies: the Department of State, headquartered at the Harry S Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.
C.. The United States Foreign Service is managed by a Director General, an official, appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the Director General is traditionally former Foreign Service Officer. Starting on November 23, 1975 until October 2, 2016 under a departmental administrative action, the Director General concurrently held the title of Director of the Bureau of Human Resources; the two positions are now separate. As the head of the bureau, the Director General held a rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State; the current Director General is William E. Todd, serving in an acting capacity. On September 15, 1789, the 1st United States Congress passed an Act creating the Department of State and appointing duties to it, including the keeping of the Great Seal of the United States. There were two services devoted to diplomatic and consular activity; the Diplomatic Service provided ambassadors and ministers to staff embassies overseas, while the Consular Service provided consuls to assist United States sailors and promote international trade and commerce.
Throughout the 19th century, ambassadors, or ministers, as they were known prior to the 1890s, consuls were appointed by the president, until 1856, earned no salary. Many had commercial ties to the countries in which they would serve, were expected to earn a living through private business or by collecting fees. In 1856, Congress provided a salary for consuls serving at certain posts. Lucile Atcherson Curtis was the first woman in what became the U. S. Foreign Service, she was the first woman appointed as a United States Diplomatic Officer or Consular Officer, in 1923. The Rogers Act of 1924 merged the diplomatic and consular services of the government into the Foreign Service. An difficult Foreign Service examination was implemented to recruit the most outstanding Americans, along with a merit-based system of promotions; the Rogers Act created the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service, the former to advise the Secretary of State on managing the Foreign Service, the latter to manage the examination process.
In 1927 Congress passed legislation affording diplomatic status to representatives abroad of the Department of Commerce, creating the Foreign Commerce Service. In 1930 Congress passed similar legislation for the Department of Agriculture, creating the Foreign Agricultural Service. Though formally accorded diplomatic status, however and agricultural attachés were civil servants. In addition, the agricultural legislation stipulated that agricultural attachés would not be construed as public ministers. On July 1, 1939, both the commercial and agricultural attachés were transferred to the Department of State under Reorganization Plan No. II; the agricultural attachés remained in the Department of State until 1954, when they were returned by Act of Congress to the Department of Agriculture. Commercial attachés remained with State until 1980, when Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979 was implemented under terms of the Foreign Service Act of 1980. In 1946 Congress at the request of the Department of State passed a new Foreign Service Act creating six classes of employees: chiefs of mission, Foreign Service Officers, Foreign Service Reservists, Foreign Service Staff, "alien personnel", consular agents.
Officers were expected to spend the bulk of their careers abroad and were commissioned officers of the United States, available for worldwide service. Reserve officers spent the bulk of their careers in Washington but were available for overseas service. Foreign Service Staff personnel included support positions; the intent of this system was to remove the distinction between Foreign Service and civil service staff, a source of friction. The Foreign Service Act of 1946 repealed as redundant the 1927 and 1930 laws granting USDA and Commerce representatives abroad diplomatic status, since at that point agricultural and commercial attachés were appointed by the Department of State; the 1946 Act replaced the Board of Foreign Service Personnel, a body concerned with adminis
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. A member of the prominent Lodge family, he received his PhD in history from Harvard University; as an undergraduate at Harvard, he joined Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles; the failure of that treaty ensured. Born in Beverly, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives after graduating from Harvard, he and his close friend, Theodore Roosevelt, opposed James G. Blaine's nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention, but supported Blaine in the general election against Grover Cleveland. Lodge was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1886 before joining the United States Senate in 1893. In the Senate, he sponsored the unsuccessful Lodge Bill, which sought to protect the voting rights of African Americans, he supported the Spanish–American War and called for the annexation of the Philippines after the war.
He supported immigration restrictions, becoming a member of the Immigration Restriction League and influencing the Immigration Act of 1917. Lodge served as Chairman of the 1908 Republican National Conventions. A member of the conservative wing of the Republican Party, Lodge opposed Roosevelt's third party bid for president in 1912, but the two remained close friends. During the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, Lodge advocated entrance into World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, he became Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, emerging as the leader of the Senate Republicans. He led the opposition to Wilson's Treaty of Versailles, he most objected to the provision of the treaty that required all nations to repel aggression, fearing that this would erode Congressional powers and commit the U. S. to burdensome obligations. Lodge prevailed in the treaty battle and Lodge's objections would influence the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations.
After the war, Lodge participated in the creation of the Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to prevent a naval arms race. He remained in the Senate until his death in 1924. Lodge was born in Massachusetts, his father was John Ellerton Lodge. His mother was Anna Cabot. Lodge grew up on Boston's Beacon Hill and spent part of his childhood in Nahant, Massachusetts where he witnessed the 1860 kidnapping of a classmate and gave testimony leading to the arrest and conviction of the kidnappers, he was cousin to the American polymath Charles Peirce. In 1872, he graduated from Harvard College, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the Porcellian Club, the Hasty Pudding Club. In 1874, he graduated from Harvard Law School, was admitted to the bar in 1875, practicing at the Boston firm now known as Ropes & Gray. After traveling through Europe, Lodge returned to Harvard, in 1876, became one of the first recipients of a Ph. D. in history and government from Harvard. His dissertation dealt with the Germanic origins of Anglo-Saxon land law.
His teacher and mentor during his graduate studies was Henry Adams. Lodge was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1878. In 1881, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. In 1880–1882, Lodge served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Lodge represented his home state in the United States House of Representatives from 1887 to 1893 and in the Senate from 1893 to 1924. Along with his close friend Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge was sympathetic to the concerns of the Mugwump faction of the Republican Party. Nonetheless, both reluctantly supported protectionism in the 1884 election. Blaine lost narrowly. Lodge was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the populist Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Lodge was reelected time and again but his greatest challenge came in his reelection bid in January 1911; the Democrats had made significant gains in Massachusetts and the Republicans were split between the progressive and conservative wings, with Lodge trying to mollify both sides.
In a major speech before the legislature voted, Lodge took pride in his long selfless service to the state. He emphasized that he had never engaged in self-dealing, he campaigned on his own behalf but now he made his case, explaining his important roles in civil service reform, maintaining the gold standard, expanding the Navy, developing policies for the Philippine Islands, trying to restrict immigration by illiterate Europeans, as well as his support for some progressive reforms. Most of all he appealed to party loyalty. Lodge was reelected by five votes. Lodge was close to Theodore Roosevelt for both of their entire careers. However, Lodge was too conservative to accept Roosevelt's attacks on the judiciary in 1910, his call for the initiative and recall. Lodge stood silent when Roosevelt broke with the party and ran as a third-party candidate in 1912. Lodge voted for Taft instead of Roosevelt. In 1890, Lodge co-authored the Federal Elections Bill, along with Sen. George Frisbie Hoar, that guaranteed federal protection for African American voting rights.
Although the proposed legislation was supported by President Benjamin Harrison, the bill was blocked by filibustering Democrats in the Senate. In 1891, he became a member of the Mas